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Paths intro history of dd

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  • Instructor Notes In preparation for teaching this class, please review the PATHS-Training Tips and Techniques checklist which offers suggestions to instructors on how to make their class as effective as possible. Please also review the Equipment, Room, and Materials Checklist to ensure you have all the items that are needed to effectively teach this module. Please note that there are no custom animation features on any of the slides and the slide transition is set to the “Random Transition” Mode. PATHS Regions and PATHS Licensed Entities are encouraged to modify the slide transition mode and create custom animations if so desired. Introduce yourself and provide relevant information in regard to your background, education, current employment, and any other relevant personal and professional information. Welcome everyone to the class and ensure all candidates sign the Class Sign-In sheet. At the end of the class, please distribute the Class Evaluation forms. The following items will be used during the teaching of this module. Please distribute the respective items to the candidates at the appropriate time as indicated in the Instructor Notes. PowerPoint Presentation - Handout (3 slides per page so candidates can take notes) Lesson Application Point (L.A.P.) Note Page – Handout Eugenics Role Play Signs – Handout Eugenic Role Play – Handout History of Services Timeline – Handout History of IDEA – Handout Fact Sheet- Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) – Handout Fact Sheet – Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act - Handout Optional Video Resources that instructors may want to review as preparation for the class are listed below. A Little History Worth Knowing , narrated by Ron Lofton, © Irene Ward and Associates, 1998, (on DVD) Abandoned to Their Fate , by Phillip Ferguson, Ph.D. © University of Oregon, 1997,  (on VHS tape only) Unforgotten, Twenty-Five Years After Willowbrook , © Unforgotten Enterprises Ltd., 2002,  (on DVD only) All films distributed by: Program Development Associates 5620 Business Ave, Suite B Cicero, NY 13030 (p) 1-800-543-2119 Website: http://.pdassoc.com/ Or also located at www.disabilitytraining.com
  • Instructor Notes Review the objectives and answer any questions the candidates may have about them. It is helpful if the objectives are posted in the room so when the appropriate time comes during the class, the instructor can remind the candidates of a specific objective as it is covered in the material. The instructor can also check to see if the candidates have gained the knowledge or skill that the objective demands after the material is taught.
  • Instructor Notes Distribute the Lesson Application Point (L.A.P.) Note Page to the candidates and review the question(s) on the handout. Ask the candidates to reflect on the question(s) throughout the class and be prepared to respond to these question(s) at the end of the class. Encourage the candidates to keep the Lesson Application Point (L.A.P.) Note Page close at hand so they can record ideas throughout the class of how knowledge learned can be applied to their daily practice.
  • Instructor Notes Throughout history, society has viewed people with disabilities in different ways. Depending on the era, people with developmental disabilities have been viewed as "holy innocents" and as menaces to society, as less than human, as burdens on society or as completely incapable of independent, rational thought or action. Regardless of the time period, however, society has tended to view people with disabilities as a group, not as individuals . Ask the class to name more terms and concepts they have heard from history and from current language used to demean and stereotype people with disabilities. Write the terms the candidates provide on a flip chart. Discuss Stereotypes Regarding People With Disabilities – ask the class to list common stereotypes that exist for people with developmental disabilities. Examples include the following: People with disabilities are different from fully human people ; they are partial or limited people. The successful disabled person is superhuman , triumphing over adversity in a way which serves as an example to others; the impairment gives disabled persons a chance to exhibit virtues they didn't know they had, and teach the rest of us patience and courage. The burden of disability is unending; life with a disabled person is a life of constant sorrow. People with disabilities and their families--the "noble sacrificers"--are the objects of charity; their function is to inspire feelings of kindness and generosity. A disability is a sickness , something to be fixed, an abnormality to be corrected or cured. Tragic disabilities are those with no possibility of cure, or where attempts at cure fail. People with disabilities are a menace to others, to themselves, and to society. This is especially true of people with a mental disability. People with disabilities are consumed by rage and anger at their loss and at those who are not disabled. Those with mental disabilities lack the moral sense that would restrain them from hurting others or themselves. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.htm A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes People who starred in these “freak shows” were often not granted ordinary human status, but they were not despised. They were often exploited, but they were usually well cared for since they had an economic value. Many of them earned money to build lives for themselves away from the exhibition. Facilitate a discussion with the class by asking the following questions: Would “freak shows” be considered unacceptable and cruel today? Are there modern day examples of the Freak Show? (to some degree there is, people with differences in physical appearances and abilities are still displayed to the public (willingly) in some carnival shows. An internet search will display modern examples, which the instructor may wish to display for the class, carefully pointing out that the dehumanizing of people with disabilities still exists to some degree today. References : A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes This slide contains a picture of a Freak show entitled, “Appleton’s Tianga Jungle Girl Show” that featured a woman with physical abnormalities.
