Welcome to the Drug-Free Workplace Employee Training. Introduce yourself. In July 1997 the Ohio Bureau of Worker’s Compensation developed the Drug Free Workplace as an incentive program designed to help employers: Establish safer work environment Protect health and safety of employees Help your company stay competitive by reducing: Accidents Healthcare and other insurance costs Theft Other forms of loss This was actually in response to the federal Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988. This act has made it mandatory that all employers who bid on state-funded work sites and all commercial drivers must participate in Drug Free Workplace. Other administrations required: Federal Avaiation Admin US Coast Guard Federal Railroad Admin Federal Transit
Objectives of Drug Free Workplace Program : Improve safety and health in workplace through delivering, detecting, and taking corrective action against substance use Protect employees rights while buffering employers from legal liabilities Reduce Worker’s Compensation and insurance costs Save money through reduction in health care costs, theft, and other forms of loss. Educate the workforce be come more knowledgeable about substance abuse and resources available when help is needed.
Drug Free Workplace Five Basic Components Required : (All these are required for every level) Written Substance Abuse Policy Employee Educational Awareness Supervisor/Manager Training Drug & Alcohol Testing Employee Assistance Program We are here for the Employee Education portion. Provide you with information
What do you think is the most abused substance in the workplace? None of the substances we just discussed. It is alcohol. Next slide.
Research in one study indicated a doubled rate of injury on the job for users in compared to non-users.
Not a matter of if; but when for many users that they will need medical services for complications of usage. Hospital trauma rooms report that receive between 15% to 45% of patients under the influence of drug or alcohol. Also need to consider that if they don’t injure themselves they injury someone else.
Substance abusing employees cost money in terms of human resources. Recruiting, interviewing, training, and down time in productivity is expensive. During the late 1990’s the employment shortage was such that employers needed to fill positions quickly with whatever available person. Times have changed and selective hiring goes a long way in preventing problems in the workplace and creating a competitive company . Source of data on table: 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.
Heavy alcohol users defined as 5 or more drinks in one setting and on at least five days within the past 30 days. Binge drinking = 5 or more drinks within a day/setting.
Heavy alcohol users defined as 5 or more drinks in one setting and on at least five days within the past 30 days. Binge drinking = 5 or more drinks within a day/setting. Heavy alcohol users defined as 5 or more drinks in one setting and on at least five days within the past 30 days. Binge drinking = 5 or more drinks within a day/setting. Heavy alcohol users defined as 5 or more drinks in one setting and on at least five days within the past 30 days. Binge drinking = 5 or more drinks within a day/setting.
Both heavy and light alcohol have an impact. Light drinkers were defined as those having 13 or less drinks within 30 days. Because of the shear number of light drinkers, they, too, also have an impact the workplace. Don’t discount the impact of alcohol at all levels of ingestion: Light, medium, and heavy drinkers.
This last figure is from 1992. Since then employee substance usage has increased and so has the cost. Employers need to remain competitive in the workforce! Q: How serious is substance use in your company? Can you think of any lost productivity in your workplace in the past? PN :(Names not needed of cases)
Substance abuse degrades the work environment and the team approach to accomplishing tasks. Results in Alienation paradigm which increases stress. Non-users relate less cohesion in the workplace. Creates an environment where others have to work harder for the same wage to make up. PN : CAREFUL-If a theft occurs, it doesn't automatically mean the person with the substance abuse problem did it. No witch hunts/backwards logic! Q: Does Anyone have experience working with someone who uses? What was it like?
Table 1- 13% difference between the groups. More non-users say there is education provided by their employer. National Household Study. Overall for all business irrespective of size. PN: Caution in explaining: The National House Survey on Drug Abuse involved over 100,000 subjects. They then looked at Employed substance abusers as a whole and their answer as to whether their company provided substance abuse information. The same was done for non-users. Interpretation: Companies that provide information substance information/education are more likely to have more non-users . The same case exists for policy about substance abuse and the next slide.
Same source of previous slide.
A mid size company.
Early intervention helps save money. Even without any incentive from workers compensation in the State of Ohio, a drug free force policy and system makes sense and saves money. ROI=return on investment.
The million dollar question. Think about it! Regular substance abuse isn’t too far off from hitting yourself with a ball peen hammer. They both damage the brain. Discuss the differences between abuse and dependence. Both dependence and abuse are problems
Loss of Control : When it is a struggle for one to stop using once they start, or they are unable to stop, or they are unable to consistently abstain altogether. Compulsive pattern of use When one’s relationship to their drug of choice becomes central instead of unimportant. When one organizes their lifestyle to support using, and focuses energy on accessing and using their drug. Continued use despite negative Consequences When use goes on despite problems at work, legal or financial difficulties, failing health, physical injury, and breakdown of relationships and/or psychological problems.
