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Session 9
David Mullich
Game Design 1
The Los Angeles Film School
Designer Perspective: Sid Meier
G4 Icons Episode #12: Sid Meier
WHAT ARE YOU TESTING FOR?
Foundation
At this first stage, your prototype probably
only consisted of a core mechanic.
Your main objective was to conf...
Structure
For your next prototype, you added enough
structure to make the prototype playable for
testers other than yourse...
Formal Details
Now that you’ve verified that your idea is
worthwhile, it’s time to build a fully functional
version of you...
FUNCTIONAL
Functional
The system is sufficiently established to the point
where someone who knows nothing about the game
can sit down...
INTERNALLY COMPLETE
Internally Complete
A game is internally complete when there is no
obvious missing elements in any possible
permutation of...
Internally Complete
If you identify an incomplete part of the game,
go back to the rules and see where you need
to fill in...
Loopholes
A loophole is a flaw in the system
that a player can exploit to gain
an unfair or unintended
advantage that ruin...
Loopholes
Sometimes it is debatable whether an issue
is a loophole or a feature that is actually a
benefit in the game.
An...
Find some solutions to this FPS problem:
When more than two people play the game, it is
possible for players to camp near ...
Tips For Weeding Out Loopholes
 Use control situations to test aspects of
the system in isolation
 Do a series of playte...
Dead Ends
A dead end occurs when a player gets
stranded in the game and cannot continue
toward the game objectives no matt...
Completing Completeness
In reality, no game is every truly complete.
Your job as a designer is to enforce a high
enough st...
IS YOUR GAME BALANCED?
Game Balancing
Balancing a game is the process of making sure the
game meets the goal you have set for the player
experien...
The Four Balancing Areas
 Variables
 Dynamics
 Starting Conditions
 Skill
Balancing Variables
The variables of your system are a set of numbers
that define the properties of your game objects.
Cha...
Balancing the Dynamics
The game dynamics are the forces at play when your game is
in action.
Sometimes a combination of ru...
Reinforcing Relationships
A reinforcing relationship occurs when a
change in one part of a system causes a
change in the s...
Reinforcing Relationships
There are a number of ways to add balance to such
relationships:
 Have balances be small and te...
Dominant Objects
A good rule of thumb is to keep similar
game objects proportional in terms of
strength.
One of the best w...
Dominant Strategies
If one or two strategies effectively dominate
the game, no one will choose the other
strategies once t...
Balancing Positions
In balancing the starting positions for your
game, the goal is to make the system fair so
that all the...
Symmetrical Games
These are games in which each player has the
exact same starting conditions and access to
the same resou...
Asymmetrical Games
If you give opponents different abilities, resources,
rules or objectives, your game will be asymmetric...
The Lens of Fairness
 Should my game be symmetrical? Why?
 Should my game be asymmetrical? Why?
 Which is more importan...
Balancing For Skill
Balancing for skill involves matching the level of
challenge provided by the game system to the
skill ...
Balancing For Skill
In some games, it is possible to
program the system to adjust to the
ability level of the players as t...
Balancing For Skill
Extra Credits: Balancing for Skill
The Lens of Challenge
 What are the challenges in my game?
 Are they too easy, too hard, or just right?
 Can my challen...
Balancing Techniques
 Think Modular: Isolate your subsystems so that when you
tweak one element of your game, you know ex...
Knowing When Your Game Is
Balanced
How will you “know” when your game is
balanced? When it comes to balancing a
game, much...
Perfect Imbalance
Extra Credits - Perfect Imbalance - Why Unbalanced
Design Creates Balanced Play
Prototyping Aesthetics
Aesthetics are the visual and aural dramatic
elements of your game. Sometimes you will
have a quest...
Prototyping Aesthetics
 Storyboards
 Concept Art
 Animatics
 Interface Prototype
 Audio Sketches
1. Playtest 3 of your fellow students’ games.
2. Fill out playtesting form.
LAFS Game Design 9 - Balancing
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LAFS Game Design 9 - Balancing

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Session 9 of the Los Angeles Film School's Game Design 1 class.

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Transcript of "LAFS Game Design 9 - Balancing"

  1. 1. Session 9 David Mullich Game Design 1 The Los Angeles Film School
  2. 2. Designer Perspective: Sid Meier G4 Icons Episode #12: Sid Meier
  3. 3. WHAT ARE YOU TESTING FOR?
