Chapter 8: Human Resources


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Chapter 8: Human Resources

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Human Resource Management
  2. 2. Learning Goals1 Explain the role and responsibilities of 5 Discuss employee separation and human resource management. the impact of downsizing and outsourcing.2 Describe how recruitment and selection contribute to placing the right person in a 6 Explain the different methods and job. theories of motivation.3 Discuss how orientation, training 7 Discuss the role of labor unions, the programs, and performance appraisals collective bargaining process, and help companies develop their employees. methods for settling labor- management disputes.4 Describe how firms compensate employees through pay systems and benefit programs.
  3. 3. HRM: Vital to ALL Organizationss Human resource management - function of attracting, developing, and retaining employees who can perform the activities necessary to accomplish organizational objectives. Three main objectives: 1) Providing qualified, well-trained employees for the organization. 2) Maximizing employee effectiveness in the organization. 3) Satisfying individual employee needs through monetary compensation, benefits, opportunities to advance, and job satisfaction.
  4. 4. Human Resource Responsibilities
  5. 5. Recruitment and Selections Recruiting techniques continue to evolve as technology advances.s Internet recruiting is quick, efficient, and inexpensive. s Reach a large pool of job seekers – s Use social networking sitess HR must be creative in searching for qualified employees.s Businesses look both internally and externally.
  6. 6. Selecting and Hiring Employees s Must follow legal requirements. s Civil Rights Act of 1964 s American with Disabilities Act s Equal Employment Opportunity Commissio programs s Civil Rights Act of 1991 s Failure to follow these exposes company to risk of litigation. s Hiring is a costly process for employers. s Some employers require employment tests.
  7. 7. Orientation and Trainings Newly-hired employee often completes an orientation program s Inform employees about company policies s Employee manuals s Describe benefits/programs s Trainings Training Programs s On-the-job training s Classroom and computer-based training s Management development
  8. 8. Performance Appraisalss Performance appraisal - evaluation of and feedback on an employee’s job performance.s Some firms conduct peer reviews while other firms allow employees to review their supervisors and managers.s May conduct a 360-degree performance review, a process that gathers feedback from a review panel that includes co-workers, supervisors, team members, subordinates, and sometimes customers.
  9. 9. Compensations Wages - compensation based on an hourly pay rate or the amount of output produced.s Salary - compensation calculated on a periodic basis, such as weekly or monthly.s Most firms base compensation decisions on five factors: s What competing companies are paying s Government regulation s The cost of living s Company profits s Employee’s productivity
  10. 10. Incentive Compensation
  11. 11. Employee Benefitss Employee Benefits - additional compensation, such as vacation, retirement plans, profit-sharing, health insurance, gym memberships, child and elder care, and tuition reimbursement, paid entirely or in part by the company.s 30% of total employee compensation.s Some benefits required by law: s Social Security and Medicare contributions s State unemployment insurance and workers’ compensation programss Costs of health care are increasingly being shifted to workers.s Retirement plans have become a big area of concern for businesses.
  12. 12. Costs for Employee Compensation
  13. 13. Flexible Benefitss Employees are provided a range of options from which they can choose. s Medical, dental, vision, life, and disability insurances Many companies also offer flexible time off policies instead of establishing a set number of holidays, vacation days, and sick days.s 56% of companies surveyed use paid time off (PTO) programs. s More than ½ claim they have reduced unscheduled absences
  14. 14. Flexible Works Allow employees to adjust their working hours and places of work to accommodate their personal needs.s Flextime allows employees to set their own work hours within constraints specified by the firm.s A compressed workweek allows employees to work the regular number of weekly hours in fewer than the typical five days.s A job sharing program allows two or more employees to divide the tasks of one job.s A home-based work program allows employees, or telecommuters, to perform their jobs from home instead of at the workplace. s More than 70 percent of Generation Y professionals are concerned with balancing career with personal life
  15. 15. Employee Separations Voluntary turnover: employees leave firms to start their own businesses, take jobs with other firms, move to another city, or retire. s Some firms ask employees who leave voluntarily to participate in exit interviews to find out why they decided to leave. s Successful companies are clearly focused on retaining their best workers.s Involuntary turnover: employers terminate employees because of poor job performance, negative attitudes toward work and co-workers, or misconduct such as dishonesty or sexual harassment. s Necessary because poor performers lower productivity and employee morale. s Employers must carefully document reasons when terminating employees.
  16. 16. Downsizing/Outsourcings Downsizing - process of s Outsourcing – transferring reducing the number of jobs from inside a firm to employees within a firm by outside the firm eliminating jobs s To save expenses ands Downsizing has negative remain flexible, companies effects: will try to outsource functions s Anxiety, health problems, that are not part of their core and lost productivity business. among remaining s Although outsourcing might workers work on paper, the reality s Expensive severance might be different. packages paid to laid-off workers s A domino effect on the local economy
  17. 17. Motivating Employeess Motivation starts with good employee morale, the mental attitude of employees toward their employer and job.s High employee morale occurs in organizations where workers feel valued, heard, and empowered to contribute what they do best.s Poor morale shows up through absenteeism, voluntary turnover, and lack of motivation.
