Origins of the War on TerrorPresentation Transcript
Origins of the War on Terror From the Cold War to 9/11/01
Background: COLD WAR
USSR and US needed Oil for their economies to function
US supported Israel and stayed friendly with Saudi Arabia, and Iraq
USSR supported other Arab nations such as Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iran
A Brief history of Afghanistan
Soviets invaded Afghan. in 1979 (communist expansion) and established puppet government
The population resisted. Mujahideen opposition forces
US and Pakistan sent CIA to train these rebels in terror tactics, and guerrilla warfare.
Soviets pulled out in 1988.
Guess you one of these Mujahideen fighters was?
Osama Bin Laden
Originally from a rich Saudi Arabian family.
Joined the call from Afghanistan to join a religious war against the Soviets
He received training from our CIA operatives.
Afghanistan after the Soviets left
Mujahidin factions started fighting one another for control
US pulled out (no interest since the Soviets were defeated) This caused bitter resentment by many, including Bin Laden
An Islamic extremist group known as the Taliban, eventually took control by 1996
This government supported any extremist group dedicated to preserving Islam and destroying Western influence in the Middle East.
“ The Base”
Started by Osama during the Soviet Afghan war
Al-Qaeda's objectives include the elimination of foreign influence in Muslim countries, eradication of those deemed to be "infidels", elimination of Israel, and the creation of a new pure Islamic state.
Osama and the Taliban
He now had a country to base his operations
Al Qaeda sets up training facilities for anyone who was willing to fight for their cause
The US knew about this but chose to do little as it was not seen as an immediate threat (1996-2001)
The Iran-Iraq War
Background: Iran-Iraq War
1979-1980 the Iranians had held American hostages from our embassy.
Sept 1980 Iraq invades Iran starting an eight year long war.
US and other western nations supported Iraq and Saddam against Iran (which was ruled by a fundamentalist Islamic gov’t AND had close ties with the USSR)
US sold Saddam chemical weapons to use against the Iranians. (he later used them in an attempted genocide of Kurds in the north).
The Gulf War 1990-91
Iraq invades Kuwait
Saddam faced a huge $14 billion debt after his failed war with Iran
Kuwait was seen as a “quick fix” and he invaded it in 1990.
The US had close connections with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (Oil).
Saudi Arabia allowed us to station troops in their country to eventually free Kuwait
Back to Osama
Osama offered the Saudi gov’t Islamic fighters to fight against Saddam, who was seen as a western conspirator
That is until…..
The Saudi government allowed “infidels” (US troops) onto holy ground
(Saudi Arabia is where Mecca and Medina are)
This infuriated the Al Qaeda leadership
Back to the Gulf war
US and allied forces take back Kuwait from Iraq in early 1991 with only 6 weeks of fighting.
Saddam was allowed to stay in power.
The UN decided that the goal was to free Kuwait, NOT oust Saddam
Events leading up to 9/11: Al Qaeda attacks against the US
Aden, Yemen: 1992, three hotels are bombed that housed US troops
Somalia 1993: US helicopter is shot down ( remember “Black Hawk Down?”)
World Trade Center bombing 1993-attempt failed
Al-Qaeda is believed to have conducted the bombings in August 1998 of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi , Kenya , and Dar es Salaam , Tanzania , killing more than 200 people and injuring more than 5,000 others.
Oct 2000 The USS Cole is bombed, Aden Yemen
US Finally Responds
US sends in Missiles to hit certain terrorist training sites in Afghanistan. (ineffective)
Nearly causes an international incident (missiles over other countries)
Al Qaeda Succeeds in the US: September 11, 2001
4 Commercial planes are hijacked by Al Qaeda sleeper cells
2 hit the World Trade Center in New York
-American Airlines Flight 11 -hit North Tower
-United Airlines Flight 175 - hit South Tower
2 more planes are hijacked shortly there after
-American Airlines Flight 77 hits the Pentagon
-Untied Airlines “Hero” Flight 93-passengers rebel and plane crashes in PA.
19 hijackers, 2,973 Americans Killed
Osama and 9/11
There is America, hit by God in one of its softest spots. Its greatest buildings were destroyed, thank God for
that. There is America, full of fear from its north to its south, from its west to its east. Thank God for that.
What America is tasting now is something insignificant compared to what we have tasted for scores of years.
Our nation (the Islamic world) has been tasting this humiliation and this degradation for more than 80 years.
Its sons are killed, its blood is shed, its sanctuaries are attacked, and no one hears and no one heeds.
To America, I say only a few words to it and its people. I swear by God, who has elevated the skies without
pillars, neither America nor the people who live in it will dream of security before we live it in Palestine, and
not before all the infidel armies leave the land of Muhammad, peace be upon him.