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Policy Presentation






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Policy Presentation Policy Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Resources Needed for Policy Implementation• Money - used to leverage other resources• Time - a scarce commodity• Personnel - leadership• Space - i.e., physical space• Equipment and Materials
  • Stages of Implementation I• Early Implementation: difficult Three Factors as Predictors of Success 1. Rough start 2. Pressure by leaders to persevere 3. Ongoing support The combination of pressure and support is the key to survival in early implementation
  • Stages of Implementation II• Late Implementation: conditions depend on the outcome of early implementation Prevailing Elements 1. Monitoring and Feedback 2. Ongoing support 3. Coping with Problems: program, people or setting related
  • Stages of Implementation III• Institutionalization – the final stage • Accomplished incrementally – move its components from soft money to a budget line item • Only when the policy becomes a regular budget item does it have a change for institutionalization and full implementation
  • Policy Implementation ExperienceCity of Philadelphia EDA – federal Urban Industrial Redevelopment PIDA – state PAID - localPennsylvania Senate Sen. HagarGeneral Dynamics US DOD/DLA US Army M60 to M1 ramp up US NPS STEAMTOWNStrayer University Performance Metrics Committee
  • Implementing Unpopular PoliciesSources for Organizational Resistance• Structural • Personal Top down and external Turf-guarding or legitimate policies may lead to personal opposition resistance
  • Motivation for Policy Resistance• Self Interest Threats to job security, status or promotional opportunities• Professional Values Philosophical, pedagogical or moral disputes• Creatures of Habit: The baseline resistance to changeResistance may lead to damaged reputation or job loss
  • Resistance to ImplementationOpposition Strategies: Weimer and Vining(1992) and Hirscham(1970)• Exit – leave• Voice – express yourself• Disloyalty – open or passive non-cooperation
  • Outcomes to Opposition• Compliance – when the issue is not significant, e.g. Barnard‘s “Zone of Indifference”• Exit – find another job, transfer or retire• Disloyalty • Open resistance: Sabotage • Passive resistance: Token or Delayed Compliance
  • Strategies to Cope • Persuasion:with Policy 1. listen to objections 2. analyze objections to determineResistance their essence (core) 3. address the objections, i.e. handling objections, a sales techniqueAlways better toinvolve the interested • Modify the policyparties to minimize address the objectionsopposition to thepolicy • Extract the opponents from the implementation process