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The Impact of Acculturation on the Development of Eating Disorders in African American Females
 

The Impact of Acculturation on the Development of Eating Disorders in African American Females

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AMCHA 2008 Conference Presentation

AMCHA 2008 Conference Presentation

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    The Impact of Acculturation on the Development of Eating Disorders in African American Females The Impact of Acculturation on the Development of Eating Disorders in African American Females Presentation Transcript

    • presented by: Devona M. Stalnaker, LPC, NCC, BCPC
    • Opening Comments
      • Activity— The Truth Statement
      • Understanding culture and perception
      • “ Truth is based on culturally learned assumptions.”
      • (Pederson, 2000)
    • Discussion Questions
      • Is there a significant relationship between level of acculturation & potential risk for or manifestation of eating disorders?
      • Is acculturation affected by socioeconomic status (SES)?
      • Are African American adolescents and women of lower SES & lower acculturation also at risk for developing eating disorders?
      • What factors contribute to the development of eating disorders in African American females?
      • What interventions and treatment options should be employed to address eating disorders in African American adolescents and women?
    • Learning Objectives
      • To examine factors contributing to the etiology of eating disorders in African American females ages 15-25.
      • To identify risk factors related to the development of eating disorders in the specified population.
      • To provide additional knowledge and information to mental health professionals regarding screening and treatment options.
    • Key Concepts
      • Acculturation : the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding/dominant culture by the subordinate culture.
      • At-risk : being endangered for injury or loss from exposure or the degree of probability of such injury/loss
      • Eating Disorder : a condition having met the established DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, such as Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, or Eating Disorder NOS.
    • Key Concepts, continued
      • Body Image : an individual’s subjective concept of his/her physical appearance based on self-observation and the reactions of others.
      • Body Dissatisfaction : the degree to which an individual is displeased with his/her physical appearance.
      • Standard of Beauty : a rule or principle that is used as a basis for judgment set forth by authority or by general consent.
    • Statistics— Female Body Image & Dissatisfaction
      • A national study conducted by Ann Kearney-Cook, Cincinnati Psychological Institute found:
      • By age 12, girls have viewed approximately 77,546 commercials
      • 56% of girls see/believe celebrities have to be perfect
      • 77% would trade bodies with a celebrity
      • 90% would change at least one thing about their appearances
      • 25% consider plastic surgery
      • More than 40% of girls only see flaws when they look in the mirror
      • 58% describe themselves in negative terms
      • 4 in 10 girls engage in unhealthy eating habits
    • Statistics—Plastic Surgery
      • In 2005, there were 11.5 million plastic surgery procedures—surgical (19%) and nonsurgical (81%)
      • Since 1997, there has been a 444% increase in cosmetic procedures (surgical procedures up by 119%; nonsurgical up by 726%)
      • The top 5 surgical procedures are: lipoplasty, breast augmentation, blepharoplasty, rhinoplasty, and abdominoplasty.
      • The top 5 nonsurgical procedures are: Botox, laser hair removal, hyaluronic acid, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels.
      • Cosmetic procedures for African American women increased by 67% between 2004 and 2005.
    • Research says…
      • Research indicates that there is a positive correlation between level of acculturation and the development of eating disorders in African American females; specifically, as acculturation into the dominant culture increases, there is also an increased risk and manifestation of eating disorders in African American females.
    • Standard of Beauty
      • “ Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”
      • --Margaret Wolfe Hungerford, 1878
    • Evolution of Standard of Beauty over the past five decades
      • 195o’s – The Age of the Blonde Bombshell
    • Evolution of Standard of Beauty over the past five decades, continued
      • 1960’s – Thin is In
    • Evolution of Standard of Beauty over the past five decades, continued
      • 1970’s – The All-American Girls
    • Evolution of Standard of Beauty over the past five decades, continued
      • 1980’s – Advent of the Supermodel
    • Evolution of Standard of Beauty over the past five decades, continued
      • 1990’s – The Dawn of Diversity
    • Evolution of Standard of Beauty over the past five decades, continued
      • 2000’s – Multicultural Invasion
    • Standard of Beauty, continued
      • It is a widely held belief that African American women are insulated from the risk of developing eating disorders due to their cultural standard of beauty.
    • Standard of Beauty, continued
      • However, with acculturation and a societal focus on multiculturalism and diversity, there has been a shift in the mainstream standard of beauty to an amalgamation of concepts from both dominant and subculture.
