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Napoleon
 

Napoleon

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    Napoleon Napoleon Presentation Transcript

    • Napoleon
    • Key Events of the Empire
      • Loss of Haiti, Sale of Louisiana, 1803
      • Loss at Trafalgar, 1805
      • Victories in Central Europe, 1805-1807
      • Establishment of Continental System
      • Spread of Napoleonic Code
    • Key Events of the Empire
      • Nationalist Resistance to Napoleon
      • Retreat from Russia, 1812-13
      • Defeat at Leipzig, 1813
      • Return, and defeat at Waterloo, 1815
    • Napoleon, The Romantic Figure
      • Movement from Enlightenment to Romanticism
      • Reason and debate  Intuition and Action
      • Democracy  Individual Hero
      • Failure  Destiny
    • They Say A Picture is Worth 1000 Words - This Graph Tells a Fascinating Story - What is it?!
    • Height of Napoleon’s Power
    • Napoleon
      • Brilliant General
      • 1799- Coup d’etat takes power from Directory
      • 1804- French plebiscite (vote) to allow him to be an emperor
    • Social Achievements
      • Concordat: Patch relationship with Catholic Church - 1801
      • Napoleonic Code: Uniform laws for all (except women and slaves) - 1804 (still basis of Louisiana’s law)
      • Lycees: Public Schools for all
      • National Bank and Tax Reform: To fix France’s financial Problems
    • Ambitions for Empire
      • Americas:
      • Louisiana territories (N. America)
      • Guiana (S. America - still a French colony)
      • Saint-Domingue (Haiti) (Caribbean)
    • … But Napoleon Decides to Ditch the Americas
      • Sells Louisiana Territory to U.S. for $15 million to finance war, spite British
      • Slave revolt in Saint-Domingue creates world’s first black republic (Haiti)
    • Haitian Independence, 1792-1804 Toussaint L’Ouverture
    • Louisiana Purchase, 1803 $15,000,000
    • Europe:
      • Emperor of France
      • Controls Spain, Confederation of Rhine, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Italy, Kingdom of Naples, Switzerland (brothers and in-laws)
      • Divorced Wife and “Married Up” into Austrian Royal Family (grand-niece of Marie Antoinette)
      Au Revroir Hey there…
    • Josephine’s Divorce Statement (1807) With the permission of our august and dear husband, I must declare that, having no hope of bearing children who would fulfill the needs of his policies and the interests of France, I am pleased to offer him the greatest proof of attachment and devotion ever offered on this earth.
    • Napoléon’s Divorce Statement (1807) Far from ever finding cause for complaint, I can to the contrary only congratulate myself on the devotion and tenderness of my beloved wife. She has adorned thirteen years of my life; the memory will always remain engraved on my heart.
    • “ Consecration of the Emperor Napoléon & the Empress Josephine,” 1806 by David December 2, 1804
    • “ Consecration of the Emperor Napoléon & the Empress Josephine,” (Detail) 1806 by David
    • Napoléon’s Throne
    • The Imperial Image
    • The “Empire” Style Madame Recamier by David, 1808
    • Marie Louise (of Austria) married Napoléon on March 12, 1810 in Vienna
    • Marie Louise (of Austria) with Napoléon’s Son (Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles: 1811-1832)
    • Napoléon’s Family Rules!
      • Jerome Bonaparte - King of Westphalia.
      • Joseph Bonaparte - King of Spain
      • Louise Bonaparte - King of Holland
      • Pauline Bonaparte - Princess of Italy
      • Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles - King of Rome
      • Elisa Bonaparte - Grand Duchess of Tuscany
      • Caroline Bonaparte - Queen of Naples
    • Napoleonic Europe
    • Napoleon Reaches His Peak from 1807-1812…
      • But, Problems Are Forming:
      • Napoleon’s control over other countries makes them realize that they are more loyal to their own people than Napoleon
      • France’s Empire is huge and difficult to control
      • Napoleon was his own worst enemy!
    • … And Then Things Fall Apart!
      • Three Costly Mistakes:
      • The Continental System
      • The Peninsular War
      • The Invasion of Russia
    • Napoléon’s Major Military Campaigns Trafalgar (Lord Nelson: Fr. Navy lost!)  Britain France  1805: Sea Power
    • Battle of Trafalgar
    • Continental System - November 1806
      • A blockade designed to cut England off from Europe
        • Napoleon’s navy lost at Trafalgar, so direct naval conflict out of question
        • To destroy British trade, undermine it economically
        • To exclude it from Europe’s affairs
    • Problems with Continental System
      • Was not executed correctly - weakened British trade, did not destroy it
      • British retaliated, made own blockade, and stopped all neutral ships going to Europe
        • Including American ships, causing War of 1812 (only war in which U.S. invaded by foreign power)
      • Weakened economy of France and lands controlled by Napoleon
    • The Peninsular War - 1808
      • Portugal ignored Continental System
      • Napoleon sent army through Spain to overthrow Royal Family
      • Spanish towns rioted in response, so Napoleon deposed Spanish king and made brother king of Spain and Portugal
      • Port. Royals fled to Brazil, which became only colony to be the capital of its “mother country”
    • The Peninsular War - 1808
      • REALLY made Spanish mad
        • Very loyal to king
        • Feared that Napoleon would weaken power of Church as had happened in France
        • Engaged in 5 years of guerrilla warfare , which cost Napoleon 300,000 troops
