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# Grade 9 (M3) Science Vocabulary Studyguide for 2nd sem

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### Grade 9 (M3) Science Vocabulary Studyguide for 2nd sem

1. 1. Chapter 4- Electricity Circuit= is the electric path through the bulb, meter, battery and connecting wires.4.1 Electricity Electricity= is the flow of negative charges 4.3 Current, Voltage and Resistance or electrons in a complete circuit. Ohm’s Law: Electrical current= is the rate of flow of charges through conductor. “ The current that flows through a conductor is = it is measured using an ammeter. directly proportional to the voltage across the Ampere (A)= unit for measuring current end of the conductor, provided that the Voltage= is the potential difference across temperature and other physical conditions are the two points or the electrical energy unchanged.” supply needed to move each unit of charge from one point to another. Voltmeter= unit in measuring voltage Resistance= is a property of a material VI= R or V=IR that resists the flow of electric current 4.4 Parallel and Series Circuits through. (Copper= good conductor for it has a very low resistant. ..See the circuit diagram on page 123 Focus 3 Ohm ()= unit for measuring resistance  Circuit symbols= are used to representSources of electrical energy: generators, batteries various components of a circuit.and electrical cells, Dynamo, solar cells etc…  Series circuit= is when two bulbs are connected to each other in a circuit.4.2 Measuring Electricity  Parallel circuit= is when two bulbs are Andre-Marie Ampere= is the one who connected separately to the same terminals discovered the unit for electric current. of a battery. Alessandro Volta= the one who discovered the unit for voltage. Georg Simon Ohm= is a German scientist who discovered the unit measurement for resistance. 1
2. 2. P=VI4.7 Electronic Circuit P=E/t Electronic circuit= are circuits with microchips and other devices. 4.9 Importance of Safety Precautions inExamples: the Use of Electricitytelevision set, computers, radios, phones, amplifiers Fuse= is a safety device with low Resistor= controls the level of current and resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial to voltages in order for other component to provide over current protection, of either the work properly. load or source circuit. Diode= allows the current to flow through it in one direction only. Double insulation= is a safety feature in Transistor= is used to magnify or amplify an electrical appliance that can substitute for signs. an earth wire. It makes electrical equipment Integrated circuits (IC) or microchips relatively safe to use. = contains many complete circuits such diodes and other components. All connections are formed into tiny chip of silicon only a few millimeters square.4.8 Cost of Electrical Energy* Electricity is sold in energy unit kilowatt-hour(kWh) Electricity meter= is used in measuring the number of kilowatt-hour you use at home. Power= the rate which an appliance uses energy. Watts= is used in measuring powerPower, P= Electrical energy , E Time, t 2
3. 3. Chapter 5- Energy Changes Chapter 6- Forces and Motion5.1 Forms of Energy 6.1 Acceleration Energy= is the ability to do work. Acceleration= is the rate of change of Joule (J) = unit of energy velocity. Working energy= is the form of energy that involves work being done. Formula: a= v-u t Stored energy= is the form energy stored Acceleration= Change in velocity by objects due to its position or its condition Time taken Chemical energy= is the energy stored in substances such as food and fuels. Weight= is the force gravity acting on the Sound energy= is produced by vibrating object. objects. Gravitational acceleration= is the Heat energy= is found in hot objects. acceleration that an object experience due to the force of gravity. Light energy= is the energy radiated by luminous objects. It enables us to see. Weight formula= w=mg Electrical energy= consists of electrical charges, which travel through electrical w= weight in (N) conductors. m= is the mass in kg Nuclear energy= is the energy stored in g= gravitational acceleration the nucleus of an atom. Law of conservation Energy: 6.3 Buoyant Force “Energy can change from one form into another but it cannot be destroyed or Buoyant force= is an upward force that acts as an created.” object that is being completely or partially immersed in a fluid. Buoyant force= Actual weight- Apparent weight 3