Making excuses: “He’s having a rough day.” Cover up: “Chris is feeling under the weather today; he won’t be at work.” Picking up the slack: “I’ll take care of the last two parts; go rest a while.”
Some people derive great satisfaction out of making others feel better. However, by enabling the drug user to continue denying a problem exists or to ignore the problem, only allows the addiction to become more severe and harder to recover from. When the enabler defends the drug user’s action, or stands between them and the consequences of their behavior, they are hurting that individual, not helping.
Defending from supervisor – protecting them from the consequences by hiding or not reporting information Avoiding constructive criticism – again, not helping but hindering person’s recovery Getting angry, feeling guilty, then coming to their assistance. Believing that someone as smart, nice, young, old, responsible, hard working, happy, well off, etc. couldn’t have a problem with drugs or alcohol.
Refer to BWC Guide/Handbook / Your Policy All new employment must be tested within 90 days of hire. Reasonable suspicion testing is done as required. Drug testing no later than 32 hours. Alcohol testing within 8 hours. Post accident testing occurs immediately after accident (fatality, injury requiring off-site medical treatment, vehicular damage). Random Testing is an unannounced test that occurs at predetermined frequency. It is usually conducted by a computer program by an outside vendor: Mandatory – Level 2 – 10% of workforce Mandatory – Level 3 – 25% of workforce
Chain of Custody The chain of custody form is used to document and insure the safety of the handling and storage of the urine sample from the time it is collected until the time it is disposed of. This form links you to your urine specimen. It is written proof of all that happens to the specimen while at the collection site and the laboratory. Initial Screen The first test done on a urine sample is called the initial screen. This test alone is not always accurate or reliable. If the initial screen is positive, a second test should be done. Confirmed Test A second confirmation test is done with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This is a highly accurate test and will rule out any false positives from the initial screen. For a test result to be reported as positive, both test results must agree. Medical Review Officer (MRO) A medical review officer is a licenses medical doctor who has special training in the are of substance abuse. If there is a positive drug test, the MRO reviews the results, makes sure the chain of custody procedures were followed, and contacts the employee to make sure there are no medical or other reasons for the result. It is only at this point that he MRO may report the positive test result to the employer. Medications can sometimes cause a positive test result. If this is the case, and if a doctor prescribed the medicine, the test is reported as negative. Positive Results – Employees cannot return to safety sensitive positions until cleared. Follow-up test serves as return to duty test.
Recommended treatment for drug and/or alcohol addiction varies depending on a number of factors: Severity of problem Availability of a support system Financial concerns Individual’s motivation Previous experience in treatment All are considered when counselor determining action plan Outpatient – Can either be individual or group counseling, averaging 1-2 hours weekly for 6 weeks to several months. Intensive Outpatient – Combination of individual and group treatment lasting 3-4 hours a day at least 3 days a week for several months. Detoxification Hospitalization –For 1-3 days to clear one’s body of chemicals while under a doctor’s care. Usually followed by further treatment in an outpatient or residential program. Residential Treatment – Involves living at a facility for 7-21 days while attending individual and group therapy, education assistance, and recreational activities. For those who cannot stop without being in a drug free environment. Self-Help Groups – Groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous.
The team approach builds cohesion among members and makes for a better work environment. Make employees feel a partnership. Small alienated groups of employees are not healthy. Be active and interested in your employees as people. Know how they are doing and express interest and recognition to them. Are your policies incongruent? “it’s OK to get smashed at a company picnic.” Allowing employees to drive home intoxicated from the Christmas party. Is there bragging and sensationalized talk about drinking? “I drank a whole case on Friday and was just smashed.” This is most common in adolescence, but also by substance abusers.” Examples from TOP down work best.
Drug Free Workplace Employee Training Havar Inc.
Between 20-40% of all substance abusers are admitted at some time to the hospital because of complications of their usage.
Up to 40% of industrial fatalities and 47% of industrial injuries can be linked to alcohol and alcoholism.
Impact on the Work Environment 15.4% 24.8% Voluntarily quit in the past year 5.0% 12.9% Skipped 1 or more days a month 4.3% 9.3% Work for more then 3 employers in 1 year Non-Drug User Drug User Work Outcome
Impact on the Work Environment 15.8% 19.7% Voluntarily quit in the past year 5.1% 11.3% Skipped 1 or more days a month 4.4% 8.0% Work for more then 3 employers in 1 year Non-Heavy Alcohol User Heavy Alcohol User Work Outcome
Non-users and users were asked if their company provided an Employee Assistance Program
51.1% of non-users said yes
34.5% of users said yes
Case Study: Mid-Size Company Chamberlain Contractors of Maryland with 75 employees implemented a substance abuse program. The program cost $7,600 per year. Estimated savings are in excess of $120,000 in fewer accidents and lower claims and insurance premiums