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Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
Components license
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Components license

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  • 1. On the provenance of Free and Open Source Software and the legal implications of its reuse based on A Method for Open Source License Compliance of Java Applications, IEEE Software May-June 2012 (vol. 29 no. 3) Daniel M German Professor Department of Computer Science University of Victoria
  • 2. IP is an engineering problem too ● Sure, Intellectual Property is the realm of lawyers ● But software engineers have to fix it.
  • 3. Open Source ● Open Source – software licensed under an open source license ● Open source LicenseOpen source License – allows the creation of derivative works – and their redistribution As long as some conditions are satisfied
  • 4. Reuse and Open Source ● FOSS materialized Component-Off-The-Shelf software engineering – Huge pool of components ready to be used – Free but with a price: ● Comply with the license
  • 5. FOSS is everywhere today ● Used by both organizations and individuals – Part of many commercial products ● OS X, Android, many embedded devices ● Created by many commercial companies – Apple, Google, HP, Ebay, Amazon, Samsung, IBM, TI, Oracle, etc.
  • 6. “The way software is built is changing” —Scott Patterson Previous Senior Legal Counsel, HP
  • 7. Software architectures are complex ● Frameworks ● Libraries ● Plug-ins ● Operating systems ● Scripts ● Toolkits Each comes with its own license
  • 8. Not so simple
  • 9. Reuse is Easy ● Re-using FOSS is very easy – Black box: ● reuse as a component – White box: ● Clone: copy entire product own's code base ● Cut-and-paste: copy snippets
  • 10. But Risky ● Most developers don't have training in licensing ● Many think they do but don't ● Most organizations lack policies regarding use of FOSS * Sojer and Henkel 2010
  • 11. Open Source License Compliance ● It is in need of tool support – Mostly provided by (expensive) organizations ● Blackduck, Palamida, OpenLogic ● Treat everything as Trade Secret ● License Compliance can't trust anybody ● Developers/Suppliers: – Don't know, forget, ignore, lie ...
  • 12. The big questions ● Who are you and where did you come from? – Provenance discovery ● What role do you play? – Architectural discovery ● Does your mother know you are here? – License discovery
  • 13. Provenance is Complicated ● Was this source file: – Locally developed? – Copied? ● If copied: – What is the source? ● Can we trust the source?
  • 14. Software Bertillonage ● Measure certain properties of a software system – Use these properties to create classifications and reduce search space ● Joa: – Bertillonage for Java – Based on Class and Method signatures – Capable of matching binaries and source – Open Source (GPLv2+) – http://github.com/dmgerman/joa
  • 15. Joa helps determine what is in binary
  • 16. The general problem is harder ffmpeg libavfilter
  • 17. License Identification ● Once you know the original code – What is its license? – Ninka ● Identify license from source code ● Open source (AGPLv3+) ● http://github.com/dmgerman/ninka
  • 18. Ninka ● Design goals: – To sacrifice recall for the sake of accuracy ● Rather be safe then wrong ● Support “I don't know” – To be faster than fossology – To support the most common licenses, yet be extensible – To have a very simple “pipe” architecture ● Collection of small tools ● The output of one feeds into the other
  • 19. Component level composition ● Requires architectural analysis ● How are components connected? – Type of connection? ● Linking? Dynamic? Static? ● Fork/System exec? ● Web service? ● RPC?
  • 20. Putting all Pieces Together
  • 21. Conclusions ● FOSS reuse is here to stay ● Organizations should be careful on how they reuse FOSS – FOSS License Compliance ● Software is needed to help ● We have implemented a method to help in license compliance of Java Applications – Joa: provenance – Ninka: licensing

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