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Earth Systems and Resources
 

Earth Systems and Resources

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An overview of the Earth's systems and resources from earth science to atmosphere to water use to soil.

An overview of the Earth's systems and resources from earth science to atmosphere to water use to soil.

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    Earth Systems and Resources Earth Systems and Resources Presentation Transcript

    • Earth SystemsandResourcesDaniel McNeeleyRobin Hood
    • Earth ScienceEARTH SCIENCETime scales, Earth structure, Tectonic Plate Theory
    • Earth ScienceGeologic Time Scale Two time scales  Radiometric  Based on natural radioactivity of chemicals in rocks  Relative  Based on sequence of layering of rocks and evolution of life.
    • Earth ScienceTime Eons Eras Periods Epochs Stage
    • Earth ScienceEarth Structure 4.6billion years ago. 3 Sections  Biosphere – All forms of life  Hydrosphere – All forms of water  Internal Structure – Crust, mantle, core
    • Earth Science
    • Earth ScienceTectonic Plate Theory Continental Drift  Continents were once Pangaea  Similar rock layers with similar fossils Seafloor Spreading  Magnetic rock patterns found on either side of ocean ridges Explains mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes
    • AtmosphereATMOSPHERE
    • AtmosphereAtmospheric Components Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% CO2 .035% Other >1%
    • AtmosphereZones Troposphere  Closest to Earth  Convection Currents Stratosphere  Less dense  Contains most Ozone Mesophere Thermosphere  Heated by solar and cosmic radiation
    • AtmosphereConvections
    • AtmosphereRain Shadow Effect Clouds release moisture as they rise, windward side of mountains receive rainfall, leeward side does not and becomes desert. Places with high level of precipitation also have high levels of atmospheric circulation.  Includes regions with colliding air masses, windward side mountains, around equator
    • AtmosphereKyoto Protocol 1997  160 countries agree to reduce greenhouse gas levels by 2012 to below 1990 levels  Has been signed by all industrialized countries except Monaco, Liechtenstein, Australia, and United States  Poor countries are exempt to encourage development
    • AtmosphereCoriolis Effect Deflection of objects in a rotating frame  Wind patterns  Ocean currents
    • Earth’s Water Resource Use
    • WaterDistribution 97.6% of all water is oceanic saltwater Freshwater is not easily found  87.2% of freshwater is in glaciers/ice caps  12% is groundwater  .8% is surface water  45.7% is in lakes/reservoirs  23.8% in soil moisture  23.8% in plants and animals  4.8% in atmosphere  1.3% in wetlands  .6% in rivers and streams
    • Water
    • WaterUsage90%80%70%60%50%40% Water Use30%20%10% 0% Agriculture Industry
    • WaterShortages1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water 2.6 billion people don’t adequate sanitation Future wars will be fought over water rather than oil.
    • WaterDams Pros  Stores water  Generates renewable power Cons  Structure failure is disastrous  Displaces people and wildlife  Kills fish  Sediment limits reservoir life
    • WaterIncreasing Water Supplies Desalination Conservation Recycling Policies which encourage conservation
    • SoilSoil
    • SoilSoil Characteristics Thintop layer of the Earth’s surface Basic natural resource Holds nutrients and water for plants and animals Water is filtered and cleansed as it flows through soil
    • SoilSoil Composition Three main ingredients  Minerals of different sizes (sand, silt and clay)  Organic materials from dead organisms  Open space Good soil has 45% minerals, 5% organic matter, 25% air, and 25% water.
    • SoilSoil Development Soildevelops in response to several factors:  Parent Material  Climate  Living Organisms  Topography
    • SoilSoilProfile
    • SoilRock Cycle Three main categories of rock include:  Metamorphic  Slate and marble  Igneous  Granite and basalt  Sedimentary  Sandstone, shale, and limestone
    • Soil