Earth Systems and Resources

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An overview of the Earth's systems and resources from earth science to atmosphere to water use to soil.

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Earth Systems and Resources

  1. 1. Earth SystemsandResourcesDaniel McNeeleyRobin Hood
  2. 2. Earth ScienceEARTH SCIENCETime scales, Earth structure, Tectonic Plate Theory
  3. 3. Earth ScienceGeologic Time Scale Two time scales  Radiometric  Based on natural radioactivity of chemicals in rocks  Relative  Based on sequence of layering of rocks and evolution of life.
  4. 4. Earth ScienceTime Eons Eras Periods Epochs Stage
  5. 5. Earth ScienceEarth Structure 4.6billion years ago. 3 Sections  Biosphere – All forms of life  Hydrosphere – All forms of water  Internal Structure – Crust, mantle, core
  6. 6. Earth Science
  7. 7. Earth ScienceTectonic Plate Theory Continental Drift  Continents were once Pangaea  Similar rock layers with similar fossils Seafloor Spreading  Magnetic rock patterns found on either side of ocean ridges Explains mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes
  8. 8. AtmosphereATMOSPHERE
  9. 9. AtmosphereAtmospheric Components Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% CO2 .035% Other >1%
  10. 10. AtmosphereZones Troposphere  Closest to Earth  Convection Currents Stratosphere  Less dense  Contains most Ozone Mesophere Thermosphere  Heated by solar and cosmic radiation
  11. 11. AtmosphereConvections
  12. 12. AtmosphereRain Shadow Effect Clouds release moisture as they rise, windward side of mountains receive rainfall, leeward side does not and becomes desert. Places with high level of precipitation also have high levels of atmospheric circulation.  Includes regions with colliding air masses, windward side mountains, around equator
  13. 13. AtmosphereKyoto Protocol 1997  160 countries agree to reduce greenhouse gas levels by 2012 to below 1990 levels  Has been signed by all industrialized countries except Monaco, Liechtenstein, Australia, and United States  Poor countries are exempt to encourage development
  14. 14. AtmosphereCoriolis Effect Deflection of objects in a rotating frame  Wind patterns  Ocean currents
  15. 15. Earth’s Water Resource Use
  16. 16. WaterDistribution 97.6% of all water is oceanic saltwater Freshwater is not easily found  87.2% of freshwater is in glaciers/ice caps  12% is groundwater  .8% is surface water  45.7% is in lakes/reservoirs  23.8% in soil moisture  23.8% in plants and animals  4.8% in atmosphere  1.3% in wetlands  .6% in rivers and streams
  17. 17. Water
  18. 18. WaterUsage90%80%70%60%50%40% Water Use30%20%10% 0% Agriculture Industry
  19. 19. WaterShortages1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water 2.6 billion people don’t adequate sanitation Future wars will be fought over water rather than oil.
  20. 20. WaterDams Pros  Stores water  Generates renewable power Cons  Structure failure is disastrous  Displaces people and wildlife  Kills fish  Sediment limits reservoir life
  21. 21. WaterIncreasing Water Supplies Desalination Conservation Recycling Policies which encourage conservation
  22. 22. SoilSoil
  23. 23. SoilSoil Characteristics Thintop layer of the Earth’s surface Basic natural resource Holds nutrients and water for plants and animals Water is filtered and cleansed as it flows through soil
  24. 24. SoilSoil Composition Three main ingredients  Minerals of different sizes (sand, silt and clay)  Organic materials from dead organisms  Open space Good soil has 45% minerals, 5% organic matter, 25% air, and 25% water.
  25. 25. SoilSoil Development Soildevelops in response to several factors:  Parent Material  Climate  Living Organisms  Topography
  26. 26. SoilSoilProfile
  27. 27. SoilRock Cycle Three main categories of rock include:  Metamorphic  Slate and marble  Igneous  Granite and basalt  Sedimentary  Sandstone, shale, and limestone
  28. 28. Soil

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