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Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs
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Attitudinal Barriers to the Developm,ent of Safe Routes to School Programs

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Presented at the 2010 ITE Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC

Presented at the 2010 ITE Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC

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  • 1. Attitudinal Barriers in the Development ofSafe Routes to Schools ProgramsAugust 10, 2010 ITE Annual MeetingVancouver, British Columbia<br />
  • 2. Authors<br /><ul><li>Doug McCants, PE, PTOE, PTP</li></ul>PBS&amp;J -- Group Manager, Arizona Transportation<br /><ul><li>Brent Billingsley, AICP</li></ul>City of Maricopa -- Development Services Director<br /><ul><li>Kellee Kelley</li></ul>City of Maricopa -- Transit Manager<br />
  • 3. Agenda<br />A Scenario<br />Safe Routes to School -- What? Why?<br />The City of Maricopa Program<br />SR2S Parents’ Surveys – Assessing Attitudes<br />
  • 4. A scenario<br />City planner requests Safe Routes to School funding from City Council<br />
  • 5. A scenario follow-up<br />The city planner received his funding &amp; implemented lots of improvements, but there was no increase in the number of students walking or bicycling to school….<br />
  • 6. The need for safe routes to school<br />Fewer kids today walk and bike to school<br />Unintended consequences have resulted<br />SR2S programs are part of the solution<br />
  • 7. 1. Fewer kids are biking and walking; more parents are driving.<br />2001: 16% walked<br />1969: 42% walked<br /> (CDC, 2005)<br />
  • 8. 2. What are the unintended consequences of less walking and bicycling?<br />For the environment<br />For individual health<br />
  • 9. 3. Good news! <br /> Communities are taking action on behalf of children through Safe Routes to School<br />Winston-Salem, NC<br />Alhambra, CA<br />Phoenix, AZ<br />
  • 10. More benefits of SR2S programs<br />Reduce congestion around schools<br />Can lead to cost savings for schools(by reducing the need for “hazard” busing)<br />Others: increase child’s sense of freedom, help establish lifetime habits, teach pedestrian and bicyclist skills<br />
  • 11. City of Maricopa goals<br />Where it’s safe, get children walking and biking<br />Where it’s not safe, make changes<br />
  • 12. City of Maricopa program<br />Develop program framework<br />Identify barriers<br />Assess attitudes<br />Prepare guidelines<br />Formulate implementation strategy<br />
  • 13. Maricopa participants<br />City staff<br />Police<br />Fire<br />MUSD<br />School administrators<br />Teachers <br />Parents<br />Public<br />
  • 14. Maricopa’s SR2S program<br />Education<br />Encouragement<br />Enforcement<br />Engineering<br />Evaluation<br />Lenexa, KS<br />
  • 15. Education<br />Imparts safety skills<br />Creates safety awareness<br />Fosters life-long safety habits<br />Includes parents, neighbors and other drivers<br />
  • 16. Encouragement<br />Increases popularity of walking and bicycling<br />Is an easy way to start SR2S programs<br />Emphasizes fun<br />
  • 17. Enforcement<br />Increases awareness of pedestrians and bicyclists<br />Improves driver behavior<br />Helps children follow traffic rules<br />Richmond, VA<br />Denver, CO<br />
  • 18. Engineering<br />Creates safer conditions for walking and bicycling<br />Can influence the way people behave<br />
  • 19. SR2S parents’ surveys<br />Distributed on December 14th to all MUSD elementary and middle school students<br />471 surveys completed and returned <br />459 from Elementary Schools (K-5)<br />12 from Middle School (6-8)<br />Results focus on the elementary schools<br />
  • 20. Elementary school commute<br />Potential Walk or Bike to SchoolPopulation<br />
  • 21. Elementary commute type(Home to School)<br />All Respondees<br />Respondees living within 1 mile<br />
  • 22. Elementary commute type(School to Home)<br />All Respondees<br />Respondees living within 1 mile<br />
  • 23. Child asked permission to walk/bike?<br />
  • 24. Constraints to walking/biking<br />