  • Instructor Notes Samuel Gridley Howe was born in Boston on November 10, 1801. In 1831, Howe visited Paris where he studied new methods of educating the blind. Inspired by what he had seen in Paris, in 1832 Howe established the Perkins School for the Blind in Boston. Howe soon emerged as the country's leading expert on the subject. In 1865, Howe became chairman of the Massachusetts Board of State Charities and over the next nine years strenuously lobbied Congress to pass legislation to provide more aid for the education of the blind, deaf and mentally ill. Samuel Gridley Howe died on January 9, 1876. References : Samuel Gridley Howe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Gridley_Howe
  • Instructor Notes The belief that institutionalizing children with disabilities was the “right thing to do” remained part of our culture until the last few decades. The families of many people currently served received the message from their physicians that putting the child in an institution was the best course of action. Heartbreaking decisions were made by many families, who had few if any resources of information or assistance. Ask the question “ In your opinion is there a difference of opinion in our society about whether institutionalization is an acceptable form of care for people with disabilities?” W elcome open sharing of ideas. References : Samuel Gridley Howe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Gridley_Howe
  • Instructor Notes This is a picture of the Asylum for the Deaf and blind, built in 1856.
  • Instructor Notes Stress the rapid growth of the institutional form of care during this time period. Facilitate a discussion about the candidates ideas of the reasons for this rapid growth of institutions. Two primary reasons for the growth of institutions were the social stigma of having a family member with “mental retardation” and a growing concern in society that individuals with “mental retardation” were a danger to others. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes It was generally felt that society may be improved by restricting the reproduction of people with disabilities. However the pervasive public perception that individuals with disabilities were a threat, and that disabilities were caused by immoral behaviors of the family had a very negative impact. During this time period, there was more open advocating for sterilization of people with disabilities in order to stop more people with disabilities from being born. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes It was generally felt that society may be improved by restricting the reproduction of people with disabilities. However the pervasive public perception that individuals with disabilities were a threat, and that disabilities were caused by immoral behaviors of the family had a very negative impact. During this time period we see more open advocating for sterilization of people with disabilities in order to stop more people with disabilities from being born. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes ER Johnstone, a giant in the field in the early 1900’s, elected president of National Association of Physicians in the field of disabilities services. The following is an excerpt from his acceptance speech for this position at their National Conference: “Our great aim is to eliminate this class, and in order to do this we must of necessity consider the elimination of the neurotic, blind, deaf, and consumptives, tramps, paupers, petty criminals, prostitutes, etc., as well as the hereditary insane, epileptics and imbeciles.” Facilitate a discussion with the candidates about what they think of this attitude coming from a leader in the field of providing services and care to individuals with disabilities. Emphasize that even within the services field the prevailing attitude was that society was better off without people with disabilities and that a common goal was to remove them from society and to eventually eliminate them. Institutional growth was on the rise and the quality of care in institutions declined in direct proportion to this. The devaluing of people with disabilities in society continued to grow as well, though there were still some segments of the medical profession which advocated treatment and care. During this time period, laws to prevent marriage of individuals with disabilities were beginning to be enacted. Involuntary sterilization was more accepted and euthanasia (killing or allowing to die) was being discussed in “scholarly” articles as another means of “controlling” the number of people who had “mental retardation.” References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes American Social Hygiene Posters In 1913, several organizations, interested in health issues, came together and formed the American Social Hygiene Association. It's purpose was to educate the public about venereal disease, to control and prevent its spread. These posters are from the "Keeping Fit" campaign. They would have appeared at the YMCA, YWCA's and progressive high schools. They preach general physical fitness as well as "eugenic" marriage (choosing mates with "good blood” and those that are free of Venereal Disease) Discuss the social stigma this sort of advertising (this and next slides) would cause toward families who had members with disabilities. Also the reaction that families would have toward their own family members (i.e., shame, wanting to hide them away). References : Social Hygiene Poster Series. (n.d.). University of Minnesota: Archives & Special Collections . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://special.lib.umn.edu/swha/exhibits/hygiene/index.htm
  • Instructor Notes The text of this slide reads: “Children get their basic qualities by inheritance. If they are to be strong, keen, efficient and great, there must be good blood back of them. If you want your children to be well-born, choose your husband because of fine qualities in his family as well as in himself. Then add the best training. These make a square deal for the children.” Facilitate a discussion with the candidates by asking the following questions: What might the unintended impact be on a family who have members with disabilities? Might those families be considered to have ‘bad blood?” How might many families feel about the impact of a disabled family member on the social standing of their family? References : Social Hygiene Poster Series. (n.d.). University of Minnesota: Archives & Special Collections . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://special.lib.umn.edu/swha/exhibits/hygiene/index.htm