  18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needss Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: people have five levels of needs that they seek to satisfy.s A satisfied need is not a motivator; only needs that remain unsatisfied can influence behavior.s People’s needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance; once they satisfy one need, at least partially, another emerges and demands satisfaction. s Physiological needs s Safety needs s Social (belongingness) needs s Esteem needs s Self-actualization needs
  19. 19. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theorys Hygiene Factors – s Motivator Factors – result in satisfaction can produce high levels s Job Environment of motivation if present s Salary s Achievement s Job Security s Recognition s Personal Life s Advancement s Working Conditions s The Job Itself s Status s Growth Opportunities s Interpersonal Relations s Responsibility s Supervision s Company Policies
  20. 20. Expectancy Theory & Equity Theorys Expectancy Theory – s Equity Theory – describes the process individual’s perception of people use to evaluate the fair and equitable likelihood that their efforts treatment will yield the results they want, along with the degree to which they want those results
  21. 21. Goal-Setting Theorys Goal: target, objective, or result that someone tries to accomplishs Goal-setting theory -- people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement
  22. 22. Management by Objectives Systematic and organized approach that allows managers to focus on attainable goals and to achieve the best results based on the organization’s resources.s MBO helps motivate individuals by aligning their objectives with the goals of the organization, increasing overall organization performance.s MBO principals: s A series of related organizations, goals, and objectives s Specific objectives for each individual s Participative decision making s Set time period to accomplish goals s Performance evaluation and feedback
  23. 23. Job Design & Motivations Job enlargement: job design that expands an employee’s responsibilities by increasing the number and variety of tasks assigned to the workers Job enrichment: involves an expansion of job duties that empowers an employee to make decisions and learn new skills leading toward career growths Job rotation involves systematically moving employees from one job to another.
  24. 24. Managers’ Attitudes & Motivations Two assumptions managers make about employees, according to psychologist Douglas McGregor:s Theory X: assumes that employees dislike work and try to avoid it whenever possible, so management must coerce them to do their jobs.s Theory Y: assumes that the typical person actually likes work and will seek and accept greater responsibility. s Most people can think of creative ways to solve work-related problems. s Most people should be given the opportunity to participate in decision making.s A third theory from management professor William Ouchi:s Theory Z: worker involvement is key to increased productivity for the company and improved quality of work life for employees.
  25. 25. Labor-Management Relationss Labor union: group of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in the areas of wages, hours, and working conditions.s Found at local, national, and international levels.s The organized efforts of Philadelphia printers in 1786 resulted in the first U.S. minimum wage - $1 a day.s 12% of the nation’s full-time workforce belongs to labor unions. s 1/3 of government workers, 8% of private sector
  26. 26. Labor Legislations National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act) legalized collective bargaining and required employers to negotiate with elected representatives of their employees.s Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 set the initial federal minimum wage and maximum basic workweek for workers employed in industries engaged in interstate commerce; outlawed child labor.s Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 (Labor-Management Relations Act) limited unions’ power by prohibiting a variety of unfair practices, including coercing employees to join unions and coercing employers to discriminate against employees who are not union members.s Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959 (Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act) amended the Taft-Hartley Act to promote honesty and democracy in running unions’ internal affairs.
  27. 27. Collective Bargaining Processs Collective bargaining: process of negotiation between management and union representativess Issues involved can include: s Wages s Work hours s Benefits s Union activities and responsibilities s Grievance handling and arbitration s Layoffs s Employee rights and seniority
  28. 28. Settling Labor-Management Disputess Most labor-management negotiations result in a signed agreement without a work stoppage.s On average, 20 or fewer negotiations involve a work stoppage.s Mediation is the process of settling labor-management disputes through recommendations of a third party.s Arbitration adds a third party who renders a legally binding decision.
  29. 29. Competitive Tactics of Unions and Managements Union Tactics s Strikes - temporary work stoppage by employees until a dispute has been settled or a contract signed. s Picketing - workers marching in public protest against their employer. s Boycott - organized attempt to keep the public from purchasing the goods and services of the firm.s Management Tactics s Lockout - a management strike to put pressure on union members by closing the firm.
  30. 30. Future of Labor Unionss Membership and influence are declining, caused by a shift from manufacturing industries to information and service businesses.s 8% of private-sector workers are union members, but that is down from 17% in 1983.s 52% of union members are government employees.s Unions need to be more flexible and adapt to a global economy and diverse workforce.s Unions can recognize the potential for prosperity for all—management and union workers included.