  • 25. Parents’ written comments<br />Free-form comments fell into six key areas:<br />Safety (crime potential, safety in numbers)<br />Safety (traffic volumes, driver speeds, time of day)<br />Operations (pickup/drop-off procedures, bus availability, crossing guards, police presence)<br />Distance to school<br />Age<br />Facilities (crosswalks, sidewalks, bike storage)<br />
  • 26. A scenario, revisited<br />City planner requests Safe Routes to School funding from City Council<br />
  • 27. He has assessed community attitudes and ….<br />
  • 28. …. developed a local toolbox<br />
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. And an implementation plan<br />
  • 33. A scenario follow-up<br />The city planner received his funding and implemented his plan<br />Dramatic increase in the number of students walking or bicycling to school<br />
  • 34. Why the dramatic difference?<br />Community/parental attitudes addressed<br />Physical barriers removed<br />Route safety enhanced<br />Cooperative effort by everyone<br />Encompassed all five Es<br />
  • 35. Some final thoughts<br /><ul><li>Identify a local Safe Routes to School champion
  • 36. Involve everyone in the planning and implementation of a program
  • 37. Assemble a program framework
  • 38. Incorporate all five Es
  • 39. Assess &amp; address community/parent concerns</li></li></ul><li>Contacts<br />City of MaricopaBrent Billingsley  Kellee Kelly520.568.9098 Brent.Billingsley@maricopa-az.gov Kellee.Kelley@maricopa-az.gov <br />PBS&amp;JDoug McCants480.419.7275dmmccants@pbsj.com<br />
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. Parents driving<br /> Parents driving children to school: <br /> 20%-25% of morning traffic <br /> (NHTSA 2003; Dept. of Environment)<br />
  • 43. School siting issues: A generation ago<br />Small schools<br />Located in community centers<br /> (EPA, 2003)<br />
  • 44. School siting issues: Today<br />Mega-schools<br />Built on edges of towns and cities<br />
  • 45. School consolidation has lengthened the trip between home and school<br />
  • 46. It’s not just distance<br /> Students who live within 1 mile and walk or bike: <br /> 2001: 63% <br /> 1969: 87%<br /> (CDC, 2005)<br />
  • 47. Most common barriers to walking and bicycling to school<br />Long distances 62%<br />Traffic danger 30%<br />Adverse weather 19%<br />Fear of crime danger 12%<br />(CDC, 2005)<br />
  • 48. Traffic danger<br />
  • 49. Adverse weather<br />Howard’s Grove, WI<br />Centreville, VA<br />
  • 50. Fear of crime (both real and perceived)<br />Abandoned buildings<br />Other reasons<br />Individual community issues<br />
  • 51. 1996 Summer Olympic Games banned single occupant cars in downtown Atlanta<br />Atlanta, GA<br />
  • 52. Results of the ban<br />Morning traffic – ä 23%<br />Peak ozone – ä 28%<br />Asthma-related events for kids – ä 42%<br />(Journal of the American Medical Association [JAMA], 2001)<br />
  • 53. U.S. youth overweight rates <br />(National Center for Health Statistics)<br />
  • 54. Overweight children have an increased risk of…<br />Type 2 Diabetes<br />Low self esteem<br />Decreased physical functioning<br />Obesity in adulthood<br />Many other negative emotional &amp; physical effects<br /> (Institute of Medicine, 2005)<br />
  • 55. 3. Safe Routes to School programs are part of the solution…<br />...to improve walking and bicycling conditions<br />...to increase physical activity<br />...to decrease air pollution<br />Dallas, TX<br />
  • 56. What caused the shift?<br />
  • 57. Air quality<br /> Measurably better around schools with more walkers and bicyclists<br />(EPA, 2003)<br />Chicago, IL<br />
  • 58. Physical inactivity<br />Most kids aren’t getting the physical activity they need<br />Recommend 60 minutes on most, preferably all, days of the week<br />(US Depts. of Health and Human Services and Agriculture, 2005)<br />
  • 59. Evaluation<br />Is the program making a difference?<br />
  • 60. Federal program<br />$612 million to States 2005-2009<br />Funds infrastructure and non-infrastructure activities<br />Requires State SR2S Coordinators<br />More information:<br />www.saferoutesinfo.org<br />
  • 61. Addressing attitudes<br />Weather (shaded routes)<br />Speed/volume of traffic (enforcement, separated paths, speed studies)<br />Distance (neighborhood school siting)<br />Crime/safety (block watch, parent chaperons)<br />Intersection safety (crossing guards, engineering solutions)<br />
  • 62. Discussion<br />

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