  • Instructor Notes The picture on this poster is of a room where a woman has just given birth. The father is crying in the background, everyone appears distressed. The text on the slide reads: “Every child has a right to be well-born. If the father or mother has syphilis, the child may be born dead or defective.” Ask the class, “given the prevalence of these posters and this message in society how would you feel a family member with a disability would make your family look to your neighbors?” References : Social Hygiene Poster Series. (n.d.). University of Minnesota: Archives & Special Collections . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://special.lib.umn.edu/swha/exhibits/hygiene/index.htm
  • Instructor Notes The text in the poster reads: “a healthy, happy child is the greatest joy bringer in the world. Healthy, happy children are born of fathers and mothers who have kept their bodies vigorous and free from disease, their minds eager and interested, their aspirations high. What will you give your children?” Again on the surface this message is benign and encourages wholesome living. However, ask the class what the unintended consequence might be for parents who have children who are not considered to be healthy in the eyes of their neighbors? Might their neighbors wonder whether these parents have kept their bodies free from disease and other similar thoughts? Ask the class whether they feel the existence of a family member with a disability might cause the family to feel shame and embarrassment? Ask the class whether the prevailing societal attitude that disabilities were the result of alcoholism and immorality and that society generally believed that children with disabilities would grow up to become a threat to others in society, might cause families to more readily institutionalize their children with disabilities. References : Social Hygiene Poster Series. (n.d.). University of Minnesota: Archives & Special Collections . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://special.lib.umn.edu/swha/exhibits/hygiene/index.htm
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. Point out to the class that some of their grand parents or great grandparents were living at this time. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes This slide features an example of a pamphlet distributed by the Juvenile Protective Association of Cincinnati, Ohio making the case that the cause of many of society’s problems were ‘the feeble-minded’. References : Disability Campaigns in the United States. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/dd_camp2.html
  • Instructor Notes Inform the class that the belief that the practice of eugenics would benefit society was very prevalent and an accepted viewpoint in this time period. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes The Black Stork An example of the prevalence of the eugenical viewpoint and it’s general (but not total) acceptance by society is the film “the Black Stork” which was released in 1915. The film was inspired by the true case of Dr. Harry Haiselden, a Chicago surgeon who convinced the parents of a newborn with multiple disabilities to let the child die instead of performing surgery that would save the child’s life. In the film version of this story, Haiselden actually plays himself, portrayed as a wise doctor who attends the birth of a child born with congenital syphilis -- incurable at the time and a major cause of disabilities. Two other doctors interfere, in the film shown to be motivated by personal pride and misplaced benevolence, and try to convince the woman to save the child's life. In the film, the woman is forced to choose. This film prompted a surge of public opinion and newspaper editorials about whether lifesaving surgery should be performed on babies born with disabilities. The next activity will use actual editorials submitted to the newspapers debating the “pros” and “cons” of “allowing” the baby to live or to die.
  • Instructor Notes In this activity candidates will assume the role of newspaper editorial writers. There are ten “letters” from concerned citizens. Post the three Eugenics Role Play Signs on three different walls of the classroom. Ask for ten volunteers. Distribute one Eugenic Role Play letter handout to each volunteers. Ask each volunteer to take turns reading aloud their letter to the class. After each reading, facilitate a discussion with the candidates about whether the attitude displayed in the letter advocated which of the following: Allow the baby to die with no interventions/kill the baby. Provide medical intervention so that the baby will have a chance to live. A neutral position or no position expressed After the discussion of each letter, ask the candidates to stand under a sign representing the view held by the writer. The can choose one of the following signs: “ Let the baby die/Kill the baby”. “ Help the baby live.” “ Neutral” The point should be made that in 1916 when these letters were written, the letters commending the doctor's course in letting the baby die are approximately four times as many as those that condemn him. This is not a scientific study of these letters to the editors, but underscores the pervasive attitudes of society at this time toward people with disabilities.
  • Instructor Notes In 1900, Henry Goddard was appointed Director of the Research Laboratory at The Vineland Training School . During his 12-year term as Director, he made many breakthroughs in the budding field of “ mental science .” Notable studies include the English translation of the Binet IQ tests, his work with intelligence testing at Ellis Island, his invention of the term “moron,” and his best selling book The Kallikak Family . Goddard was an avid proponent of the Eugenicist movement. Dr. Goddard believed that feeblemindedness was an inherited trait, therefore the “disease” could theoretically be eliminated all together by sterilizing feeble-minded individuals so they could no longer reproduce. Henry Goddard’s book The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeblemindedness was one of the many best-selling books that led to the enactment of sterilization laws. However, it is interesting to note that this book was almost entirely fiction. The book depicts Martin Kallikak, a Revolutionary War solider, and the descendents of two family lines that he founded. The first family line was produced by Martin Kallikak and a virtuous Quaker woman that he married. The descendents of this “wholesome” line were upstanding citizens with no signs of mental retardation. The second family line was produced by an illicit affair Martin Kallikak had with a “wayward girl.” The result of this union lead to generations of criminals, invalids, and feeble-minded individuals. The Kallikak Family was published in Germany in 1914, and again in 1933 when the Nazis came to power. It was a best seller in Germany and influenced the acceptance of eugenics there.
