Leadership Development
      Master Class



             Module 3
The Development of Leadership Theories
So what we have is a
lot of focus on task…
      and some.
 not much on people
Delivery Risk
Social –People Focus




                                                    Collaboration Risk




        ...
But how did the
     theories
about leadership
develop over time
Sir Francis Galton
     One of the earliest leadership theorists
     Wrote “Hereditary Genius” pub. 1869
  Believed leade...
Edwin Gheselli identified six traits for
       effective leadership:
         Need for achievement
              Intellig...
Examples of application
   of Trait Theory
Paul Von Hindenburg
     First Chancellor of Germany, post WWI
Used the trait theory for selecting and developing
        ...
Leadership Trait Theory

             Bright, lazy—staff
              officer
             Energetic, dull—
           ...
In the 1930s, emphasis on behaviorism moved
 researchers in the direction of leadership behavior
Kurt Lewin trained assist...
In the 1940s, research focused on leader
                behaviors
   Assumed that leaders take distinct actions
Ralph Sto...
Initiating structure:
Behavior aimed at ensuring a structured
   approach to goal achievement.
          Meeting deadlines...
Showing consideration:
Taking action to develop trust, respect, support,
       and friendship with subordinates.
        ...
Findings of a Leader Behavior
Description Questionnaire (LBDQ)
               study:
    The democratic style was
    more...
Leadership Behavior Theory
Rensis Likert at the University of Michigan
          conducted leadership studies
  Studied leaders’ behaviors related to...
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton
      Developed a managerial
                 grid
      The ideal leader has high
     conce...
Application of behaviour
  and trait theory is
      wide spread
Both trait and behavioral theories tried
 to identify the one best leader or style
             for all situations
    By ...
Leadership effectiveness
depends on a combination of
           the:
           Leader
          Followers
      Situation...
Enter Contingency Theory
The first of these is the focus of
    Hersey and Blanchard
                 Leader
                Followers
            ...
Situational Leadership Theory
With the development of
 Situational Leadership came the
realization that it does not account
   fully for the complexitie...
Therefore the application of Situational
   Leadership is more appropriate for
   predictable supervisory and middle
 mana...
Focus on the potential relationship
between the leader and the followers
Engage the full person of the follower
  Tap the ...
We need to ask three
     questions
when we look at the
 transformational
    leadership
   perspective…
Transformational leadership
Lets do some
case examples… as
      review
Karen is new in her job.
Although fresh from university as
a qualified speech therapist she
  feels unsure and exited at t...
For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate
               Leadership Style
A. S1- Give specific instructions and closel...
Thabo has gone through his
 basic safety training and also
      induction. After a role
clarification session he has been...
For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate
               Leadership Style
 A. S1- Give specific instructions and close...
After several successful review
    meetings, Dikeledi a young
       engineer is showing real
leadership as shift supervi...
For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate
               Leadership Style
A. S1- Give specific instructions and closel...
François is now six months in his new job
  as training officer. His needs analysis,
presentation and facilitation skills ...
For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate
               Leadership Style
 A. S1- Give specific instructions and close...
End of Session
Leaderdev 03
Leaderdev 03
Leaderdev 03
Leaderdev 03
Leaderdev 03
Leaderdev 03
Leaderdev 03
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Leaderdev 03

