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Napoleon Napoleon Presentation Transcript

  • Napoleon
  • Key Events of the Empire
    • Loss of Haiti, Sale of Louisiana, 1803
    • Loss at Trafalgar, 1805
    • Victories in Central Europe, 1805-1807
    • Establishment of Continental System
    • Spread of Napoleonic Code
  • Key Events of the Empire
    • Nationalist Resistance to Napoleon
    • Retreat from Russia, 1812-13
    • Defeat at Leipzig, 1813
    • Return, and defeat at Waterloo, 1815
    View slide
  • Napoleon, The Romantic Figure
    • Movement from Enlightenment to Romanticism
    • Reason and debate  Intuition and Action
    • Democracy  Individual Hero
    • Failure  Destiny
    View slide
  • They Say A Picture is Worth 1000 Words - This Graph Tells a Fascinating Story - What is it?!
  • Height of Napoleon’s Power
  • Napoleon
    • Brilliant General
    • 1799- Coup d’etat takes power from Directory
    • 1804- French plebiscite (vote) to allow him to be an emperor
  • Social Achievements
    • Concordat: Patch relationship with Catholic Church - 1801
    • Napoleonic Code: Uniform laws for all (except women and slaves) - 1804 (still basis of Louisiana’s law)
    • Lycees: Public Schools for all
    • National Bank and Tax Reform: To fix France’s financial Problems
  • Ambitions for Empire
    • Americas:
    • Louisiana territories (N. America)
    • Guiana (S. America - still a French colony)
    • Saint-Domingue (Haiti) (Caribbean)
  • … But Napoleon Decides to Ditch the Americas
    • Sells Louisiana Territory to U.S. for $15 million to finance war, spite British
    • Slave revolt in Saint-Domingue creates world’s first black republic (Haiti)
  • Haitian Independence, 1792-1804 Toussaint L’Ouverture
  • Louisiana Purchase, 1803 $15,000,000
  • Europe:
    • Emperor of France
    • Controls Spain, Confederation of Rhine, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Italy, Kingdom of Naples, Switzerland (brothers and in-laws)
    • Divorced Wife and “Married Up” into Austrian Royal Family (grand-niece of Marie Antoinette)
    Au Revroir Hey there…
  • Josephine’s Divorce Statement (1807) With the permission of our august and dear husband, I must declare that, having no hope of bearing children who would fulfill the needs of his policies and the interests of France, I am pleased to offer him the greatest proof of attachment and devotion ever offered on this earth.
  • Napoléon’s Divorce Statement (1807) Far from ever finding cause for complaint, I can to the contrary only congratulate myself on the devotion and tenderness of my beloved wife. She has adorned thirteen years of my life; the memory will always remain engraved on my heart.
  • “ Consecration of the Emperor Napoléon & the Empress Josephine,” 1806 by David December 2, 1804
  • “ Consecration of the Emperor Napoléon & the Empress Josephine,” (Detail) 1806 by David
  • Napoléon’s Throne
  • The Imperial Image
  • The “Empire” Style Madame Recamier by David, 1808
  • Marie Louise (of Austria) married Napoléon on March 12, 1810 in Vienna
  • Marie Louise (of Austria) with Napoléon’s Son (Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles: 1811-1832)
  • Napoléon’s Family Rules!
    • Jerome Bonaparte - King of Westphalia.
    • Joseph Bonaparte - King of Spain
    • Louise Bonaparte - King of Holland
    • Pauline Bonaparte - Princess of Italy
    • Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles - King of Rome
    • Elisa Bonaparte - Grand Duchess of Tuscany
    • Caroline Bonaparte - Queen of Naples
  • Napoleonic Europe
  • Napoleon Reaches His Peak from 1807-1812…
    • But, Problems Are Forming:
    • Napoleon’s control over other countries makes them realize that they are more loyal to their own people than Napoleon
    • France’s Empire is huge and difficult to control
    • Napoleon was his own worst enemy!
  • … And Then Things Fall Apart!
    • Three Costly Mistakes:
    • The Continental System
    • The Peninsular War
    • The Invasion of Russia
  • Napoléon’s Major Military Campaigns Trafalgar (Lord Nelson: Fr. Navy lost!)  Britain France  1805: Sea Power
  • Battle of Trafalgar
  • Continental System - November 1806
    • A blockade designed to cut England off from Europe
      • Napoleon’s navy lost at Trafalgar, so direct naval conflict out of question
      • To destroy British trade, undermine it economically
      • To exclude it from Europe’s affairs
  • Problems with Continental System
    • Was not executed correctly - weakened British trade, did not destroy it
    • British retaliated, made own blockade, and stopped all neutral ships going to Europe
      • Including American ships, causing War of 1812 (only war in which U.S. invaded by foreign power)
    • Weakened economy of France and lands controlled by Napoleon
  • The Peninsular War - 1808
    • Portugal ignored Continental System
    • Napoleon sent army through Spain to overthrow Royal Family
    • Spanish towns rioted in response, so Napoleon deposed Spanish king and made brother king of Spain and Portugal
    • Port. Royals fled to Brazil, which became only colony to be the capital of its “mother country”
  • The Peninsular War - 1808
    • REALLY made Spanish mad
      • Very loyal to king
      • Feared that Napoleon would weaken power of Church as had happened in France
      • Engaged in 5 years of guerrilla warfare , which cost Napoleon 300,000 troops
      • Encouraged Nationalism in other countries like Germany and Italy, who also started guerrilla warfare
  • “ Third of May, 1808” by Goya (1810)
  • The Surrender of Madrid May, 1809
  • Invasion of Russia - 1812
    • Invading Russia = Losing Prospect!
