LAFS SVI Level 2 - Psychology of Play

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Lecture for Level 2 of The Los Angeles Film School's Survey of the Videogame Industry course.

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  • Cooperation and competition reflect two ends of a spectrum. Individual players often have a preference for where they fall along this spectrum. For them, a game’s fun factor is higher the closer it comes to their personal preference.

    Cooperative games make players work together to complete objectives. Massively multiplayer online games often include lots of cooperative gameplay.

    In other games, the objective is to outperform and opponent. Competition motivates people to practice their skills and think of different ways to succeed.

    Whether playing with friends, family or even rivals, multiplayer games help build and strengthen ties.
  • Cooperation and competition reflect two ends of a spectrum. Individual players often have a preference for where they fall along this spectrum. For them, a game’s fun factor is higher the closer it comes to their personal preference.

    Cooperative games make players work together to complete objectives. Massively multiplayer online games often include lots of cooperative gameplay.

    In other games, the objective is to outperform and opponent. Competition motivates people to practice their skills and think of different ways to succeed.

    Whether playing with friends, family or even rivals, multiplayer games help build and strengthen ties.
  • The magic circle is a place of dreams and fantasy. It's an escape for everyday problems and chores. And the most important: everything inside the magic circle is, in some way, transformative. Each time a person leaves the magic circle they bring meaning and experience.
  • Videogames engage the eyes and ears with large amounts of art, visual effects, music and sound effects. All of these sensory experiences can add depth to a game and make it more immersive to the player.

    Role-playing games can tell engaging stories. Sometimes the most fun part of a game comes from experiencing a unique storyline and play sequence, meeting characters, and interacting with them as they overcome tough challenges or go on amazing adventures
  • From Jason VandenBergh’s “Dominions of Play” presentation at GDC 2012.

    Jason VandenBergh is Creative Director at UbiSoft and has worked at Creative Director at Activision and Lead Game Designer at Electronic Arts. He is author of the book “100 Principles of Game Design.”
  • From Jason VandenBergh’s “Dominions of Play” presentation at GDC 2012.

    Jason VandenBergh is Creative Director at UbiSoft and has worked at Creative Director at Activision and Lead Game Designer at Electronic Arts. He is author of the book “100 Principles of Game Design.”
  • Players who like novelty may gravitate towards games with randomized content or chance-based mechanics as part of their game design. These add unpredictability and uncertainty that can keep a game fresh. Open-ended games like Minecraft incorporate novelty through sandbox play.
  • Some players enjoy games that provide challenging tasks to be practiced and mastered. Difficulty, advancement, and completion are all ways players experience challenge. The fun comes from successfully overcoming the hurdles made by the game designer. To do so, the player must learn or improve particular skills.

  • Self-expression, role, pace, and excitement are all ways in which players experience stimulation. Many games involve forms of self-expression such as decorating areas, creating images or music. In role-playing games, a player may choose a role such as a fighter or thief character, based upon how fun they think that role’s experiences will be.

    Players with a high need for stimulation will most likely enjoy real-time games or games with strict limitations, while those with a low need might prefer turn-based games or those that are more open ended. Games with mechanics that provide the “thrill of victory and the agony of defeat) can also fulfill a player’s need for stimulation.
  • Cooperation and competition reflect two ends of a spectrum. Individual players often have a preference for where they fall along this spectrum. For them, a game’s fun factor is higher the closer it comes to their personal preference.

    Cooperative games make players work together to complete objectives. Massively multiplayer online games often include lots of cooperative gameplay.

    In other games, the objective is to outperform and opponent. Competition motivates people to practice their skills and think of different ways to succeed.

    Whether playing with friends, family or even rivals, multiplayer games help build and strengthen ties.
  • Games with the element of threat are fun because of their heart-pounding action and the enjoyment people get out of defeating their opponents. First-person shooters and racing games are examples of games that appeal to a player’s threat instinct.
  • Richard Bartle co-created MUD (Multi-User Dungeon), the text-based precursor to today’s MMORPGs, while studying at Essex University. He ended up formulating the theory that all MUD players could be broken down into four main types: killers, achievers, explorers, and socializers.

    Bartle theorized that MUD players could be split into four types, giving psychological portraits of players populating a virtual world for fun:

    Killers like to provoke and cause drama and/or impose them over other players in the scope provided by the virtual world. Trolls, hackers, cheaters, and attention farmers belong in this category, along with the most ferocious and skillful PVP (player vs player) opponents.

