The Gamification of Life


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Sara de Freitas's talk from ISDT11.

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The Gamification of Life

  1. 1. the ‘gamification’ of life
  2. 2. summary: gamification of lifefour strands of consideration: grand challenges of society. key grand challenges of modern societies e.g.:(a) population growth is leading to greater pressures on our environments(climate change, restricted resources, education systems, energy sources) (b)globalisation is leading to more interconnected and complex social structures(self-organised criticality) > futurICT open innovation, crowd sourcing and the „rise of the community‟ the role of ‘gamification’ in social (behavioural) change and awarenessraising. games/vws as cultural forms, games/vws processes (to be mappedagainst human behaviour), motivation, engagement, social interactivity,games/vws as interface/wrapper for other technologies. social and theimmersive examples demonstrating how virtual environments and social collaborationare changing much about how we live, learn and work. will the future ofsociety move more towards social networked virtual communities? does virtualworld technology open up new solutions for old problems?move towards more complex structures and socially driven innovation andtechnology development
  3. 3. 1: grand challenges of society: e.g. population andcity growth, climate change leading to complexityand data explosion challenges
  4. 4. challenges humanity is facing in the 21st century (copyright: dirk helbing)Lee C. Bollinger, president of Columbia University,formulated the issue as follows: “The forces affectingsocieties around the world ... are powerful and novel.The spread of global market systems ... are ...reshaping our world ..., raising profound questions.These questions call for the kinds of analyses andunderstandings that academic institutions areuniquely capable of providing. Too many policyfailures are fundamentally failures of knowledge.” 1. Financial and economic crisis 2. Debts and inflation 3. Stability of the European Union 4. Political revolutions, war 5. Critical infrastructure risks 6. Environmental change 7. Epidemics (SARS, H1N1 pandemic) 8. Migration and integration 9. Extremism, terrorism 10. Corruption, organized crime
  5. 5. The Knowledge Accelerator Creating a Living Earth Platform for a Sustainable Future  FuturICT will build a Living Earth Platform for a global-scale simulation of our techno-socio-We have explored the universe, and economic-environmental system and morehave sent men to the moon. It turnsout, however, that our current  This will integrate Crisis Observatories running massive data mining for the advance detectionknowledge of society is too limited of possible crises:to efficiently tackle the global  financial market instabilitieschallenges of humanity in the 21st  emerging conflictscentury. Thus, it’s time to pay  health risks and disease spreading  environmental changes, etc.attention to our Earth and createan ICT Flagship to explore social  Participatory Platforms will inform decision-life and everything it relates to. makers and involve citizensDirk Helbing  The Innovation Accelerator will speed up research, development, and the creation of new>300 scientists from all over business opportunities.the World  The focus on Managing Complexity will develop integrative system designs and new decision- making and governance tools.
  6. 6. predicting the sequence of possible impacts of earthquakes
  7. 7. Data Models Forecasts demographic infection data contact network models + = transport data multi- scale geographic models data ...complexity... agent- based modelsscenarioanalysis predictions Validationpriorities policies copyright Alex Vespignani and FuturICT
  8. 8. 2: models of innovation and diffusion:current trends and gala
  9. 9. towards open innovation? Linear models, actor network theory, social shaping of technology User innovation, open innovation models of innovation (linear model, actor network theory, socialshaping of technology) to open innovation (Chesborough) and user innovation
  10. 10. rodgers innovation diffusion curve
  11. 11. innovation diffusion design theory stakeholder engagement LEARNING INSTRUCTION ASSESSMENT Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context User learning GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics participatory design approaches Clear player goals Instructional User engagement User behavior design Debriefing technology GAME ELEMENTS: Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Representation PedagogyLearning content System feedback transfer application areas interactivity feedback adaptivity bcis/eegs models and frameworks 2006-2011 innovation diffusion model for gala
  12. 12. 3: gamification: a vehicle for socialchange? the social and the immersive
  13. 13. gamification trendsbeginning of 2010 the games industry posted total sales of $1.17 billion for themonth of januaryvalue of sg in 2008 was between $ 1 - 2 billion, recent reports circulating in us andeurope are talking about $ 9 -11 billioninternational software federation of europe (isfe, 2010):74% of those aged 16-19 considered themselves gamers (n=3000), 60% of those 20-24, 56% 25-29 and 38% 30-44.32% of the total uk population consider themselves gamers (n=3000). 31% of femalesdescribed themselves as gamers and 34% of males.several studies demonstrating the efficacy of serious games for training in particularthrough behavioural change (sg-ets, hope lab’s re:mission, pulse project)wide uptake of social software (e.g. facebook, wikipedia), crowdsourcinglearning in multimodal ways: mixed reality, augmented reality, mobile learning,haptics (more flexible approaches)converging technologies: mobile devices, ar devices, bci/eegs, sensor networks,robotics, virtual world mashups, gps, geocoding, web technologies and services (soa)
  14. 14. the social...remote sensing Web2.0Internet crowd sourcing second lifeSatellites gps GPS prediction markets
  15. 15. more complex social structures emerging...