  1. 1. Leadership Development Master Class Module 3 The Development of Leadership Theories
  2. 2. So what we have is a lot of focus on task… and some. not much on people
  3. 3. Delivery Risk Social –People Focus Collaboration Risk Task Focus The Focus of The Scientific Management Approach
  4. 4. But how did the theories about leadership develop over time
  5. 5. Sir Francis Galton One of the earliest leadership theorists Wrote “Hereditary Genius” pub. 1869 Believed leadership qualities were genetic This theory assumes physical and psychological characteristics account for effective leadership Basic intelligence Clear and strong values High personal energy Leadership Trait Theory
  6. 6. Edwin Gheselli identified six traits for effective leadership: Need for achievement Intelligence Decisiveness Self-confidence Initiative Supervisory ability Leadership Trait Theory
  7. 7. Examples of application of Trait Theory
  8. 8. Paul Von Hindenburg First Chancellor of Germany, post WWI Used the trait theory for selecting and developing military leaders Primary qualities for leadership ability Intelligence (bright vs. dull) Vitality (energetic vs. lazy) Leadership Trait Theory
  9. 9. Leadership Trait Theory  Bright, lazy—staff officer  Energetic, dull— frontline soldier  Bright, energetic— field commander  Lazy, dull—left to find their own level of effectiveness
  10. 10. In the 1930s, emphasis on behaviorism moved researchers in the direction of leadership behavior Kurt Lewin trained assistants in behaviors indicative of three leadership styles: Autocratic: tight control of group activities, decisions made by the leader Democratic: group participation, majority rule Laissez-faire: little activity of any type by the leader Leadership Behavior Theory
  11. 11. In the 1940s, research focused on leader behaviors Assumed that leaders take distinct actions Ralph Stogdill at Ohio State University Helped develop the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) Respondents described leaders’ behavior in two dimensions: Initiating structure Showing consideration Leadership Behavior Theory
  12. 12. Initiating structure: Behavior aimed at ensuring a structured approach to goal achievement. Meeting deadlines Meeting at scheduled times Making sure everyone works to capacity Role clarity etc Leadership Behavior Theory
  13. 13. Showing consideration: Taking action to develop trust, respect, support, and friendship with subordinates. Being helpful Treating all people as equals Willing to make changes Standing behind subordinates Doing things to make group membership pleasant Leadership Behavior Theory
  14. 14. Findings of a Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) study: The democratic style was more beneficial for group performance The leader’s behavior impacted the performance of followers Leadership Behavior Theory
  15. 15. Leadership Behavior Theory
  16. 16. Rensis Likert at the University of Michigan conducted leadership studies Studied leaders’ behaviors related to worker motivation and group performance Identified two dimensions of behavior: Job centered (initiating structure) Employee centered (showing consideration) Leadership Behavior Theory
  17. 17. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton Developed a managerial grid The ideal leader has high concern for both production and people Leadership Behavior Theory
  18. 18. Application of behaviour and trait theory is wide spread
  19. 19. Both trait and behavioral theories tried to identify the one best leader or style for all situations By the late 1960s, it became apparent that there is no such universal answer Both Trait and Behaviour Theory…
  20. 20. Leadership effectiveness depends on a combination of the: Leader Followers Situational factors Emerging realization
  21. 21. Enter Contingency Theory
  22. 22. The first of these is the focus of Hersey and Blanchard Leader Followers Situational factors NB!! Developmental Level and Professional Maturity Enter Contingency Theory
  23. 23. Situational Leadership Theory
  24. 24. With the development of Situational Leadership came the realization that it does not account fully for the complexities of the context. Further that it views leadership as an “exchange” – a transaction Transactional view of leadership
  25. 25. Therefore the application of Situational Leadership is more appropriate for predictable supervisory and middle management levels… and that there is also a need to look at leadership from a transformative perspective Transactional view of leadership
  26. 26. Focus on the potential relationship between the leader and the followers Engage the full person of the follower Tap the motives of the followers Transformational view of leadership
  27. 27. We need to ask three questions when we look at the transformational leadership perspective…
  28. 28. Transformational leadership
  29. 29. Lets do some case examples… as review
  30. 30. Karen is new in her job. Although fresh from university as a qualified speech therapist she feels unsure and exited at the same time about her new job. Case Example
  31. 31. For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate Leadership Style A. S1- Give specific instructions and closely supervise B. S2- Explain decisions and provide opportunity to clarify C. S3- Share ideas and facilitate decision making D. S4- Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
  32. 32. Thabo has gone through his basic safety training and also induction. After a role clarification session he has been supervised closely for 3 months as junior accountant. Case Example
  33. 33. For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate Leadership Style A. S1- Give specific instructions and closely supervise B. S2- Explain decisions and provide opportunity to clarify C. S3- Share ideas and facilitate decision making D. S4- Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
  34. 34. After several successful review meetings, Dikeledi a young engineer is showing real leadership as shift supervisor. She is increasingly showing she has mastered all aspects of the job. Case Example
  35. 35. For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate Leadership Style A. S1- Give specific instructions and closely supervise B. S2- Explain decisions and provide opportunity to clarify C. S3- Share ideas and facilitate decision making D. S4- Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
  36. 36. François is now six months in his new job as training officer. His needs analysis, presentation and facilitation skills show he has real potential. Although he had problems dealing with a difficult delegate recently you are sure he will master most situations soon. Case Example
  37. 37. For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate Leadership Style A. S1- Give specific instructions and closely supervise B. S2- Explain decisions and provide opportunity to clarify C. S3- Share ideas and facilitate decision making D. S4- Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
  38. 38. End of Session
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