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  • 1. What Makes a Dinosaur? Ralph E. Chapman Eryops Consulting LAVA Technologies
  • 2. What is a Dinosaur? dinosaur = member of a very specific group of animals • lived during a restricted period of time • had diagnostic anatomical features dinosaur ≠ fossil dinosaur ≠ extinct animal
  • 3. Geologic Time
  • 4. What is a Dinosaur?
  • 5. Tetrapod Phylogeny
  • 6. ichthyosaurs plesiosaurs lizards & snakes crocodylians diapsids pterosaurs archosaurs The Origin of Dinosaurs dinosaurs & birds
  • 7. The Origin of Dinosaurs “protodinosaurs” crocodylians dinosaurs & pterosaurs other birds archosaurs other archosaurs other archosaurs archosaurs
  • 8. The Origin of Dinosaurs “protodinosaurs” Middle Triassic Marasuchus small carnivorous facultative bipeds
  • 9. What Makes a Dinosaur? Definition of the Dinosauria: most recent common ancestor of Triceratops and neornitheans (modern birds) and all of its Diagnosis of the Dinosauria: • 3 or more sacral vertebrae • glenoid faces caudally • acetabulum completely open medially • femur with ball-shaped head on proximal end
  • 10. What Makes a Dinosaur? • 3 or more sacral vertebrae Plateosaurus lateral view dorsal view
  • 11. What Makes a Dinosaur? • glenoid faces caudally Acrocanthosaurus dorsal cranial ventral Allosaurus
  • 12. What Makes a Dinosaur? • acetabulum completely open medially dorsal cranial dorsal ventral cranial ventral Euparkeria Allosaurus
  • 13. What Makes a Dinosaur? • femur with ball-shaped head on proximal end Postosuchus Apatosaurus Tyrannosaurus
  • 14. The Earliest Dinosaurs Herrerasaurus Eoraptor
  • 15. Box 08-05
  • 16. Oviraptorosaurs
  • 17. What is a Dinosaur? BIRDS ARE DINOSAURS! – i.e., birds are descended from dinosaurs
  • 18. Dromaeosaurs
  • 19. Aves • oldest bird = Archaeopteryx - Greek arkhaios = ancient; pteryx = wing - 8 specimens known, all from Late Jurassic, Germany
  • 20. What Makes a Dinosaur? Ralph E. Chapman Eryops Consulting LAVA Technologies