  • Instructor Notes Harry Laughlin was director of the Eugenics Record Office. He wrote the Model Eugenical Sterilization Law to help states have a better legal position to force sterilization on individuals with disabilities. Laughlin was trying to improve the legal success rate of states who attempted to involuntarily sterilize people. Laughlin deduced that much of the state sterilization legislation was poorly worded and left it open to questions of constitutionality. As a result, Laughlin drafted the "model law" for compulsory sterilization which would satisfy these difficulties, and published them in his 1922 This model law included as subjects for eugenic sterilization: the feeble minded, the insane, criminals, epileptics, alcoholics, blind persons, deaf persons, deformed persons, and indigent persons. An additional 18 states passed laws based on Laughlin's model, including Virginia in 1924. The first person ordered sterilized in Virginia under the new law was Carrie Buck (see next slide for details on Carrie Buck). Nazi Germany passed the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring in 1933, loosely based on Laughlin's model. He received an honorary degree from Heidelburg University (Germany) in 1936 for his work on behalf of the “Science of Racial Cleansing” which influenced Adolf Hitler. Reports about the extensive use of compulsory sterilization in Germany began to appear in US newspapers. By the end of the decade, eugenics had become associated with Nazism and poor science. Oddly enough Laughlin was himself an epileptic. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Carrie Buck, a person who had mild mental retardation, was the 17 year old daughter of a woman with mental retardation. After having been raped by the nephew of her foster parents, she gave birth to a daughter. Because she gave birth out of wedlock, Carrie was said to be sexually promiscuous and therefore fit the law’s description of a “probable potential parent of socially inadequate offspring.” References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes The opinion of the United States Supreme Court was that it would be in the best interests of the world to prevent those Justice Holmes referred to as ‘manifestly unfit’ from being born. Carrie was the first person involuntarily sterilized under Virginia’s law. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. Facilitate a discussion with the candidates by asking the following question: “ Given these statistics, what changes do you predict were seen in the institutions for people with disabilities?” References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Read the quote on this slide. Foster Kennedy is known as “the father of neuroscience ” and one of the founders of neuroscience. The American Journal of Psychiatry printed an editorial following Kennedy's article, endorsing Kennedy's approach and emphasizing the important role that all psychiatrists could play in letting parents know that euthanizing severely disabled children was humane and that it was kind to put an end to what Kennedy had termed "nature's mistakes.”
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. The Nazi’s sterilization and extermination practices served to help dampen the general acceptance of the eugenics movement in the United States. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes This slide features Nazi Germany’s version of eugenics propaganda- "You are bearing this too," informing the German worker that a “hereditarily ill” person costs 50,000 RM’s (German currency) to maintain until he or she has reached the age of 60. (from Death and Deliverance - 'Euthanasia' in Germany 1900-1945 by Michael Burleigh) References : Disability Campaigns in the United States. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/dd_camp2.html
  • Instructor Notes Review the details on the slide. References : Hartheim Euthanasia Center www.HolocaustResearchProject.org. (n.d.). Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/euthan/hartheim.html
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. References : A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Some of the stigma of having a family member with a disability was lessened after thousands of disabled soldiers returned home. Society made provisions for them to re-enter the work force and society in general. The first vocational rehabilitation acts were passed by the U.S. Congress in the 1920’s to provide services to World War I veterans with disabilities. Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities began to change. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Attitudes favoring sterilization began to change somewhat in the early 1940’s. It was recognized that sterilization did not reduce the number of “mental defectives.” The Nazi use of sterilization had a negative impact on its being accepted in the United States. The beginning of the “parents’ movement” emerged during this time period. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. Facilitate a discussion with the candidates about what they think the result of overcrowding, waiting lists, and poor staff/resident rations might be on the lives of the people who were institutionalized? References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Show the DVD Lest We Forget: Silent Voices References: Lyons, M. R. (Director). (2007). Lest We Forget: Silent Voices [Documentary]. USA: Partners in Community Living.
  • Instructor Notes This is a picture of a large state developmental center in Syracuse, New York. This and the following photographs are used with permission of Human Policy Press at Syracuse University. Many of the photographs were taken from the famous book Christmas in Purgatory , written by Burton Blatt, who used a hidden camera to snap photos of the horrible conditions under which people lived in an institution as late as the 1960’s. The resulting book caused a sensation and led to some reforms in institutional care for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Christmas In Purgatory is available through: Human Policy Press Syracuse University P.O. Box 35127 Syracuse, NY 13235 (p) 315-443-2761 (f) 315-443-4338 Email: [email_address] Website: http:// thechp.syr.edu/HumanPolicyPress /
  • Instructor Notes Emphasize that most persons who grew up in state operated institutions were left to meet their own needs and had very few interactions of a positive nature. Read aloud the following quote when this slide is shown: "In each of the dormitories for severely retarded residents, there is what is euphemistically called a day room or recreation room. The odor in each of these rooms is overpowering…Floors are sometimes wooden and excretions are rubbed into the cracks, leaving permanent stench. Most day rooms have a series of bleacher benches, on which sit unclad residents, jammed together, without purposeful activity…” Photo used with permission of Human Policy Press, Syracuse University, 2006. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes This photo is of a woman clutching a baby doll. It is not clear how old the woman is, but many institutionalized persons were often seen as and treated as if they were children even into later years of their lives. Photo used with permission of Human Policy Press, Syracuse University, 2006. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes This is a picture of a young boy whose hands are tied. He is left to spend his time on a wooden bench. The fluid on the floor is probably his urine. Children were typically treated this way, often restrained if they presented any challenge whatsoever. Photo used with permission of Human Policy Press, Syracuse University, 2006. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes This child’s hands are strapped together and she is probably also strapped to the chair. Read aloud the following quote when this slide is shown: "We saw children with hands tied and legs bound. After discussions with attendants and supervisors in the four institutions, we were convinced that one of the major reasons for the heavy use of solitary confinement and physical restraints was the extraordinary shortage of staff…Almost in desperation (an attendant) asked us, 'What can one do with those patients who do not conform? We must lock them up, or restrain them, or sedate them, or put fear into them.’” Photo used with permission of Human Policy Press, Syracuse University, 2006. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes This is a picture of a group of children who are left in a day room, again with little or no interaction from anyone who would add positive interaction. Photo used with permission of Human Policy Press, Syracuse University, 2006. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes Typically, state hospitals were named “lunatic asylums,” and even if the name “state center” was used, one could begin to see that providing care or cure was not the focus as it once had been in the very first days of attempting to implement the “medical model.” Photo used with permission of Human Policy Press, Syracuse University, 2006. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes Again, here is a picture of an even younger child in a room lined with cribs. There could often be rooms with over 100 children crammed together in cribs. It was sometimes possible to walk across such rooms from bed to bed without touching the floor. Read aloud the following quote when this slide is shown: "The infant dormitories depressed us the most. Here, cribs were placed -- as in the other dormitories -- side by side and head to head. Very young children, one and two years of age, were lying in cribs, without interaction with any adult, without any playthings, without any apparent stimulation… In other day rooms, we saw groups of 20 and 30 very young children lying, rocking, sleeping, sitting -- alone.” References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes This is a photograph of a state institution in Barre, Massachusetts. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes This is a child lying on the floor, unattended, and he is strapped to the wall. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes This slide is a picture of adolescent girls. References : Blatt, B., & Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory . New York: Human Policy Press.
