Earth ScienceTectonic Plate Theory Continental Drift Continents were once Pangaea Similar rock layers with similar fossils Seafloor Spreading Magnetic rock patterns found on either side of ocean ridges Explains mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes
AtmosphereRain Shadow Effect Clouds release moisture as they rise, windward side of mountains receive rainfall, leeward side does not and becomes desert. Places with high level of precipitation also have high levels of atmospheric circulation. Includes regions with colliding air masses, windward side mountains, around equator
AtmosphereKyoto Protocol 1997 160 countries agree to reduce greenhouse gas levels by 2012 to below 1990 levels Has been signed by all industrialized countries except Monaco, Liechtenstein, Australia, and United States Poor countries are exempt to encourage development
AtmosphereCoriolis Effect Deflection of objects in a rotating frame Wind patterns Ocean currents
WaterDistribution 97.6% of all water is oceanic saltwater Freshwater is not easily found 87.2% of freshwater is in glaciers/ice caps 12% is groundwater .8% is surface water 45.7% is in lakes/reservoirs 23.8% in soil moisture 23.8% in plants and animals 4.8% in atmosphere 1.3% in wetlands .6% in rivers and streams
SoilSoil Characteristics Thintop layer of the Earth’s surface Basic natural resource Holds nutrients and water for plants and animals Water is filtered and cleansed as it flows through soil
SoilSoil Composition Three main ingredients Minerals of different sizes (sand, silt and clay) Organic materials from dead organisms Open space Good soil has 45% minerals, 5% organic matter, 25% air, and 25% water.
SoilSoil Development Soildevelops in response to several factors: Parent Material Climate Living Organisms Topography