    Achievers are competitive and enjoy beating difficult challenges whether they are set by the game or by themselves. The more challenging the goal, the most rewarded they tend to feel.

    Explorers like to explore the world – not just its geography but also the finer details of the game mechanics. These players may end up knowing how the game works and behave better than the game creators themselves. They know all the mechanics, short-cuts, tricks, and glitches that there are to know in the game and thrive on discovering more.

    Socializers are often more interested in having relations with the other players than playing the game itself. They help to spread knowledge and a human feel, and are often involved in the community aspect of the game (by means of managing guilds or role-playing, for instance).

  • In the above diagram, the horizontal axis represents a preference for interacting with other players vs. interacting with the world and the vertical axis represents a preference for (inter)acting with something vs. (inter)acting on something. So, achievers prefer to act on the world, while socializers prefer to interact with other players.

    Bartle found that players tended to belong to a primary category, but drifted between several others depending on their mood, situation and preferred goal in the game. Having categorized those type of players, drawn to the same virtual world for different reasons and still acting and interacting in the same playing field, he was now able to better balance the game.
  • Game mechanics that are enjoyable to play are called intrinsically engaging. A game designer’s goal should be to make every aspect of the game intrinsically engaging.
  • Extra Credits, Season 2, Episode 10 – Gamification

  • Left Brain vs Right Brain Drives

    In this Octagon, The Core Drives on the right are considered right brain drives, being more about creativity, self-expression, and social aspects.
    The Core Drives on the left are considered left brain drives, being more about logic, calculations, and ownership.

    White Hat vs Black Hat Gamification

    The top Core Drives in this Octagon are considered very positive motivations, while the bottom Core Drives are considered more negative motivations.

    If something is addicting because it lets you express your creativity, makes you feel successful through skill mastery, and gives you a higher sense of meaning, that’s a very positive result of being addicted.

    On the other hand, if something is addictive because you don’t know what will happen next and you HAVE to find out, you are constantly in fear of losing something, or you think about it all day simply because there are things you can’t have, then it is definitely from the Dark Side of the force of Gamification.

    Keep in mind that just because something is Black Hat doesn’t mean it’s bad – these are just motivators – and they can be used for productive and healthy results or for evil and manipulation. Gamification techniques simply control the “motivation” to do something but not the purpose of the activity. I personally would LOVE to get addicted to exercising and eating carrots.

    A good Gamification expert will try to implement all 8 Core Drives on a positive and productive activity so that everyone ends up happier and healthier.



  • This is the Core Drive where a player believes that he is doing something greater than himself or he was “chosen” to play. An symptom of this is a player that devotes a lot of his time to maintaining a forum or helping to create things for the entire community (think Wikipedia or Open Source projects). This also comes into play when someone has “Beginner’s Luck” – an effect where people believe they have some type of gift that others don’t or believe they were “lucky” to get that amazing sword at the very beginning of the game.
  • This is when users are addicted to a creative process where they have to repeatedly figure things out and try different combinations. People not only need ways to express their creativity, but they need to be able to see the results of their creativity, receive feedback, and respond in turn. This is why playing with Legos and painting are fun in-and-of themselves and often become Evergreen Mechanics (a good state for Gamification).
  • This drive incorporates all the social elements that drive people – including: mentorship, acceptance, social responses, companionship, as well as competition and envy. When you see a friend that is amazing at some skill or owns something extraordinary, you become driven to reach the same level. Also, it includes the drive we have to draw closer to people, places, or events that we can relate to.
  • Generally, this is a harmless drive of wanting to find out what actually happens. Many people watch movies or read novels solely because of this drive. This drive is the primary factor behind Gambling addiction. Researchers have shown that people irrationally want to see what’s next if there is a chance of a positive outcome – even when they know it will most likely be a negative.
  • This drive is based upon the avoidance of something negative happening. On a small scale, it could be to avoid losing previous work. On a larger scale, it could be to avoid admitting that everything you did up to this point was useless because you are now quitting.
  • This is the drive of wanting something because you can’t have it. Many games have Appointment Dynamics within them (come back 2 hours later to get your stuff) – the fact that people can’t get something NOW motivates them to think about it all day long. In the early days of Twitter, the service kept going down due to bad infrastructure. However, BECAUSE people couldn’t use Twitter when they wanted to, they wanted to use it even more. When it came back up they rushed to tweet before it went back down.
  • This is the drive of wanting something because you can’t have it. Many games have Appointment Dynamics within them (come back 2 hours later to get your stuff) – the fact that people can’t get something NOW motivates them to think about it all day long. In the early days of Twitter, the service kept going down due to bad infrastructure. However, BECAUSE people couldn’t use Twitter when they wanted to, they wanted to use it even more. When it came back up they rushed to tweet before it went back down.
  • This is the internal drive of making progress, developing skills, and eventually overcoming challenges. The word “challenge” here is very important as a badge or trophy without a challenge is not meaningful at all.
  • Extra Credits, Season 2, Episode 10 – Gamification