        • Encouraged Nationalism in other countries like Germany and Italy, who also started guerrilla warfare
    • “ Third of May, 1808” by Goya (1810)
    • The Surrender of Madrid May, 1809
    • Invasion of Russia - 1812
      • Invading Russia = Losing Prospect!
      • Napoleon and Czar of Russia were allies
        • Napoleon thought that czar was selling grain to Britain behind his back
        • N. feared that czar wanted Poland from France
        • N. decided to invade Russia
    • Invasion of Russia, cont’d.
      • June, 1812: 420,000 Grand Army leaves for Russia
        • All drafted from throughout Europe and not loyal to Napoleon
        • Scorched Earth Policy: EVERYTHING destroyed to keep from French: deaths and desertions
        • Sept. 14, 1812: Entered Moscow
          • Czar ordered it burned down
          • N. lingered for 5 weeks, waiting for peace offer - none came
    • Invasion of Russia, cont’d.
      • Oct./Nov. 1812 - Ordered retreat from Moscow
        • Snows began to fall
        • Barefoot, starving soldiers attacked by Russians
        • Temperature: on one day, -30º: Birds fell dead from sky
      • Mid-December 1812: Remaining 10,000 soldiers left Russia
    • Napoléon Invades Russia: 1812 614,000 French troops
    • Moscow on Fire!
    • Napoléon & His Grand Armée at the Gates of Moscow
    • Russian General Kutuzov The Russian army defeated the French at Borodino.
    • Napoléon’s Retreat from Moscow (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat—40,000 survive!
    • So, A Picture is Worth 1000 words!
    • Mop-Up Duty
      • Oct. 1813 - N. no longer has trained army - draftees destroyed by Allies at Leipzig
      • Jan. 1814 - Austrians and Russians enter Paris
      • April 1814 - Napoleon Abdicates, accepts surrender written by czar
      • Napoleon given pension and banishment to Elba
      • New French king: Brother of Louis XVI installed as ruler
    • Napoléon’s Defeat at Leipzig (October 16-17, 1813) “ Battle of the Nations” Memorial
    • Napoléon Abdicates!
      • Allied forces occupied Paris on March 31, 1814.
      • Napoléon abdicated on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender.
      • Napoléon abdicated again on April 11.
      • Treaty of Fontainbleau exiles Napoléon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs.
      • The royalists took control and restored Louis XVIII to the throne.
    • Napoléon in Exile on Elba
    • Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)
    • One More Time for Old Time’s Sake
      • New French king unpopular
      • Mar. 1815 - escaped Elba and landed in France
      • Within days, become Emperor again and Louis XVIII flees
    • Napoléon on His Way to His Final Exile on St. Helena
    • Napoléon’s Tomb
    • Waterloo - The Final Showdown
      • Fought between Napoleon and British
      • June 15, 1815: French attacked
      • June 17, 1815: French lost
      • Died 6 years later (stomach cancer)
      • Marie Louise left him for Austrian officer assigned to watch over her
      • Napoleon’s son died of tuberculosis in Austria
    • Aftermath
      • Napoleon roused nationalism throughout Europe
        • Led to unification of Germany and Italy as we know them
      • U.S. gained middle 1/3 of its current land
      • Haiti first colony other than US to win independence
      • US attacked by British
      • Spanish American colonies like semi-independence, rebel against re-establishment of Spanish King (Simon Bolivar)
    • Europe in 1800
    • The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)
      • It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done:
        • Reduce France to its old boundaries - her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level.
        • Restore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era.
      • Supported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict .
    • Key Players at Vienna The “Host” Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)
    • Key Principles Established at Vienna
      • Balance of Power
      • Legitimacy
      • Compensation
      Coalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. France would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs.
      • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoléon.
      • Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland).
      • Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of Poland, and other German territories.
      • A Germanic Confederation of 39 states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule.
      • Austria was given back territory it had lost recently, plus more in Germany and Italy.
      • The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule.
      Changes Made at Vienna (1)
    • Changes Made at Vienna (2)
      • Norway and Sweden were joined.
      • The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed.
      • Hanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom.
      • Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia.
      • Sardinia was given Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, and Genoa.
      • The Bourbon Ferdinand I was restored in the Two Sicilies.
      • The Duchy of Parma was given to Marie Louise.
      • The slave trade was condemned (at British urging).
      • Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers.
    • Napoléon’s Empire in 1810
    • Europe After the Congress of Vienna
    • To wrap up…
      • After the death of Napoleon, how was France and Europe:
        • The same as it had always been?
        • Completely different?