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Resistance to the Holocaust
 

Resistance to the Holocaust

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  • 1. Germany during WWII especially strong. Poland overrun in a few weeks, France 6 weeks. If these two nations with standing armies couldn’t resist, how could unarmed civilians who had limited access to weapons. 2. Even if Jews had the physical strength, the will, and opportunity to escape from a ghetto or camp, there was no place to go. Food and hiding places difficult to find. Local population threatened by Nazis and hostile to Jews. Could not easily blend into non-Jewish communities because of accent, religious customs, and appearance. Forests only hiding place. 3. After months, if not years, of the spirit of many Jews was lost. All rights were taken, forced to live in horrid conditions, family and friends killed randomly and systematically.
  • This retaliation tactic held entire families and communities responsible for individual acts of armed and unarmed resistance.
  • This retaliation tactic held entire families and communities responsible for individual acts of armed and unarmed resistance.
  • This retaliation tactic held entire families and communities responsible for individual acts of armed and unarmed resistance.
  • This retaliation tactic held entire families and communities responsible for individual acts of armed and unarmed resistance.
  • This retaliation tactic held entire families and communities responsible for individual acts of armed and unarmed resistance.
  • January, 1943 - Ghetto was to be liquidated, resistance fighters destroyed tank - forced Germans back. The next day Germans entered Jewish hospital, killing everyone they found and burned the building. Over next several days, Germans attacked but found resistance everywhere. April, 1943 Full scale German attack on Ghetto Jews began running out of ammo, took it from German bodies May 8, 1943 German’s reached Jewish command post, killed 100 on spot Burned down entire Ghetto and killed most of remaining Jews. News spread to other ghettos, camps inspiring more revolts
  • January, 1943 - Ghetto was to be liquidated, resistance fighters destroyed tank - forced Germans back. The next day Germans entered Jewish hospital, killing everyone they found and burned the building. Over next several days, Germans attacked but found resistance everywhere. April, 1943 Full scale German attack on Ghetto Jews began running out of ammo, took it from German bodies May 8, 1943 German’s reached Jewish command post, killed 100 on spot Burned down entire Ghetto and killed most of remaining Jews. News spread to other ghettos, camps inspiring more revolts
  • January, 1943 - Ghetto was to be liquidated, resistance fighters destroyed tank - forced Germans back. The next day Germans entered Jewish hospital, killing everyone they found and burned the building. Over next several days, Germans attacked but found resistance everywhere. April, 1943 Full scale German attack on Ghetto Jews began running out of ammo, took it from German bodies May 8, 1943 German’s reached Jewish command post, killed 100 on spot Burned down entire Ghetto and killed most of remaining Jews. News spread to other ghettos, camps inspiring more revolts
  • January, 1943 - Ghetto was to be liquidated, resistance fighters destroyed tank - forced Germans back. The next day Germans entered Jewish hospital, killing everyone they found and burned the building. Over next several days, Germans attacked but found resistance everywhere. April, 1943 Full scale German attack on Ghetto Jews began running out of ammo, took it from German bodies May 8, 1943 German’s reached Jewish command post, killed 100 on spot Burned down entire Ghetto and killed most of remaining Jews. News spread to other ghettos, camps inspiring more revolts

Resistance to the Holocaust Resistance to the Holocaust Presentation Transcript

  • R ESISTANCE During the Holocaust
  • B ARRIERS T O R ESISTANCE
    • Superior, armed power of Germans
    • Isolation of Jews, lack of weapons
    • Broken spirit
    • “ Collective Responsibility”
    • Secrecy and deception
  • C OLLECTIVE R ESPONSIBILITY In Lithuania two boys escaped a Ghetto, when they refused to return the entire Ghetto population was killed.
  • C OLLECTIVE R ESPONSIBILITY When Meir Berliner, a Jewish prisoner at the Treblinka death camp, killed a Nazi officer, 160 Jews were executed.
  • C OLLECTIVE R ESPONSIBILITY In Yugoslavia 50-100 civilians were killed for every Nazi killed by local partisans.
  • C OLLECTIVE R ESPONSIBILITY In Czech an entire village of 700 was wiped off the map because a citizen in a neighboring village assassinated a Nazi officer.
  • C OLLECTIVE R ESPONSIBILITY How do you fight against this?
  • S ECRECY AND D ECEPTION
    • Secrecy maintained to impede resistance
    • Despite rumors, many simply did not believe
    • Jews usually told to pack belongings - thus reinforcing the idea they were being “resettled”
    • Many at Auschwitz were forced to write postcards before being gassed, “Arrived safely. I am well.”
  • S ECRECY AND D ECEPTION
  • T O R ESIST W AS ...
    • To smuggle a loaf of bread
    • To teach and worship in secret
    • To forge documents
    • To smuggle people across borders
    • To chronicle events and conceal the records
    • To hold out a helping hand to the needy
    • To contact those under siege and smuggle weapons
    • To fight with weapons in streets, mountains, and forests
    • To rebel in death camps
    • To rise up in ghettos, among the crumbling walls, in the most desperate revolt
  • S PIRITUAL R ESISTANCE
    • Attempting to carry on a semblance of "normal” life in the face of wretched conditions
    • Schools set up
    • The observance of many Jewish rituals, including dietary laws - these were severely punishable by Nazis
    • Held musical and dramatic performances
    • Secret newspapers used to keep Jews informed and to encourage hope
  • P ARTISANS
    • Irregular troops that engaged in guerilla warfare behind German lines
    • Fought and rescued other Jews from forests around camps and ghettos
  • T HE W ARSAW G HETTO U PRISING
    • Smuggled in guns and ammunition, Homemade bombs
    • 750 Jewish fighters held off 3000 crack German troops for 28 days.
    • Eventually Ghetto was completely destroyed
    • Turning point in Jewish history - inspired many others to resist.
  • T HE W ARSAW G HETTO U PRISING
  • T HE W ARSAW G HETTO U PRISING
  • T HE W ARSAW G HETTO U PRISING
  • T HE W ARSAW G HETTO U PRISING
  • R ESISTANCE IN THE C AMPS
    • Secret political organizations and meetings
    • Attempts to alleviate suffering of camp inmates
    • Attempts to inform the outside world about camps
    • Rarely a violent act was performed
    • Rosa Robota helped smuggle gun powder to blow up a crematorian in Auschwitz
  • My heart still beats inside my breast While friends depart for other worlds. Perhaps it’s better - who can say? - Than watching this, to die today No, no my God we want to live! Not watch our numbers melt away. We want to have a better world. We want to work - we must not die! Eva Pikova, a 12 year old from the Vilna Ghetto. Fate unknown.