  16. 16. copyright Milos Kravcik
  17. 17. towards open innovation? Linear models, actor network theory, social shaping of technology User innovation, open innovation models of innovation (linear model, actor network theory, socialshaping of technology) to open innovation (Chesborough) and user innovation
  18. 18. and theimmersive…
  19. 19. serious games institute: a hybrid model sgi: an agenda for applied sgi: an agenda for applied research.. research..
  20. 20. mapping our systems more closely against human behaviour design theory neuro-psychology approaches to learning with LEARNING INSTRUCTION ASSESSMENT Learning games objectives GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: Context User learning Learner Specifics Clear player goals Instructional User engagement User behavior design artificial Debriefing GAME ELEMENTS: Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Representation PedagogyLearning content System feedback intelligence and life multimodal interfaces interactivity semantic web, standards and feedback metadata adaptivity models and frameworks 2006-2011
  21. 21. projects & games at the serious games institute meducator alice code of everand roma nova simaula mirror vtrade gala customer futurict floodsim modesedugamelab maseltov sex health game
  22. 22. 4: examples of virtual environments andserious games in learning and teaching
  23. 23. immersion and engagement: sg-ets Yes No Male Female Male Female 100% 50 100 90% 45 90 % who prefer learning method 80% 40 80 % who play game type 70% % Responses 35 70 60% 30 60 50% 25 50 40% 20 40 30% 15 30 20% 10% 10 20 0% 5 10 <30 30-39 40+ <30 30-39 40+ 0 0 Action Adventure Arcade Education Fighting Puzzles Role play Simulation Sports Strategy Other Tutor Reading E-learning Video game Audio Workshop Internet Video Job Role-play Males Females Age (years) Games Type Learning method
  24. 24. triage trainer – preliminary trial results triage trainer (tt) trial summary: 5 trials: september 2007 – january 2008 independently conducted by the university of birmingham trial participants: 91 uk nhs doctors, nurses & paramedics all on alsg major incident medical management and support (mimms) training courses participants were randomly distributed: tt game (n = 47) non-game (n = 44)
  25. 25. triage trainer – preliminary trial results tt game group: 15 minute tutorial in game play / user interface 60 minutes playing the tt game on their own instructor available to answer questions non-game group: 75 minute normal alsg instructor-led table top exercise involved sorting cards with vital signs variables written on them into priority groups
  26. 26. triage trainer – (knight et al., 2010)trial results of tt game trainees versus non-game trainees:tagging accuracy of tt game trainees: significantly higher accuracy [χ2 = 13.126, p<0.05]step accuracy of tt game trainees. comparing the ratios of participants who achieved an 8/8accuracy rating (i.e. followed the correct protocol for all 8 casualties): significantly more accurate (28%) than the non-game group (7%) [χ2 = 7.29, p<0.05]time taken by tt game trainees to complete triage of all 8 casualties: no significant difference on time taken (p>0.05)
  27. 27. triage trainer – preliminary trial resultspossible conclusions:a ‘serious game’ such as the triage trainer offers the potential to: enhance learning; and improve transfer of trainingpossible reasons are that the game offers: opportunity to practice skills and knowledge gained on the course in a more realistic and more engaging environment personalised feedback which enables the game player to correct procedural errors made, through repeated play
  28. 28. research challengesfragmented research and development communities (e.g. gala)literature in different disciplinary areas (e.g. psychology, educational science,computer science, neuro-science, law, medicine etc.)vws a new area so lack of frameworks and metrics for effective learningtechnical and cost issues preventing uptakedivision between practice and theoryconservatism of education sectornew paradigm of learning emerging slowly – so hard to define for academicsand practitionersneed for academy and industry to work togethernetworks emerging but need for more defragmentation and interworkingestablish methods and evaluation strategiesneed for ethical considerations in different context
  29. 29. immersion and engagement: roma nova vtrade
  30. 30. artificial intelligence and crowd modelling
  31. 31. multimodal integration
  32. 32. bcis and interface design: neuro-psychology approaches
  33. 33. awareness raising: climate health impact and floodsim vtrade
  34. 34. behavioural change: code of everand and metycoon
  35. 35. can gamification solve world-scale problems?