4. 4. Chapter 7- Solar System, Stars and Galaxies Chapter 6- Forces andof the sun, Solar system= is made up Motion6.4 Static Friction and Kinetic Friction planets, moons, and others such asteroids, meteoroids and comets. Static Friction= is friction that acts on two Sun= is the center of the solar system and surfaces in contact that are not moving when a other planets. It provides heat and light to force to move them is applied. the different planets. Kinetic Friction= is a friction that acts on two surfaces in contact that are moving 7.1 Planets6.5 Static Friction and Kinetic Friction Planets= are big objects that go around the sun. Moment of force= is a measure of the ability The Solar System of a forces to turn or rotate an object on which it acts.Moment of force= Force x Perpendicular distance from turning point Lever= is a rigid object that is used with an appropriate fulcrum or pivot to multiply the mechanical force that can be applied to another object.6.4 Motion of Objects Linear motion= is motion in a straight line Projectile motion= is a motion when an object is thrown or projected into the air. Circular motion= is a motion when an object moves in a circle. 4
5. 5. Earth Earth is the third planetMercury Mercury is the innermost from the Sun, and the planet in the Solar System. densest and fifth-largest of It is also the smallest, and the eight planets in the its orbit is the most Solar System. It is also the eccentric of the eight largest of the Solar planets. It orbits the Sun Systems four terrestrial once in about 88 Earth planets. It’s the only planet days, completing three with living organisms. rotations about its axis for every two orbits. Circumference: 40,075 km Distance from Sun: 149,600,000 km Density: 5.52 g/cm³Distance from Sun: 57,910,000 km Orbital period: 365 daysLength of day: 58d 15h 30m Mass: 5.972E24 kgOrbital period: 88 days Population: 6,840,507,003 (2010)Mass: 328.5E21 kg (0.055 Earth mass)Gravity: 3.7 m/s²Orbits: Sun Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet inVenus the Solar System. Named Venus is the second planet after the Roman god of from the Sun, orbiting it war, it is often described every 224.7 Earth days. as the "Red Planet", as The planet is named after the iron oxide prevalent the Roman goddess of on its surface gives it a love and beauty. reddish appearance. Orbital period: 687 daysLength of day: 117d 0h 0m Distance from Sun: 227,900,000 kmDistance from Sun: 108,200,000 km Gravity: 3.711 m/s²Gravity: 8.87 m/s² Length of day: 1d 5h 5mOrbital period: 225 days Mass: 639E21 kg (0.107 Earth mass)Mass: 4.867E24 kg (0.815 Earth mass) Density: 3.93 g/cm³Orbits: Sun 5
6. 6. Uranus is the seventh Uranus planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetaryJupiter Jupiter is the fifth radius and fourth-largest planet from the Sun planetary mass in the Solar and the largest planet System. It is named after in the Solar System. It the ancient Greek deity of is a gas giant with the sky Uranus, the father mass one-thousandth of Cronus and grandfather that of the Sun but is of Zeus. two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Distance from Sun: 2,877,000,000 kmGravity: 24.79 m/s² Solar System Discovered: March 13, 1781Orbital period: 12 years combined. Gravity: 8.69 m/s²Distance from Sun: 778,500,000 km Orbital period: 84 yearsLength of day: 0d 9h 56m Mass: 86.81E24 kg (14.54 Earth mass)Orbits: Sun Orbits: SunMoons: Europa, Io, Ganymede, Callisto,Amalthea, Adrastea, Thebe, Metis, Elara, More Neptune Neptune is the eighthSaturn and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth- Saturn is the sixth largest planet by planet from the Sun diameter and the third- and the second largest largest by mass. planet in the Solar System, after Jupiter. Named after the Roman god Saturn, its Distance from Sun: 4,503,000,000 km astronomical symbol Orbital period: 165 yearsDistance from Sun: 1,433,000,000 km gods represents the Gravity: 11.15 m/s²Gravity: 10.44 m/s² sickle. Length of day: 0d 16h 6mLength of day: 0d 10h 39m Mass: 102.4E24 kg (17.15 Earth mass)Orbital period: 29 years Orbits: SunMass: 568.3E24 kg (95.16 Earth mass)Orbits: Sun 6