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. Though many very negative conditions existed, activism and advocacy on behalf of people with disabilities was accelerating rapidly. References : Disability Social History Project - Timeline. (n.d.). Disability Social History Project . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.disabilityhistory.org/timeline_new.html A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. The Kennedy family, who had a family member with a disability, were instrumental in helping to shift public opinion regarding people with disabilities. References : A CHRONOLOGY OF THE DISABILITY RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. (n.d.). San Francisco State University . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm
  • Instructor Notes Facilitate a discussion with the candidates about the importance of the Kennedy family, a highly respected family, coming forward with the fact they had a family member with a disability and the impact this had on changing the “stigma” of having a family member with a disability. References : Nilsson, J. (n.d.). Eunice Kennedy Shriver 1921-2009 | The Saturday Evening Post. The Saturday Evening Post | SaturdayEveningPost.com . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2009/08/13/archives/retrospective/eunice-kennedy-shriver-19212009.html
  • Instructor Notes This slide features a quote from Dr. Michael Wilkins, who alerted Geraldo Rivera to the conditions at Willowbrook, a state institution in New York. This expose of Willowbrook led to a greater understanding by the general public of deplorable conditions of institutions. References : The Mike Wilkins, M.D. Collection on the Willowbrook State School, Archives & Special Collections, Department of the Library, College of Staten Island, CUNY, Staten Island, New York.
  • Instructor Notes This slide features a quote from Geraldo Rivera reminiscing about the situation he reported on at Willowbrook State School 34 years earlier. References : Unforgotten: 25 Years After Willowbrook. New York : City Lights Home Video, c. 2002. 1 videodisc (DVD) (56 minutes).
  • Instructor Notes Emphasize that though it is important to know the failings of society in terms of its treatment of individuals with disabilities in the past, it is imperative that we look to the future and guard against a recurrence of these issues. References : Maya Angelou quotes. (n.d.). Find the famous quotes you need, ThinkExist.com Quotations. . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/history-despite_its_wrenching_pain-cannot_be/338143.html
  • Instructor Notes This slide features another quote from Geraldo Rivera reminiscing about the situation he reported on at Willowbrook State School 34 years earlier. References : Unforgotten: 25 Years After Willowbrook. New York : City Lights Home Video, c. 2002. 1 videodisc (DVD) (56 minutes).
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide.
  • Instructor Notes Distribute the History of Services Timeline handout to the candidates as a reference. Distribute the following handouts to the candidates: History of IDEA Fact Sheet- Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Fact Sheet – Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act Passed by Congress in 1973, Section 504 is a single sentence in the Rehabilitation Act , a law primarily intended to fund vocational rehabilitation programs for people with disabilities. According to federal regulations enacted in 1977, state and local governments and other organizations receiving federal funds are required to provide “reasonable accommodations” to persons with disabilities. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act , which was later renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) by Congress, was passed in 1975. IDEA, (Public Law 94-142) requires states receiving federal special education funds to ensure that all children with disabilities receive a “free, appropriate public education.” According to this law, states must assure that students with disabilities receive special education and related services for free and in accord with an individual written education program (IEP). Students with disabilities must be educated in the “least restrictive environment” appropriate. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which was passed in 1990, was intended to eliminate discrimination against people with Disabilities. Entities must make reasonable accommodations to qualified individuals with disabilities unless these would impose an undue hardship. References : OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. (n.d.). Twenty-Five Years of Progress in Educating Children with Disabilities Through IDEA. ED.gov U.S. Department of Education . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/leg/idea/history.pdf.
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. Emphasize that this is still the work and focus of the field today.
  • Instructor Notes Discuss points made in the slide Though there is much that needs to be done, reforms and advances occur on many fronts in the advocacy battle.
  • Instructor Notes Review the following quote from Dr. Gunnar Dybwad. One of the defining moments of Dr. Gunnar Dybwad's work came in 1969, when he persuaded the leaders of the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children to sue on behalf of children with disabilities The case, PARC versus Pennsylvania, is credited with establishing the rights of children with disabilities to get a free and equal public education. In more than a dozen lawsuits, some of which went to the US Supreme Court, the courts established due process rights and guarantees to the right of persons with disabilities to lead normal lives in the community. With these cases Gunnar Dybwad framed “mental disability” as a public civil right rather than as charity or a medical/social issue.