  • LAFS SVI Level 2 - Psychology of Play

    1. 1. Level 2 David Mullich Survey of the Videogame Industry The Los Angeles Film School
    2. 2. Man The Player  In his 1938 book Homo Ludens, Huizinga discusses the importance of play and society.  Huizinga suggests that play may be the primary formative element of human culture.  Coined the term “play theory”.  "Man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only completely a man when he plays." Johan Huizinga 1872-1945
    3. 3. Characteristics of Play  Play is free. It is, in fact, freedom.  Play is not “ordinary” or “real” life.  Play is distinct from “ordinary” life both as to locality and duration.  Play is connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained from it.  Play creates order, is order. Play demands order absolute and supreme.
    4. 4. Our Need For Order Humans are motivated by order and we desire organization. Did you ever wonder why games like Candy Crush or Bejewelled are so popular? Something inside your brain is telling you, “That's all messed up! Tidy it up now!”
    5. 5. The Magic Circle Inside the magic circle, real-world events have special meanings.
    6. 6. Emergent Play: Episode 12 - The Magic Circle (3:34)
    7. 7. Discussion  What is the Magic Circle?  When do we enter a Magic Circle?  How is a Magic Circle different from “real life”?
    8. 8. Immersion  Immersion creates the illusion that you are another person or in another place.  An immersive experience can be achieved through theme, story, character, graphics, and audio.
    9. 9. The Magic Circle - How Games Transport Us to New Worlds - Extra Credits (6:19)
    10. 10. Discussion  How does the Magic Circle relate to Immersion?  What elements of a game create an immersive experience?
    11. 11. Intertainment Taxonomy Chris Crawford
    12. 12. Intertainment Taxonomy  "Intertainment" is the class of activities that entertain through their interactive nature  "Interactive stories" are conventional stories with some small interactive element added (Manhole)  "Playthings" are systems that entertain through their response to the player’s actions  "Toys" are playthings without defined goals (SimCity)
    13. 13. Intertainment Taxonomy  "Challenges" are playthings with clearly defined goals  "Puzzles" are challenges with no purposeful opponents (Tetris)  "Conflicts" are challenges with purposeful opponents  "Competitions" are conflicts without impeding action between the competitors
    14. 14. Intertainment Taxonomy This leaves “games” as interactive entertainment with conflicts in which the players directly interact in such a way as to foil each other’s goals.
    15. 15. Definitions of “Game” Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein “In my view, the explanation is that a word like “game” points to a somewhat diffuse “system” of prototype frames, among which some frame-shifts are easy, but others involve more strain” Philosopher Bernard Suits “The voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles” Game Designer Sid Meier “A series of meaningful choices” Game Designer Jesse Schell “A game is a problem-solving activity, approached with a playful attitude.” Game Designers Eric Zimmerman and Katie Salen “A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.” Game Designer Amy Jo Kim ”A structured experience with rules and goals that’s fun.” Gamification Guru Andrzej Marczewski “Voluntarily undertaking tasks within a system constrained by a set of rules, to achieve a desirable outcome.”
    16. 16. Game Traits  Form of play  Objectives  Rules There are so many types of games, they can be hard to define. But most games have the following traits:  Feedback  Conflict  Choices
    17. 17. Which of the following are games?
    18. 18. Painting  Form of play: Yes (especially for artists)  Objectives: Just what you set for yourself  Rules: None. You don’t even need a brush!  Feedback: Just what you and others think  Conflict: How well you meet your own goals  Choices: Infinite How would you make painting into more of a game?
    19. 19. Slot Machine  Form of play: Yes (especially for grandmas)  Objectives: Win more money than you put in  Rules: Put in coin and pull lever  Feedback: Matching symbols and coins returned  Conflict: Odds of matching symbols appearing  Choices: None How would you make playing slots into more of a game?