  4. 4. Foundation At this first stage, your prototype probably only consisted of a core mechanic. Your main objective was to confirm that the idea is a fun foundation for a game.
  5. 5. Structure For your next prototype, you added enough structure to make the prototype playable for testers other than yourself. It was basic and clunky, but it had rules and procedures. Your focus was on both fun and functionality.
  6. 6. Formal Details Now that you’ve verified that your idea is worthwhile, it’s time to build a fully functional version of your game. At this stage, you should focus on ensuring that your game is:  Functional  Internally Complete  Balanced
  7. 7. FUNCTIONAL
  8. 8. Functional The system is sufficiently established to the point where someone who knows nothing about the game can sit down and play it. In a paper prototype, this means the player can play the game by following the rules and procedures. In a digital prototype, this means that the player can use the controls and make the game progress.
  9. 9. INTERNALLY COMPLETE
  10. 10. Internally Complete A game is internally complete when there is no obvious missing elements in any possible permutation of the game under any condition. In board games, gaps in the rules can lead to arguments among players. In a digital game, incompleteness leads to a loophole that players can exploit, a dead end in the player experience, or a complete breakdown of the system.
  11. 11. Internally Complete If you identify an incomplete part of the game, go back to the rules and see where you need to fill in the gaps. Be warned that any time you modify the rules, it can affect other parts of the game. It may take several revisions and playtesting sessions to fix the problem.
  12. 12. Loopholes A loophole is a flaw in the system that a player can exploit to gain an unfair or unintended advantage that ruins the experience for the other players. As long as loopholes exist, your game isn’t complete. Your goal is to close all loopholes without shutting down all potential for emergent play. Asteroids high score exploit
  13. 13. Loopholes Sometimes it is debatable whether an issue is a loophole or a feature that is actually a benefit in the game. An example is the ability to kill other players in an MMORPG – is it a loophole that needs to be fixed, or a valid feature of the game?
  14. 14. Find some solutions to this FPS problem: When more than two people play the game, it is possible for players to camp near both of the spawn points on the arena map. When a recently killed opponent appears at either spawning point, the campers can promptly attack the opponent. Players struck in the position of being shot are furious at this seemingly unfair tactic.
  15. 15. Tips For Weeding Out Loopholes  Use control situations to test aspects of the system in isolation  Do a series of playtests where you instruct testers to attempt to disrupt the system  Find testers who enjoy figuring out alternative or subversive solutions
  16. 16. Dead Ends A dead end occurs when a player gets stranded in the game and cannot continue toward the game objectives no matter what they do. Most titles have ironed out dead ends before they are released, but now and then, one slips in through the cracks.
  17. 17. Completing Completeness In reality, no game is every truly complete. Your job as a designer is to enforce a high enough standard and lay out rigorous enough tests so that you can be certain beyond a reasonable doubt that there are no critical deficiencies in your game.
  18. 18. IS YOUR GAME BALANCED?
  19. 19. Game Balancing Balancing a game is the process of making sure the game meets the goal you have set for the player experience: that the system is of the scope and complexity you envisioned and that the elements of the system are working together without undesired results. In multiplayer games, it means that the starting positions and play are fair, and that no single strategy dominates the others. In single-player games, it means that the skill level is properly adjusted for the target audience.
  20. 20. The Four Balancing Areas  Variables  Dynamics  Starting Conditions  Skill
  21. 21. Balancing Variables The variables of your system are a set of numbers that define the properties of your game objects. Changing game variables affects the game experience. A game with only one player life is a very different experience than a game with 10 lives. As a game designer, you need to manipulate the game variables to create the game experience you want for your player.
  22. 22. Balancing the Dynamics The game dynamics are the forces at play when your game is in action. Sometimes a combination of rules creates an imbalance. Sometimes it is a “super” object or combination of objects. Other times it can be a combination of actions. You need to identify the imbalances that can ruin gameplay and either:  Fix the rules that create the problem  Change the value of the objects  Create new rules that mitigate unbalancing strategies
  23. 23. Reinforcing Relationships A reinforcing relationship occurs when a change in one part of a system causes a change in the same direction to another part of the system. For example, rewarding a stronger player over and over until he becomes so strong it is impossible for another player to win.