  • Instructor Notes Bernard was born with Cerebral Palsy. He had been told that doctors let his frightened, immigrant mother sit unattended too long in an emergency room where she had gone for help to ease the pain of premature birth. Three years later those same doctors mis-diagnosed Bernard. They told his mother he was mentally retarded and advised her to place him in the Willowbrook State School on Staten Island. She did. He remained there for the next 18 years of his life. Since then, Bernard has transformed himself into a major force in the movement for self-advocacy in New York and across the nation.
  • Instructor Notes Though we have made great strides in the past few decades, it is important for each of us to be vigilant and questioning of attitudes which pose a threat to individuals with disabilities. Ask the class whether -Dr. Singer’s comments are dangerous to people with disabilities, -whether the class agrees or disagrees with him and -whether they feel his attitudes are common or uncommon in today’s society.
  • Instructor Notes Review the points on the slide. Our challenge is to find ways to find was to demonstrate these principles, especially to the staff who work with us… How do societal forces work against these principles?
  • Instructor Notes Read the challenge on this slide. Ask the candidates to commit to working to make this vision a reality.
  • Instructor Notes Read quote from slide. Emphasize to class that many of the very detrimental things which happened to individuals with disabilities in the past did not happen all that long ago. It is conceivable that society can return so some of it’s previous attitudes and actions against individuals with disabilities. The individuals in this classroom should consider themselves that “small group of thoughtful, committed citizens”.
  • Instructor Notes Ask the candidates to pull out the Lesson Application Point (L.A.P.) Note Page they were given at the beginning of the class. Give them a few minutes to reflect on the question and write down their answers if they have not done so already. Emphasize that that it is critically important to apply what they are learning and to implement something from every class to make the learning experience worthwhile. Communicate to the candidates that we want them to “come as they are, but not leave as they were…” Or in other words to change in a positive way because of attending the class. Ask each candidate to share at least one thing they wrote down on their Lesson Application Point (L.A.P) Note Page . Encourage and affirm each candidate after they share what they are going to do.
  • Instructor Notes Read the quote on this slide to the class and then ask the candidates to complete the Class Evaluation form. Please collect the completed Class Evaluation forms and the Class Sign-In sheet and submit to the designated representative from the PATHS Region or PATHS Licensed Entity.
  • Transcript

    • 1. History of Services for People with Developmental Disabilities Planning for the Future While Learning from the Past CIP PATHS 103
    • 2. Class Objectives
      • To demonstrate an understanding of the trends in public care for people with developmental disabilities from the mid-1800s to the present.
      • To examine persistent issues involving the rights, roles, and status of the individual with disabilities.
      • Define several important terms that are prevalent in the field of intellectual and developmental disabilities.
      • To develop personal advocacy goals related to the welfare of individuals with disabilities.
    • 3. Lesson Application Point (L.A.P.)
    • 4. Mid 1800’s to Mid 1900’s De-humanization of People with Disabilities
      • People Exhibited for Profit - People put on public display, others charged to view.
      • Practice of purposefully worsening an existing disability to make the child more profitable.
    • 5. Freak Shows in the United States (1840-1940)
      • For one hundred years the “freak show” was one of America's most popular forms of entertainment.
      • It was in this time period that P.T. Barnum brought the “freak show” to prominence.
    • 6. Freak Shows
    • 7. First Institutions in the United States
      • The earliest institution for "defectives" and "feebleminded" persons in the United States was in Boston 1832, founded by Samuel Gridley Howe.
      • Howe's intent was to educate the "defectives" so that they could return to society. However, this was not what typically happened after an individual was institutionalized.
    • 8.
      • Samuel Gridley Howe warned against the building of large institutions. He felt that these "artificial communities" would lead to a much lower quality of life for people who lived in them.
      • Unfortunately, people did not listen to him. Over time institutionalization became an accepted practice.
      Samuel’s Warning
    • 9.
      • The Asylum For The Deaf And Dumb , 1856
    • 10. 1876-1885
      • In 1876 seven states, including Ohio, had institutions for the ‘feebleminded’.
      • By 1885 twenty states had institutions for people with disabilities.
      • Many felt that there was a direct link between “idiocy” and criminal behavior.
    • 11. 1886 - 1895
      • The Good
      • The need for more research on the causes of disabilities was stressed by the medical community.
      • Some advocated placing individuals in smaller county homes and alms houses, rather than segregating people in large institutions.
    • 12. 1886 - 1895
      • The Bad
      • Sterilization of people with disabilities was under wide consideration and discussion.
        • It was felt by many that people with disabilities were a threat to society.
      • Alcohol considered by many to be a cause of mental retardation.
        • Societal theme that there is a relationship between disabilities and immorality.
        • Disabilities are a thing for a family to be ashamed of, they reflect badly on the family.
    • 13. 1896 - 1905
      • E.R. Johnstone: expressed the choices available to control “feeblemindedness”: sterilization; segregation; and euthanasia.
      • Institutions were becoming overcrowded with waiting lists. Some institutions had populations of over 1000 people.