    20. 20. Jigsaw Puzzle  Form of play: Yes (especially for kids)  Objectives: Connect all the pieces to form a picture  Rules: All pieces must be used and fit together  Feedback: Image formed by connecting pieces  Conflict: None. You can keep trying until done  Choices: Orientation and placement of pieces How would you make a jigsaw puzzle into a game?
    21. 21. Checkers  Form of play: Yes (especially for grandpas)  Objectives: Capture all the opponent’s pieces  Rules: Pieces move diagonally; jump to capture  Feedback: Board and pieces  Conflict: Your opponent is trying to win too  Choices: Pieces to move and where to move them Yes, checkers is definitely a game.
    22. 22. IS AN ACTIVITY OR A GAME?
    23. 23. A Relevant Question? Extra Credits: What Is A Game (5:16)
    24. 24. Discussion  Why does Extra Credits think “What is a game?” a wrong question to ask?  Do you think it is useful to distinguish between a game and “an interactive experience”?
    25. 25. We Play Games Because It’s FUN! Duh! So, what is fun? “Fun is the enjoyment of pleasure.” Horst Streck
    26. 26. The Four Keys of Fun  Easy Fun (Novelty): Curiosity from exploration, role play, and creativity  Hard Fun (Challenge): Fiero, the epic win, from achieving a difficult goal  People Fun (Friendship): Amusement from competition and cooperation  Serious Fun (Meaning): Excitement from changing the player and their world Nicole Lazzaro
    27. 27. Play Value Play Value is the reasons why a player chooses to play a particular game. Many players can’t explain well why we like to play a particular game, so game designers will look towards Behavioral Psychology and other models to better understand why certain aspects of a game appeal to particular players.
    28. 28. Playing Games Make Us Happy According to Professor Victor Manrique, people play games because they experience emotions that are closely related to the main factors of happiness.
    29. 29. So, What is Happiness? Psychologist Martin Seligman provides the acronym PERMA to summarize the factors that seem to make people happy:  Pleasure: tasty food, warm baths, etc.  Engagement (or flow): the absorption of an enjoyed yet challenging activity  Relationships: social ties have turned out to be extremely reliable indicator of happiness  Meaning: a perceived quest or belonging to something bigger  Accomplishments: having realized tangible goals
    30. 30. Fun Things In his book "Game On", John Radoff lists 42 things that are fun, and mostly all of them involve emotions that are related to a PERMA factor: 1. Recognizing Patterns 2. Collecting 3. Finding Unexpected Treasure 4. Achieving a Sense of Completion 5. Gaining Recognition for Achievements 6. Creating Order Out of Chaos 7. Customizing Virtual Worlds 8. Gathering Knowledge 9. Organizing Groups of People 10. Noting Insider References 11. Being The Center of Attention 12. Experiencing Beauty and Culture 13. Romance 14. Exchanging Gifts 15. Being a Hero 16. Being a Villain 17. Being a Wise Old Man 18. Being a Rebel 19. Being the Ruler 20. Pretending to Live in a Magical Place 21. Listening to Stories 22. Telling Stories 23. Predicting the Future 24. Competition 25. Psychoanalyzing 26. Mystery 27. Mastering a Skill 28. Exacting Justice and Revenge 29. Nurturing 30. Excitement 31. Triumph Over Conflict 32. Relaxing 33. Experiencing the Freakish or Bizarre 34. Being Silly 35. Laughing 36. Being Scared 37. Strengthening a Family Relationship 38. Improving One’s Health 39. Imagining a Connection with the Past 40. Exploring a World 41. Improving Society 42. Enlightenment
    31. 31. The 16 Human Motivators Dr. Steven Reiss describes 16 basic human motivators and their object of desire: Motivator Object of Desire Power Influence Curiosity Knowledge Independence Self-reliance Acceptance Being part of a group Order Organization Saving Collecting things Honor Loyalty to one’s parents, community Idealism Social justice Motivator Object of Desire Social contact Companionship Family Raising children Status Social standing Vengeance Competition, getting even Romance Sex and beauty Eating Food Physical Activity Exercising the body Tranquility Emotional calm
    32. 32. Motivators in Games We see many of these motivators satisfied by the games that we play. Motivator Game Power Diplomacy Curiosity Civilization Independence Oregon Trail Acceptance Guild Wars 2 Order Tetris Saving Farmville Honor Sports Idealism Social justice Motivator Game Social contact Pictionary Family The Sims Status World of Warcraft Vengeance Angry Birds Romance Leisure Suit Larry Eating Pac Man Physical Activity Tag Tranquility Candy Crush