  24. 24. Reinforcing Relationships There are a number of ways to add balance to such relationships:  Have balances be small and temporary  Introduce an element of randomness  Allow weaker players to group together  Allow a third party to intervene The goal is to keep the scales balanced without causing the game to stagnate – until the end stages of the game, when the scales can tip dramatically.
  25. 25. Dominant Objects A good rule of thumb is to keep similar game objects proportional in terms of strength. One of the best ways to keep every object in proportion but still provide a range of choices is to think in terms of strengths and weaknesses. Units can be balanced by giving each a special advantage and a corresponding weakness.
  26. 26. Dominant Strategies If one or two strategies effectively dominate the game, no one will choose the other strategies once the dominant ones become known. As game designers, you should always be on the lookout for dominant strategies so that you can find a way to get rid of it or obscure it.
  27. 27. Balancing Positions In balancing the starting positions for your game, the goal is to make the system fair so that all the players have an equal opportunity to win. This does not always mean giving each player the exact same resources and set up.
  28. 28. Symmetrical Games These are games in which each player has the exact same starting conditions and access to the same resources and setup. The one asymmetrical element in turn-based games is who goes first. Methods to mitigate that advantage:  Allow only weak units to move first  Have the game take many moves to resolve  Incorporate chance elements
  29. 29. Asymmetrical Games If you give opponents different abilities, resources, rules or objectives, your game will be asymmetrical. As a designer, your goal is to tweak the variables so that the game balances out. Examples of asymmetrical objectives:  Ticking Clock: Defend against a stronger attacker for a period of time  Protection: One side protects something while the other side tries to capture it
  30. 30. The Lens of Fairness  Should my game be symmetrical? Why?  Should my game be asymmetrical? Why?  Which is more important: that my game be a reliable measure of who has the most skill, or that it provide an interesting challenge to all players?  If I want players of different skill levels to play together, what means will I use to make the game interesting and challenging for everyone? Jesse Schell, Lens #30
  31. 31. Balancing For Skill Balancing for skill involves matching the level of challenge provided by the game system to the skill level of the player. The trick here is that every player has a different skill level. One way of handling this is to offer multiple difficulty levels. Another way is to balance for a median skill level between hard-core players and novices.
  32. 32. Balancing For Skill In some games, it is possible to program the system to adjust to the ability level of the players as they play. A problem with computer-controlled characters is that they must seem to be human and make mistakes. Designers solve this problem by designing a character to act within a range of possibilities.
  33. 33. Balancing For Skill Extra Credits: Balancing for Skill
  34. 34. The Lens of Challenge  What are the challenges in my game?  Are they too easy, too hard, or just right?  Can my challenges accommodate a wide variety of skill levels?  How does the level of challenge increase as the player succeeds?  Is there enough variety in the challenges?  What is the maximum level of challenge in my game? Jesse Schell, Lens #31
  35. 35. Balancing Techniques  Think Modular: Isolate your subsystems so that when you tweak one element of your game, you know exactly what effect it will have on the other parts.  Purity of Purpose: Make sure that every element of your game has a clearly defined purpose, so that when you tweak an element, only one aspect of the game will be changed.  One Change at a Time: If you make more than one change, it is difficult to tell what effect each one has on the overall system.  Spreadsheets: Keep all of your game data in a spreadsheet and have them mirror the game’s structure.
  36. 36. Knowing When Your Game Is Balanced How will you “know” when your game is balanced? When it comes to balancing a game, much of what you do will depend on your instincts. The more you design, the better your instincts will become.
  37. 37. Perfect Imbalance Extra Credits - Perfect Imbalance - Why Unbalanced Design Creates Balanced Play
  38. 38. Prototyping Aesthetics Aesthetics are the visual and aural dramatic elements of your game. Sometimes you will have a question about your aesthetics that you will need to test early on.  How will the character animation work with the combat system?  How will a new interface solution work with the environments?
  39. 39. Prototyping Aesthetics  Storyboards  Concept Art  Animatics  Interface Prototype  Audio Sketches
  40. 40. 1. Playtest 3 of your fellow students’ games. 2. Fill out playtesting form.

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