7. 7. Sun= is at the center of the solar system. It contains 99.85% of all matter in the solar7.2 Asteroids, Comets and Meteoroids system. Asteroid= are small rocks similar to the Characteristics of the Sun materials that formed the planets. Distance from the earth 149 680 000 km Comets= is composed of dust and rock Temperature of the Sun The surface temperature particles mixed in with frozen water, is approximately 5500 methane and ammonia. degree Celsius. The Halley’s comet= most popular comet atmosphere of the sun is which takes 76 years to orbit the sun extremely hot which is Meteoroids= are small rocky fragment of up to 1.5 to 2 million debris floating through the space. degrees. Composition of the Sun Composed of about 76% Meteor= a meteoroid that burns up in hydrogen and 22% earth’s atmosphere. They are also called helium. Iron, nickel, shooting stars silicon and carbon make Meteorites= meteors name once they hit up the remaining 2% by the earth. mass Radius (size) 109 times that of the7.3 Sun Earth Density .27 times that of theSun Earth Mass 330 420 times that of The Sun is the star at the Earth the center of the Solar System. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields.Surface temperature: 5,778 KRotation speed: 1.997 km/sDistance to Earth: 149,600,000 kmDeclination: 63° 52.200Absolute magnitude: 4.83Orbits: Galactic Center 7
8. 8. Solar flares= are huge explosions of hydrogen gas on the surface of the sun.Four-part Structure of the Sun Prominences= are the masses of glowing gas above the Sun’s bright surface. Sunspots/solar spots= are dark patches on the Sun where the temperature are lower than the other areas of the sun. Solar wind= is a flow of gases from the Sun that disturbs and shakes the Earth’s magnetic field. Nuclear fusion= is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus. 7.4 Stars and Galaxies Star= is a hot ball of gases, mainly Core= the center of the sun where nuclear hydrogen that gives out heat and light. They reactions occur. The temperature here is vary in sizes, brightness and colors. about 15 000 000 degree Celsius. Serius and Rigel= examples of bright Photosphere= is the visible surface of the stars. sun and where the sun’s energy is seen as moving like boiling water. It’s one of the Type of Stars according to sizes coolest layers of the Sun with temperature of 600 degree Celsius. Type Size (relative to the Chromosphere= a red glowing region of a diameter of the Sun) gas. It’s part of the solar atmosphere with Supergiant 100 to 1000 times bigger the temperature of 15 000 degree Celsius. Giant 10 to 100 times bigger It’s visible to an eye during total solar eclipse. White dwarf 1000 times smaller Corona= outermost, tenuous atmosphere of the sun. It’s extremely hot and with the temperature of 2 000 000 degree Celsius. It can only be seen during total solar eclipse. 8
9. 9. Galaxy= is a system of stars. Milky Way= is fairly large spiral galaxyClassification of Stars which consists of 200 billion stars withColor Temperature(C) Example the sun as being one of them.Blue 25 000 SpicaBluish-white 11 000- 25 000 Rigel 12 famous Constellations/ zodiac signs are:White 7500- 11 000 Vega AriesYellowish- 6000-7500 Capella Tauruswhite GeminiYellow 5000-6000 Sun CancerOrange 3500-5000 Arcturus LeoRed  3500 Antares Virgo Libra Constellation= is a group of stars with a Scorpio pattern of maybe an animal or a familiar Sagittarius object. Capricorns Nebulae= are clouds of gas or dust. It’s Aquarius where fresh stars is being formed. Pisces Red giant= is a luminous giant star of low Types of Galaxies or intermediate mass (roughly 0.5–10 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution. Elliptical White dwarf= also called a degenerate Spiral dwarf, is a stellar remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. Irregular Supernova (abbreviated SN, plural SNe after supernovae) is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. Neutron star= is a type of stellar remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a supernova event. 9
10. 10. Chapter 8- Space Exploration Astronomy= is the study of objects in the outer space. Chinese, Arabs and Greeks= made detailed observation of the stars and planets. Aristotle= suggested that the Earth was the center of Universe. Nicolaus Copernicus= claimed that the sun is the center of the Solar system. Hans Lippershey= invented the first telescope. Hubble Space Telescope= the most famous space telescope. Sputnik 1= was an artificial satellite launched by Russians in 1957 Yuri Gagarin= was the first man to orbit the Earth in 1957 Neil Armstrong= was the first man to walk on the Moon. Skylab= was the first space station sent to the space by Americans in 1973 International Space Station= was launched in 1998 to provide a platform for the scientists to perform researches.Satellite purposes:  Telecommunication  Weather forecasting  Military purposes  Remote sensing  Disaster management 10
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