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Class presentation on Bosnia

Class presentation on Bosnia

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Transcript

  • 1. I. Early HistoryII. Conflict 1992 – 1995III. Post Conflict
  • 2. History
  • 3. Illyrians 1200BC Romans 229BC WAR 9BCRoman Empire 395AD
  • 4. Roman Empire officially splits along Drina RiverROMAN BYZANTINEEMPIRE EMPIRE Rome Constantinopl e
  • 5. Byzantine Empire (Christian Orthodox Church) Cyrillic Alphabet BOSNIA EAST Roman Empire SERBIA(Roman Catholic Church) Latin Alphabet WEST
  • 6. BOSNIA
  • 7. Ottoman Empire1463AD -1878AD Kosovo Field Battle 28.6.1389 Ottomans completely Ottomans overtake in 1463 BOSNIA Bosnians KARLOVAC TREATY REDEFINES BORDERS 1699 Serbs KOSOVO
  • 8. Berlin Congress 1878OttomanEmpire Austria- Hungary
  • 9. AUSTRIAHUNGARY 1908 BOSNIA Yugo Slavia ??? Croatian Intellectuals
  • 10. 1929 Yugoslav Kingdom Serbia Slovenia Kosovo CroatiaTRASH Montenegro Vojvodina Bosnia Macedonia
  • 11. ALLIES End Tito & Partisans of WWII SFRJ
  • 12. Dissolution of SFRJ 1990-1991 Slovenia Croatia SerbiaSFRJ Bosnia
  • 13.  1974 – decentralization of SFRJ; 4th May 1980, Tito died at the age of 88 in Ljubljana, Slovenia; 28th February – 1st March Bosnia holds referendum; Bosnian Serb boycott, Serb militia surrounds Sarajevo; 6th April 1992 – recognized by European Commission;
  • 14. 1992• Prijedor: Testing ground for “ethnic cleansing”;• Croats attack Herzegovina1993• Serbs capture a UN Convoy and kill Bosnia’s Prime Minister;• Vance-Owen 15-16 May peace plan fails;• ICTY formally established by resolution 827;1994• Siege of Sarajevo ends in February;• Washington Peace Agreement between Bosniak and Croat forces was signed;199514th December – Dayton Peace Agreement signed ending thewar;
  • 15.  Bosnia: Omarska, Keraterm, Manjaca,Trnopolje; Herzegovina: Heliodrom, Dretelj, Gabela, Vojno and Šunje;
  • 16.  1993 Naser Oric, Muslim guerilla commander overtakes a Serb city and commits atrocities; January 1995 UN Dutch battalion arrives in Srebrenica and declares it a UN protected zone; 8,000 Bosniak men killed; 1948 UN Convention on Genocide: Article 2;
  • 17.  Estimated 20,000 – 50,000 Bosnian women were raped; Rape was systematic and aimed at tainting and discontinuing birth within the ethnic group; Girls as young as 12 were victims; Slavenka Drakulic wrote a book “S”, made into a movie “As if I am not there”
  • 18.  Islamist volunteers or missionaries arrived in Bosnia during the war, not just to fight for the Muslims against the Serbs and Croats, but to propagate a fundamentalist version of Islam to the secular or moderately religious native Bosnian Muslims; mujahedin did attract converts from a minority of local Bosnian Muslims; it was both the foreigners and their local recruits who spearheaded attacks on non- Muslim - primarily Croat - civilians, churches and government offices and individuals in the years following Dayton; Foreign mujahedin failed to attract any Bosnian Muslims to the global jihad, but they succeeded at times in catalyzing locals to resist the reconstruction of multinational coexistence in Bosnia; Foreign mujahedin who engaged in these crimes appear to have been quite content with their modest purposes; Esad Hecimovic’s ‘Garibs: The Mujahedin in Bosnia-Hercegovina, 1992-1999’
  • 19.  The Tribunal has contributed to an indisputable historical record, combating denial and helping communities come to terms with their recent history. Crimes across the region can no longer be denied. For example, it has been proven beyond reasonable doubt that the mass murder at Srebrenica was genocide; Judges have also ruled that rape was used by members of the Bosnian Serb armed forces as an instrument of terror, and the judges in the Kvočka et al. trial established that a “hellish orgy of persecution” occurred in the Omarska, Keraterm and Trnopolje camps of northwestern Bosnia; ICTY has charged over 160 persons;
  • 20.  Republika Srpska and Bosnia Herzegovina, independent Brcko – internationally supervised; 3 seat presidency, rotating every 8 months; Zelko KOMSIC, BAKIR IZETBEGOVIC, NEBOJSA RADMANOVIC; Elections held every 4 years; President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Zivko BUDIMIR, Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC, Mirsad KEBO; President of the Republika Srpska: Milorad DODIK; Parliamentary Assembly: House of Peoples (15 seats, 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb)and the state-level House of Representatives 42 seats, 28 seats); Foreign Minister – Sven Alkalaj
  • 21.  Military intervention; Presence of peacekeepers; Returning refugees; Haag tribunals; Svetozar Marovic 2003 issues a public apology; No Truth and reconciliation Commission; ICJ decision – Bosnia not a genocide;
  • 22.  Local communities; Redirecting blame; Perpetrators free in Bosnia; Belgrade protest to Karadzic’ arrest; Darko Trifunovic at the ICT Conference at IDC Herzeliya 2011;
  • 23. QUESTIONS?