Leaderdev 03
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The second lecture in leadership and people management. If you use the E-Instruction CPS System and have the software that integrates with PowerPoint you will be able to activate the multiple choice ...

The second lecture in leadership and people management. If you use the E-Instruction CPS System and have the software that integrates with PowerPoint you will be able to activate the multiple choice questions in the presentation

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Leaderdev 03 Leaderdev 03 Presentation Transcript

  • Leadership Development Master Class Module 3 The Development of Leadership Theories
  • So what we have is a lot of focus on task… and some. not much on people
  • Delivery Risk Social –People Focus Collaboration Risk Task Focus The Focus of The Scientific Management Approach
  • But how did the theories about leadership develop over time
  • Sir Francis Galton One of the earliest leadership theorists Wrote “Hereditary Genius” pub. 1869 Believed leadership qualities were genetic This theory assumes physical and psychological characteristics account for effective leadership Basic intelligence Clear and strong values High personal energy Leadership Trait Theory
  • Edwin Gheselli identified six traits for effective leadership: Need for achievement Intelligence Decisiveness Self-confidence Initiative Supervisory ability Leadership Trait Theory
  • Examples of application of Trait Theory
  • Paul Von Hindenburg First Chancellor of Germany, post WWI Used the trait theory for selecting and developing military leaders Primary qualities for leadership ability Intelligence (bright vs. dull) Vitality (energetic vs. lazy) Leadership Trait Theory
  • Leadership Trait Theory  Bright, lazy—staff officer  Energetic, dull— frontline soldier  Bright, energetic— field commander  Lazy, dull—left to find their own level of effectiveness
  • In the 1930s, emphasis on behaviorism moved researchers in the direction of leadership behavior Kurt Lewin trained assistants in behaviors indicative of three leadership styles: Autocratic: tight control of group activities, decisions made by the leader Democratic: group participation, majority rule Laissez-faire: little activity of any type by the leader Leadership Behavior Theory
  • In the 1940s, research focused on leader behaviors Assumed that leaders take distinct actions Ralph Stogdill at Ohio State University Helped develop the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) Respondents described leaders’ behavior in two dimensions: Initiating structure Showing consideration Leadership Behavior Theory
  • Initiating structure: Behavior aimed at ensuring a structured approach to goal achievement. Meeting deadlines Meeting at scheduled times Making sure everyone works to capacity Role clarity etc Leadership Behavior Theory
  • Showing consideration: Taking action to develop trust, respect, support, and friendship with subordinates. Being helpful Treating all people as equals Willing to make changes Standing behind subordinates Doing things to make group membership pleasant Leadership Behavior Theory
  • Findings of a Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) study: The democratic style was more beneficial for group performance The leader’s behavior impacted the performance of followers Leadership Behavior Theory
  • Leadership Behavior Theory
  • Rensis Likert at the University of Michigan conducted leadership studies Studied leaders’ behaviors related to worker motivation and group performance Identified two dimensions of behavior: Job centered (initiating structure) Employee centered (showing consideration) Leadership Behavior Theory
  • Robert Blake and Jane Mouton Developed a managerial grid The ideal leader has high concern for both production and people Leadership Behavior Theory
  • Application of behaviour and trait theory is wide spread
  • Both trait and behavioral theories tried to identify the one best leader or style for all situations By the late 1960s, it became apparent that there is no such universal answer Both Trait and Behaviour Theory…
  • Leadership effectiveness depends on a combination of the: Leader Followers Situational factors Emerging realization
  • Enter Contingency Theory
  • The first of these is the focus of Hersey and Blanchard Leader Followers Situational factors NB!! Developmental Level and Professional Maturity Enter Contingency Theory
  • Situational Leadership Theory
  • With the development of Situational Leadership came the realization that it does not account fully for the complexities of the context. Further that it views leadership as an “exchange” – a transaction Transactional view of leadership
  • Therefore the application of Situational Leadership is more appropriate for predictable supervisory and middle management levels… and that there is also a need to look at leadership from a transformative perspective Transactional view of leadership
  • Focus on the potential relationship between the leader and the followers Engage the full person of the follower Tap the motives of the followers Transformational view of leadership
  • We need to ask three questions when we look at the transformational leadership perspective…
  • Transformational leadership
  • Lets do some case examples… as review
  • Karen is new in her job. Although fresh from university as a qualified speech therapist she feels unsure and exited at the same time about her new job. Case Example
  • For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate Leadership Style A. S1- Give specific instructions and closely supervise B. S2- Explain decisions and provide opportunity to clarify C. S3- Share ideas and facilitate decision making D. S4- Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
  • Thabo has gone through his basic safety training and also induction. After a role clarification session he has been supervised closely for 3 months as junior accountant. Case Example
  • For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate Leadership Style A. S1- Give specific instructions and closely supervise B. S2- Explain decisions and provide opportunity to clarify C. S3- Share ideas and facilitate decision making D. S4- Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
  • After several successful review meetings, Dikeledi a young engineer is showing real leadership as shift supervisor. She is increasingly showing she has mastered all aspects of the job. Case Example
  • For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate Leadership Style A. S1- Give specific instructions and closely supervise B. S2- Explain decisions and provide opportunity to clarify C. S3- Share ideas and facilitate decision making D. S4- Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
  • François is now six months in his new job as training officer. His needs analysis, presentation and facilitation skills show he has real potential. Although he had problems dealing with a difficult delegate recently you are sure he will master most situations soon. Case Example
  • For the Previous Case Provide the Appropriate Leadership Style A. S1- Give specific instructions and closely supervise B. S2- Explain decisions and provide opportunity to clarify C. S3- Share ideas and facilitate decision making D. S4- Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
  • End of Session