      • Many states enacted laws enabling institution Superintendents to keep the “feebleminded” indefinitely in the institution, and laws were passed to prevent their marriage.
    • 14. Social Hygiene Posters
    • 15.  
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18. 1906 - 1915
      • Segregation of the “feebleminded” into institutions was generally advocated.
      • Many family doctors told parents that their “feebleminded” children could be best cared for in an institution.
      • Some institutions had populations of over 1500.
      • Eight states had adopted sterilization laws by 1913. This period saw the beginning of the Eugenics Movement.
    • 19. “ Cincinnati's Problem," 1915. Cover of The Feeble-Minded , a pamphlet distributed by the Juvenile Protective Association of Cincinnati.
    • 20. The Eugenics Movement
      • Eugenics is the study of the “improvement” of the human race by controlled selective breeding .
      • The practice has involved involuntary sterilization , segregation of people with disabilities and the euthanasia (killing) of disabled and other undervalued people.
    • 21. “ Doctor to Let Defective Baby Expire Unaided He's Going to Let Her Baby Die: This Woman Says "It's for Best.“ Does Humanity Demand the Saving of Defective Babies?” 1915 “ A vivid pictorial drama that tells you why Dr. Haiselden is opposed to operating to save the lives of defective babies.”
    • 22. Should we Kill the Baby? Application Activity
    • 23.
      • In 1915 Henry Goddard wrote,
      • “ Of late we have recognized...the moron and have discovered that he is a burden; that he is responsible to a large degree for many, if not all of our social problems.”
    • 24.
      • In 1922 Harry Laughlin published a “Model Eugenical Sterilization Law” that proposed to sterilize the “socially inadequate.” These included “the feeble minded, the insane, criminals, epileptics, alcoholics, blind persons, deaf persons, deformed persons, and indigent persons.
    • 25.
      • In 1924 Virginia passed a Eugenic Sterilization Act which was based on Laughlin’s model law.
      • Carrie Buck, a 17 year old, was the first person involuntarily sterilized under Virginia’s law.
    • 26. Carrie Buck’s case was argued before the US Supreme Court. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote the opinion for the court which said… “ It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerative offspring for crime or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind… three generations of imbeciles are enough.”
    • 27. Eugenics & Sterilization
      • In Indiana in 1907 the first involuntary sterilization law in the country was enacted.
      • By 1911 Washington, California, Connecticut, and New Jersey enacted involuntary sterilization laws.
      • By 1930 a total of thirty three states had enacted such laws although in three states the laws were struck down as unconstitutional.
      • According to Ferster (1966), over 63,000 persons were involuntarily sterilized in the United States for genetically related reasons from 1921 to 1964.
    • 28. 1916 - 1925
      • The Good
      • The attitudes of some professionals shifted to advocating community placement, and special education in public schools; rather than sterilization and segregation. However, at this time, there was not widespread community acceptance of these ideas.
      • 171 cities had special education classes with enrollment of nearly 34,000.
    • 29. 1916 - 1925
      • The Bad
      • In 1917, Columbus State Institute had 2430 residents, twice that of ten years earlier.
      • Recruitment of institutional staff was a problem resulting from inadequate salaries and a stressful working environment.
      • In 1925, there were 89 private institutions, compared to 9 in 1893.
    • 30.
      • “ I believe when the defective child shall have reached the age of five years … then I believe it is a merciful and kindly thing to relieve that defective - often tortured and convulsed, grotesque and absurd, useless and foolish, and entirely undesirable - of the agony of living.”
      • Foster Kennedy 1942, the American Journal of Psychiatry on the ethics of killing children with severe disabilities.
    • 31. The Nazis & Eugenics (1920-1950)
      • Hitler's extermination practices began with the widespread killing of institutionalized disabled people in Germany in the 1940’s.
      • The eugenics theories, which were the basis for Hitler's policies originated in the United States, in the 1920’s.
      • Well over 100,000 people with disabilities were exterminated in Nazi Germany during this time period.
    • 32. Nazi Eugenics Propaganda
    • 33. Hartheim Castle, a "euthanasia" killing center where the physically and mentally disabled were killed by gassing and lethal injection. Hartheim, Austria.
    • 34. 1926 - 1935
      • By 1926, there were 56 state institutions in 43 states.
      • By 1927, 23 states had sterilization laws.
    • 35. The World Wars
      • In the first half of the 20th century, the United States' involvement in two world wars had a profound effect on the way people with disabilities were viewed and treated.
    • 36. 1936 - 1950
      • The Good
      • Attitudes favoring sterilization began to decrease somewhat in the early 1940’s.
      • The National Association for Retarded Children held its first meeting in 1950.
      • The National Foundation for Cerebral Palsy was created by various groups of parents of children with cerebral palsy (later became the United Cerebral Palsy Association).
    • 37. 1936 - 1950
      • The Bad
      • Many children were still being sent to institutions.
      • Institutionalization continued to increase resulting in overcrowding, waiting lists, and poor staff/resident ratios.
    • 38. Lest We Forget: Silent voices Application Activity
    • 39. Photo used with permission of Human Policy Press, Syracuse University, 2006.
    • 40.  
    • 41.  
    • 42.  
    • 43.  
    • 44.  
