Meals vs. Snacks - Presentation at Institut Paul Bocuse

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Meals vs. Snacks - Presentation at Institut Paul Bocuse

  1. 1. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesMeals or Snacks?Dr. Herb MeiselmanHerb MeiselmanTraining & ConsultingThe impact of meal context on food likeability
  2. 2. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting Servicesh|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesHerb Meiselman, Ph.D.Scientific Committee, Institut Paul Bocuse, FranceResearch Committee, Culinary Institute of America, USAIMPACT of MEAL CONTEXTProviding food in meals enhances liking scores overfoods served individually in laboratory small portions(King et al, 2004, 2007)Providing food in meals rather than isocaloric snacks producesless eating following a meal than a snack. (Capaldi et al, 2006)The cognitive features of foods, their context, influence bothliking and intake. The natural context of foods is a mealcontext.
  3. 3. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesMCCORMICK STUDIES – MeanValues for Overall Mealand Meal Components AcrossTestsTestMealComponentTest 1Traditional(N=104)Test 2Meal(N=93)Overall -- 7.5aSalad 7.0c 7.5abcPizza 7.2ab 7.2abTea 5.9b 7.0aWithin rows, means sharing letters are not significantly different.King et al, 2004
  4. 4. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting Servicesh|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesMeals are a form of ritual behavior.“ The term ritual refers to a type of expressive, symbolicactivity constructed of multiple behaviors that occur in afixed, episodic sequence, and that tend to be repeatedover time.”- Rook, D.W., J. of Consumer Research (1985)
  5. 5. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting Services“We have reviewed abundantevidence, linguistic, culinary, practical,and memorial, that the meal is a special unitof eating at the psychological level. It is the basic or privilegedunit...Both our day and our thinking are organized in terms of meals.”- Pliner and Rozin (2000), in Meiselman, H.L. (Ed)Dimensions of the MealMeal = the basic unit of eating
  6. 6. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesFour terms to describe eating:• A food event is an occasion when food is eaten.• A structured event is a social occasion organized by rulesconcerning time, place, and sequence of action.• Food eaten as part of a structured event is a meal. A mealobserves the rules of combination and sequence.• A snack is an unstructured food event without any rules ofcombination and sequence.Source: Douglas, M & Nicod, M (1974), New Society, 30, 744-747Structure of British Meals
  7. 7. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesGatenby, 1997Self reported by subjectNo predefined conceptDe Castro, 1993210 or 420 or 840 kJ + 15‟or 45‟ interval timeEnergy content +interval time since lasteating eventSkinner et al.,1985More than one single foodFood qualityPresence of fellow eatersSocial interactionConsumption of>375 kcalEnergy contentFabry et al., 1964and othersEating events in theTime of consumptionAuthorMeal defined asCriteriaCriteria for the Definition of a MealRotenberg, 1981Bernstein et al., 1981morning, at midday andin the eveningRef: Oltersdorf et al, 1999, Appetite
  8. 8. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting Servicesh|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesCriteria for Proper Meals Social, especially nuclear family. Duration, enough time for eating and socializing. Location, normally at home.Mestdag, I. (2005) Appetite, 45, 62-74.
  9. 9. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesCriteria for Proper MealsIndividualSocialPrivate Public- Eating alone at home - Snack on the street- Lunch at the workbench- Individual meal at arestaurant- Family meal at home- Meal at friends’ home- Meal with friends atrestaurant- Lunch with colleaguesSource: Kjaernes (2001),Table 1-1, Page 35
  10. 10. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesCriteria for Proper Meals“We could simply use concepts like “dinner”, “lunch”, and “mainmeal” implicitly meaning hot meals at certain hours for ourquestionnaire. Rather we had to strip such culturally ladenconcepts of their nation- or cultural-specific garments. In ourdeconstruction process we decide to ask for “eating events”, i.e.every occasion of eating something…”Kjaernes (2001), Page 39
  11. 11. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting Servicesh|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesFrench MealsStable three meal pattern (INPES 2004 survey):90.2 % report three meals the previous day82-85% for people < 30 years Breakfast: Petit dejeuner early morning,94.5% report having, 15 min. 3-4 course lunch: Dejeuner (diner) 1200-1400,96.9% report having, 38 min. 2 course dinner: Diner (souper) 1900-?, 40 min.Grignon and Grignon, 2009
  12. 12. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting Servicesh|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesValidation of a buffet meal design in anexperimental restaurant.Allirot, X et al, 2012, Appetite
  13. 13. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesWansink et al (2010) Meal SnackSocial/alone social aloneCloth/Paper napkins cloth paperLonger/shorter long shortCeramic/paper plates ceramic paperSit/Stand sit standHi cost/Lo cost food hi cost lo costLarge/small portion large smallHi/Lo quality food hi quality lo qualityHi/Lo quantity food hi quantity lo quantityPrepared/Packaged food prepared packagedHealthy/Unhealthy food healthy unhealthyNumber of items/variety hi variety lo varietyfood temperature hot coldCriticalVariables for Meals and Snacks
  14. 14. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesCardello, Lawless, & Meiselman(unpub) Meal SnackBeverages inclusion beverage no beverageLevel of satiation satiating not satiatingEating times fixed anytimeEating between meals no yesFood compatibility compatible not compatibleColor variety color variety no color varietyFamily traditions showat mealstraditions no traditionsCriticalVariables for Meals and Snacks
  15. 15. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesTo download a copy of these slides,complete with full references and photo credits,or to provide feedback (Be nice!) visit:herbmeiselman.com/slides
  16. 16. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting Services Douglas, M. (1975). Implicit meanings: essays in anthropology. London: Routledge &KeganPaul Douglas, M & Nicod, M (1974), New Society, 30, 744-747 Meiselman, H.L. (Ed.) Dimensions ofThe Meal. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, 2000, 344pp. Meiselman, H.L. (Ed.) Meals in Science and Practice. Cambridge, Woodhead, 2009,681 pp Mestdag, I. (2005) Appetite, 45, 62-74. Oltersdorf, U., Schlettwein-gsell, D., & Winkler, G. (1999).Assessing eating patterns—An emerging research topic in nutritional sciences: introduction to the symposium.Appetite, 32, 1–7. Pliner, P., Bell, R., Meiselman, H. L., Kinchla, M., & Martins,Y. (2004). A layperson‟sperspective on meals. Food Quality and Preferences, 15, 902. Walker, H. (Ed.) “The Meal” Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food andCookery 2001, Prospect Books. Wansink,B., Payne, C.R., and Simizu, M.(2010) Short communication „„Is this a meal orsnack?‟‟ Situational cues that drive perceptions. Appetite 54, 214–216References
  17. 17. h|m © Herb Meiselman Training & Consulting ServicesCreative CreditsSlides by David Meiselman Marketing (www.davidmeiselman.com)Photos used under Creative Commons Attribution License listed below. Slide 3 – http://foodfamilyfinds.com/my-big-red-kitchen-finds-and-favorites/ Slide 4 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/spindexr/4488359319/ Slide 6 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/50826080@N00/7434095300/ Slide 7 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/julishannon/5636548938 Slide 8 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/apothecary/3459912585/ Slides 9-10 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/dwward/3736496238 Slide 11 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosswebsdale/2530851977 Slide 13-14 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/myguitarzz/161457656 Slide 15 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/lifeasart/ Slide 16 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/michaelkuhnphotos/3799491755/ Slide 17 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/davedugdale/4948130073/sizes/l/

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