  36. 36. reflectionsso does gamification offer a solution to the grand challenges?  scalability of game environments to large global communities  adaptivity to user requirements  closer modelling of user behaviour (feedback loop)  behavioural change  flow, feedback, visual and actual realism leading to higher levels of immersion  increased motivation and engagementuser innovation with games technologies (e.g. ai, haptics,biofeedback, sensors networks etc) from convergence, mashups and user/community interaction
  37. 37. conclusionsso are applications of vw/games technologies really changing ourapproaches to working, learning, social interactions and how weconsider experiences? providing new tools for flow, feedback, visual and actual realism leading to higher levels of immersion great potential for the medium for supporting immersive education through increased motivation and engagement potential changes for e-assessment, recruitment and cpd (gbl assessment, peer assessment, collaborative assessment, competency analysis, skills development, monitoring performance, mentoring)move towards immersive learning experiences and design: withincreased motivation, immediate feedback and sophisticated usermodelsneed for serious games community to work with user communitiesand educationalists to answer some of the key grand challenges
  38. 38. upcoming second wednesday events: playgen workshop in london, 12th october robotics workshop 9th novemberupcoming conferences:ieee vs-games conference in genoa, november 2012virtual world conference, 14th september 2011upcoming workshops:emergency response and management training workshop, 17th novemberany questions contact: prof. sara de
  39. 39. selected referencesde Freitas, S., Jarvis, S. (2008). Towards a development approach for serious games. In T.M. Connolly, M.Stansfield, & E. Boyle (Eds) Games-based learning advancements for multi-sensory human-computer interfaces:Techniques and effective practices. IGI Global. Hershey, PA.Jarvis, S., de Freitas, S. (2009). Evaluation of a Serious Game to support Triage Training: In-game Feedback andits effect on Learning Transfer. Proceedings of 2009 Conference in Games and Virtual Worlds for SeriousApplications, IEEE.Anderson, E.F., McLoughlin, L., Liarokapis, F., Peters, C., Petridis, P., de Freitas, S. Serious Games in CulturalHeritage, 10th VAST International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST 09),VAST-STAR, Short and Project Proceedings, Eurographics, Malta, 22-25 September, 29-48, (2009).de Freitas, S., Rebolledo-Mendez, G., Liarokapis, F., Magoulas, G., Poulovassilis A. (2010). Learning as immersiveexperiences: using the four dimensional framework for designing and evaluating immersive learning experiencesin a virtual world. British Journal of Educational TechnologyKnight, J., Carly, S., Tregunna, B., Jarvis, S., Smithies, R., de Freitas, S., Mackway-Jones, K. & Dunwell, I. (2010).Serious gaming technology in major incident triage training: A pragmatic controlled trial. Resuscitation Journal81(9): 1174-9de Freitas, S. (2011) Game for Change. Nature, 470 (7334): 330-331.Sharpe, R., Beetham, H. & de Freitas, S. (Eds) (2010) Rethinking Learning in the Digital Age, London & New Freitas, S. & Maharg, P. (Eds) (2011) Digital Games and Learning. London and New York: Continuum Pressde Freitas, S. & Maharg, P. (Series Eds) (2011-) Digital Games and Learning. London and New York: Routledge.