    33. 33. 4 Major Gaming Forces When we play a game, we experiment 4 main motivations defined by game designer Richard Bartle:  Achievement: Trying to get more points  Immersion: Imagining oneself in the game world  Competition: Trying to defeat opponents  Cooperation: Working together as a team No matter what game we play, we will be always driven by these 4 major gaming forces that are closely linked to the 16 human motivators of Reiss making the connection between games and happiness even stronger.
    34. 34. Games Satisfy Our Motivators When we play, our player motivations are linked to our human general motivations. So, according to Victor Manrique, the most important aspect of games is that, through fun, they satisfy our human motivations, making us happier. But let’s look at some other theories…
    35. 35. What Does This Dude Think? Vsauce: Why Do We Play Games? (12:12)
    36. 36. Discussion  According to Michael of Vsauce, why do we play games?  What do games offer that real life doesn’t?
    37. 37. Why Else Do We Play Games?  We build skills like confidence  We strengthen relationships with others  We develop creative skills  We problem solve and tinker  We learn to be flexible Edutopia: The George Lucas Educational Foundation
    38. 38. Elements of Play The Strong Museum of Play
    39. 39. Aesthetics of Play Game Designers Robin Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc and Robert Zubek divide aesthetics within games into 8 categories:  Sensation: Game as sense-pleasure  Fantasy: Game as make-believe  Narrative: Game as unfolding story  Challenge: Game as obstacle course  Fellowship: Game as social framework  Discovery: Game as uncharted territory  Expression: Game as soap box  Submission (or Abnegation): Game as mindless pastime
    40. 40. Aesthetics of Play Extra Credits: Aesthetics of Play (9:41)
    41. 41. Discussion  What are Mechanics, Dynamics and Aesthetics?  Which does a Game Designer handle first when creating a game?  What does a player experience first when playing a game?  Why does Extra Credits think we should define genres in terms of aesthetics rather than mechanics?
    42. 42. The 5 Domains of Play  Novelty  Challenge  Stimulation  Harmony  Threat According to game designer Jason VandenBerghe, these are the elements of a game that appeal to primary human motivations.
    43. 43. Novelty  Distinguishes open imaginative experiences from repeating, conventional ones.  Novelty can be conveyed through theme (art and story) or mechanics (randomness and sandbox modes). What games would players who like novelty play? Low High Reality-Based Fantasy-Based Predictable Surprises Practical Tasks Artistic Tasks
    44. 44. Challenge  How much effort or self-control the player is expected to use.  Challenge can come through mechanics, resources, opponents, and objectives. What games would players who like challenge play? Low High Easy Goals Difficult Goals Procrastination Discipline Disorganization Order
    45. 45. Stimulation  Stimulation is the emotional element and social engagement of play.  Stimulation can be introduced through player format, objectives, and mechanics. What games would players who like stimulation play? Low High Slow-Paced Fast-Paced Unemotional Excitement, Humor Passive Assertive
    46. 46. Harmony  Harmony reflects the rules of player- to-player interaction.  Harmony can be achieved through player format and objective. What games would players who like harmony play? Low High Competition Cooperation Harm Help Destroy Build
    47. 47. Threat  Reflects the game’s capacity to trigger negative emotions in the player.  Player format, objectives, and environment are the primary game elements used to incorporate threat. What games would players who like threat play? Low High Low Risk High Risk Calm Tension, Suspense Cheerful Gloomy
    48. 48. Richard Bartle Richard Allan Bartle is a British writer, professor and game researcher, best known for being the co- creator of MUD1 (the first MUD) in 1978 and the author of the seminal Designing Virtual Worlds.
    49. 49. Bartle’s Player Types  Killers like to provoke and cause drama over other players  Achievers are competitive and enjoy beating difficult challenges  Explorers like to explore the world – not just its geography but also the finer details of the game mechanics  Socializers are often more interested in having relations with the other players than playing the game itself