    • Napoleon and Czar of Russia were allies
      • Napoleon thought that czar was selling grain to Britain behind his back
      • N. feared that czar wanted Poland from France
      • N. decided to invade Russia
  • Invasion of Russia, cont’d.
    • June, 1812: 420,000 Grand Army leaves for Russia
      • All drafted from throughout Europe and not loyal to Napoleon
      • Scorched Earth Policy: EVERYTHING destroyed to keep from French: deaths and desertions
      • Sept. 14, 1812: Entered Moscow
        • Czar ordered it burned down
        • N. lingered for 5 weeks, waiting for peace offer - none came
  • Invasion of Russia, cont’d.
    • Oct./Nov. 1812 - Ordered retreat from Moscow
      • Snows began to fall
      • Barefoot, starving soldiers attacked by Russians
      • Temperature: on one day, -30º: Birds fell dead from sky
    • Mid-December 1812: Remaining 10,000 soldiers left Russia
  • Napoléon Invades Russia: 1812 614,000 French troops
  • Moscow on Fire!
  • Napoléon & His Grand Armée at the Gates of Moscow
  • Russian General Kutuzov The Russian army defeated the French at Borodino.
  • Napoléon’s Retreat from Moscow (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat—40,000 survive!
  • So, A Picture is Worth 1000 words!
  • Mop-Up Duty
    • Oct. 1813 - N. no longer has trained army - draftees destroyed by Allies at Leipzig
    • Jan. 1814 - Austrians and Russians enter Paris
    • April 1814 - Napoleon Abdicates, accepts surrender written by czar
    • Napoleon given pension and banishment to Elba
    • New French king: Brother of Louis XVI installed as ruler
  • Napoléon’s Defeat at Leipzig (October 16-17, 1813) “ Battle of the Nations” Memorial
  • Napoléon Abdicates!
    • Allied forces occupied Paris on March 31, 1814.
    • Napoléon abdicated on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender.
    • Napoléon abdicated again on April 11.
    • Treaty of Fontainbleau exiles Napoléon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs.
    • The royalists took control and restored Louis XVIII to the throne.
  • Napoléon in Exile on Elba
  • Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)
  • One More Time for Old Time’s Sake
    • New French king unpopular
    • Mar. 1815 - escaped Elba and landed in France
    • Within days, become Emperor again and Louis XVIII flees
  • Napoléon on His Way to His Final Exile on St. Helena
  • Napoléon’s Tomb
  • Waterloo - The Final Showdown
    • Fought between Napoleon and British
    • June 15, 1815: French attacked
    • June 17, 1815: French lost
    • Died 6 years later (stomach cancer)
    • Marie Louise left him for Austrian officer assigned to watch over her
    • Napoleon’s son died of tuberculosis in Austria
  • Aftermath
    • Napoleon roused nationalism throughout Europe
      • Led to unification of Germany and Italy as we know them
    • U.S. gained middle 1/3 of its current land
    • Haiti first colony other than US to win independence
    • US attacked by British
    • Spanish American colonies like semi-independence, rebel against re-establishment of Spanish King (Simon Bolivar)
  • Europe in 1800
  • The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)
    • It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done:
      • Reduce France to its old boundaries - her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level.
      • Restore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era.
    • Supported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict .
  • Key Players at Vienna The “Host” Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)
  • Key Principles Established at Vienna
    • Balance of Power
    • Legitimacy
    • Compensation
    Coalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. France would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs.
    • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoléon.
    • Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland).
    • Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of Poland, and other German territories.
    • A Germanic Confederation of 39 states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule.
    • Austria was given back territory it had lost recently, plus more in Germany and Italy.
    • The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule.
    Changes Made at Vienna (1)
  • Changes Made at Vienna (2)
    • Norway and Sweden were joined.
    • The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed.
    • Hanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom.
    • Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia.
    • Sardinia was given Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, and Genoa.
    • The Bourbon Ferdinand I was restored in the Two Sicilies.
    • The Duchy of Parma was given to Marie Louise.
    • The slave trade was condemned (at British urging).
    • Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers.
  • Napoléon’s Empire in 1810
  • Europe After the Congress of Vienna
  • To wrap up…
    • After the death of Napoleon, how was France and Europe:
      • The same as it had always been?
      • Completely different?