      • This shift appears to have contributed to an increased risk and/or manifestation of disordered eating among African American females.
    • Understanding Racial/Cultural Identity Development
      • Racial/Cultural Identity (R/CID) Model
      • (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue (1989)
      • Conformity
      • Dissonance
      • Resistance and Immersion
      • Introspection
      • Integrative Awareness
      • African American adolescents and women appear to be most at risk during the first three stages of racial/identity development
    • Risk Factors
      • General risk factors:
        • Drive for thinness
        • Body dissatisfaction
        • Abnormal eating patterns/habits
      • Additional race and culture specific risk factors:
        • Simultaneous membership to two oppressed demographic-identity groups—gender and race.
        • Potential intracultural issues of oppression, especially for African American women of darker complexion.
    • Implications for Mental Health Professionals
      • As clinicians, practitioners and researchers, there must be a change in thought and perception regarding African American females and the manifestation of eating disorders.
      • As a society, there must be an examination of the collective consciousness and standard of beauty concept, and the influence of media and culture on maladaptive eating habits and behavioral patterns.
    • General Applications of Research
      • Develop education, early intervention and prevention programs to implement in schools for students and parents
      • Improve identification methods (screening, diagnostic and referral)
      • Develop treatment programs and strategies to address specific needs of African American teens and women
      • Develop continuing education programs or seminars to train practitioners and disseminate information.
    • Practical Applications
      • Prevention programming should include emphasis on individual cultural/racial identity development.
      • Effective psychosocial prevention programming will be focused on reduction of risk factors and enhancement of protective factors, but also emphasize individual racial/cultural identity development.
      • Facilitate a critical evaluation of current social norms and beliefs, encourage personal value clarification, and enhance individual resilience within a context of cultural pride.
    • African American Females & Eating Disorders— Applications for Mental Health Professionals
      • Understand how a client’s level of acculturation to her dominant culture influences her beliefs regarding food and physical appearance.
      • Understand culture-specific themes in the lives of African American women (i.e. multiple roles, spirituality, family influence).
      • Assess the degree to which African American female clients have internalized racial oppression.
      • Understand the relationship between food and coping strategies.
    • African American Females & Eating Disorders— Applications for School Counselors
      • Facilitate girls’ cognitive development by teaching them critical thinking skills needed to question sociocultural norms regarding the standard of beauty.
      • Develop and promote health workshops that incorporate culturally relevant activities.
      • Recognize and balance girls’ need to feel accepted and to seek peer approval with encouragement to formulate their own beliefs and values within the context of racial/cultural identity development.
      • Prevention programs should incorporate media literacy, critical thinking skills, life skills, and esteem building with emphasis on specific cultural issues and needs.
    • Review of Current Literature
      • Caldwell, Brownell, & Wilfley (1996). Relationship of weight, body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in African American and White Female dieters.
      • Choate (2007). Counseling adolescent girls for body image resilience: strategies for school counselors.
      • Dacosta & Wilson (1996). Food preferences and eating attitudes in three generations of Black and White women.
      • James, Phelps, & Bross (2001). Body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and self esteem in African American college females.
      • Lester & Petrie (1998). Physical, psychological and societal correlates of bulimic symptomatology among African American college women.
      • Mulholland & Mintz (2001). Prevalence of eating disorders among African American women.
      • Phinney (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of literature.
    • Review of Current Literature, continued
      • Pike et al (2001). A comparison of Black and White women with binge eating disorder.
      • Striegel-Moore et al (2003). Eating disorders in White and Black women.
      • Sue & Sue (1999). Counseling the culturally different: theory and practice, 3 rd ed.
      • Talleyrand (2006). Potential stressors contributing to eating disorder symptoms in African American women: implications for mental health counselors.
      • Tyler (2003). A true picture of eating disorders among African American women: A review of literature.
      • Williamson (1998). Eating disorders and the cultural forces behind the drive for thinness: are African American women really protected?
      • Yanovski (2000). Eating disorders, race, and mythology.
    • Concluding Comments
      • Wrap-Up
      • Questions and Answers
      • Thank you for coming!!!