    50. 50. Intrinsic Rewards  Higher Score  Unlocked Items  New Challenges  New Levels  More Story  Having Fun Rewards within the game
    51. 51. Extrinsic Rewards  Making Friends  Earning Money  Losing Weight  Learning Skills Rewards outside the game
    52. 52. Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner and the Skinner Box
    53. 53. Skinner Box • Extrinsic Rewards can motivate behavior • Intermittent Rewards are stronger motivators than Constant Rewards • Random Rewards are strongest motivator Behavior Psychologist B.F. Skinner
    54. 54. Making Rewards Fun  Obtain reward after really achieving something  Require the player to fail a few times before getting reward  Give reward when the player doesn’t expect it  Present reward in a special way  Give meaning to the reward
    55. 55. People Cannot Be Forced To Play Games require a voluntary and playful willingness to overcome the obstacles, challenges, or just to play. No one wants to play Monopoly if your super cool Economics Professor tells you to do so as a class assignment. (Well, maybe we do, but it won’t be that fun if a grade is given!) Games are voluntary, and if forced, playing turns into working. (And, as Johan Huizinga, pointed out, “play” is distinct from “work”).
    56. 56. Do players spend time grinding in because they enjoy the experience itself OR because of the rewards they hope to get?
    57. 57. Game Thinking © Andrzej Marczewski
    58. 58. Entertainment  Entertainment: Activity that provides an enjoyable or amusing experience  Game: Play that has rules that the player must follow.  Toy: Play that has rules that the object or system must follow.  Art: Activity that provides an elevating or inspirational experience  Advergame: Game used to advertise something
    59. 59. Serious Games  Teaching Game: Teaches you something using real gameplay.  Simulator: A virtual version of something from the real world that allows safe practice and testing.  Meaningful Game: Uses gameplay to promote a meaningful message to the player.  Purposeful Game: Uses games to create direct real world outcomes. Complete games that have been created for reasons other than pure entertainment.
    60. 60. Game-Inspired Design  Also called “Playful Design”  User interfaces that mimic those from games  Design or artwork that is inspired by games or the way things are written  Does not contain game mechanics, dynamics, tokens ,etc.)
    61. 61. Gamification The integration of game design techniques into non-game environments (e.g., work, exercise, education, etc.) to improve engagement, loyalty, and learning.
    62. 62. Gamification Video (6:04)
    63. 63. Discussion  What is gamification?  Why are some of the benefits?  Why is this important for today’s society?  What are the potential risks?
    64. 64. Octalysis
    65. 65. The Core Drives of Gamification  Meaning  Empowerment  Social Pressure  Unpredictability  Avoidance  Scarcity  Ownership  Accomplishment WHITE HAT BLACK HAT LEFT BRAIN RIGHT BRAIN Yu-Kai Chou
    66. 66. Epic Meaning and Calling  Narrative/Theme  Worthy Cause  Sharing Knowledge  Access  Beginner’s Luck  Free Lunch  Chosen One
    67. 67. Empowerment and Creativity  Tutorials  Branching Choices  Signposting  Unlock Content  Boosters  Voting  Real-Time Control  Development Tools  Creativity Tools
    68. 68. Social Pressure and Envy  Social Networking  Friend Invites  Sharing/Gifting  Guilds/Teams  Mentorship  Social Pressure  Bragging  Competition
    69. 69. Curiosity and Unpredictability  Mystery Box  Easter Eggs  Random Rewards  Lottery/Gambling  Anticipation  Suspense  Humor
    70. 70. Loss and Avoidance  Sunk Cost Tragedy  Lost Progress  Guilting  Grounded  Scarlet Letter  Weep Tune
    71. 71. Scarcity and Impatience  Appointment Dynamics  Fixed Intervals  Prize Pacing  Count Down  Throttles  Moats
    72. 72. Ownership and Possession  Avatar  Virtual Goods  Collecting/Trading  Recruiting  Editing/Customizing  Building from Scratch  Care-Taking
    73. 73. Development and Accomplishment  Learning New Skills  Challenges/Quests  Leaderboard  Progress Bars  Leveling Up  Boss Battles  Certificates  Leaderboards
    74. 74. Gamification and Bartle Player Types
    75. 75. Warning This is a misrepresentation of Bartle Player types, and Bartle is pissed about it!
    76. 76. Marczewski User Types © Andrzej Marczewski

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