    • 45.  
    • 46.  
    • 47.  
    • 48.  
    • 49.  
    • 50. 1951 to 1970
      • Many Social Security Amendments addressing the needs and rights of individuals with disabilities.
      • The Autism society of America is founded by parents of children with autism
      • Christmas in Purgatory is published, documenting appalling conditions in state institutions.
    • 51.
      • In 1961: President Kennedy,
      • in an address to Congress,
      • calls for:
      • A reduction…
      • “ over a number of years and by hundreds of thousands, (in the number) of persons confined” to institutions,
      • and he asks that methods be found
      • “ to retain in and return to the community the mentally ill and mentally retarded, and there to restore and revitalize their lives through better health programs and strengthened educational and rehabilitation services.”
    • 52.
      • In 1962, Eunice Kennedy Shriver wrote an article in the Saturday Evening Post that discussed her sister Rose, who had a developmental disability, and how her family adjusted. Read by millions, the article further convinced parents that having a child or sibling with a developmental disability was no reason for feeling shame or guilt.
    • 53.
      • "The mentality was they don't feel discomfort, they don't feel illness… placing them in some sort of subhuman category."
      • Dr. Michael Wilkins (doctor at Willowbrook, who eventually “blew the whistle” on conditions there).
    • 54.
      • “ I knew it would be bad. It was horrible. This is what it looked like. This is what it sounded like. But how can I tell you about the way it smelled? It smelled of filth. It smelled of disease. It smelled of death. 34 years later, just repeating those words brings tears and remembered nightmares…The ward was crowded with children. Mostly naked, some were smeared with their own feces. Essentially unattended, they were everywhere, under sinks, knocking their heads against walls, one even lapping water from a toilet bowl.”
    • 55.
      • "History, despite its wrenching pain, cannot be unlived, but if faced with courage, need not be lived again." - Maya Angelou
    • 56.
      • “ Since then, though, even their hard lives have dramatically improved. From coast to coast, and really all across the civilized world, the big institutions are essentially history. The entire concept of warehousing human care has given way to the community-based model, which emphasizes personal attention and care.”
      • Geraldo Rivera, reflecting on changes in the lives of individuals since the Willowbrook expose.
    • 57. During the 1970’s and 1980’s
      • The Parents Movement
      • Public awareness of the conditions in institutions.
      • Lawsuits and activism to reverse inhumane treatment of individuals with disabilities.
    • 58. The Disability Rights Movement 1970’s to the Present
      • Disability activism in the United States has been directed at basic civil rights issues such as:
      • strengthening disability rights law
      • advocating for the education of children with disabilities "the least restrictive environment,"
      • organizing to support the enactment and implementation of the ADA.
    • 59. The Disability Rights Movement
      • Disability activism has also been directed at "independent living" issues such as:
        • Developing services and resources needed to support the independence of people with disabilities.
        • Expanding community living options.
        • Closing down institutions.
        • Expanding adaptive equipment and home modification services.
    • 60. 1971 to 1980
      • Important developments:
      • Amendment of the Fair Labor Standard Act to bring people with disabilities in the sheltered workshop system.
      • 1972, various court rulings making it illegal to exclude children with disabilities from public school.
      • 1974, first convention of People First .
      • 1975, Passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
      • 1979, The U.S. Supreme Court rules that, under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 , programs receiving federal funds must make “ reasonable modifications ” to enable the participation of otherwise qualified disabled individuals.
    • 61. “ Spontaneously, we had a worldwide revolution without really knowing what started it. They all said at the same time ‘enough is enough.’ And yet there was not one leader, not one movie or book, not one happening that affected everyone. In various countries, it started in various ways.” Gunnar Dybwad, a leader in the advocacy movement, speaking of the “quiet revolution” of parents of people with disabilities.
    • 62. Can We Learn from Mistakes Made in the Past?
      • "It's so important because we don't want history to repeat itself." Bernard Carabello, resident of Willowbrook.
      • If we bury the mistakes of the past,
      • we are destined to relive them in the
      • future.
      • We must be vigilant and
      • questioning when judging society’s attitudes
      • toward people who have disabilities.
    • 63.
      • “ Sometimes it is
      • reasonable to decide that
      • a life that has barely
      • begun should not
      • continue.”
      • Peter Singer, professor at Princeton University, In 2005. Dr. Singer asserts that there is no justification for regarding infants as having any more rights than animals and that parents of babies with certain disabilities should be given the right to order the death of the infant within the first 30days.
    • 64. Principles to Guide us in the Future
      • Disability is part of the human condition, one personal attribute, among many.
      • Individuals with disabilities have the right to live and fully participate in the social and economic life of the community.
      • Community life is richer when diversity is welcomed and the contributions of citizens with disabilities are recognized.
      • Community settings always offer more opportunities for growth, personal satisfaction and full participation than segregated settings.
    • 65. The Challenge
      • To provide the same high quality services and supports to people with disabilities which are now enjoyed by most individuals in most communities across the country.
    • 66. "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever does.” Margaret Mead
    • 67. Lesson Application Point (L.A.P.) Come as you are, but don’t leave as you were…
    • 68. “ Nobody made a greater mistake than the person who did nothing because they could only do a little. ” -Edmund Burke It’s time to do something!

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