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Islam: An Overview

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An overview of the early history of Islam, beliefs, and the basic differences between Shi'ites and Sunnis.

An overview of the early history of Islam, beliefs, and the basic differences between Shi'ites and Sunnis.

Published in Spiritual
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  • 1. Islam: An Introduction AP World History
  • 2. Islam
    • Islam = Peace or surrendering
    • Monotheistic
    • Prophets - Muhammad last prophet
    • Divine scriptures defining
    • Last Judgment “ The unbelievers among the People of the Book and the pagans shall burn for ever in the fire fire of Hell”
    • God’s will supreme
  • 3. In the beginning…
    • Allah created earth in Genesis
    • Adam -> Noah -> Shem (Semite) ->
    • Abraham -> Sarah -> Isaac (Jewish faith)
    • Isaac stayed in Palestine
    • Abraham -> Hagar -> Ishmael (Islam faith)
  • 4. In the beginning…
    • Ishmael went to where Mecca was to rise
      • Hagar and Ishmael were banished after Isaac was born
  • 5. Muhammad
    • 610 A.D. Angel Gabriel speaks to him
    • “ You are the appointed one”
    • The final prophet, the “seal of the prophets”
    • Received Qur’an
      • Considered his miracle
  • 6. From Refugee…
    • 622 C.E. Fled to Medina, converted town
    • “ City of the prophet”
    • Migration = Hijra
    • Muslim calendar
    • First community connected by faith
  • 7. … To Conqueror
    • Masterful politician
    • Ideal blend of justice and mercy
    • Made peace for five tribes (including three Jewish)
    • Returned to Mecca 8 years later as conqueror
    • Died 632 A. D. (10 A.H. After the Hijra)
  • 8. Texts/Laws
    • Sharia - Islamic law, draws no distinction between religious and secular life
    • Qur’an - Words of God as told by Muhammad. Fixed impurities in other docs (i.e. Bible)
    • Hadith - Sayings, teachings, and accounts of Muhammad
  • 9. The Five Pillars
    • The Shahadah - “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His Prophet.”
    • Prayer- Five times a day
    • Charity/Alms
    • Ramadan - Islam’s holy month
    • Pilgrimage to Mecca - At least once during lifetime
  • 10. Jihad
    • Sometimes called sixth pillar
    • More than “holy war”
    • A struggle to achieve the ways of Allah
    • Modern extremists use concept to rationalize and legitimize acts
  • 11. General Divisions
    • Sunnis
    • About 85% of Muslims
    • Leaders chosen through consensus
    • The sharia was codified and closed by 10th century
    • Shi’ites/Shia/Shii
    • About 15% of Muslims
    • Islam’s leader should be a descendent of Mohammad
    • Religious leaders have authority to interpret sharia
  • 12. Significance?
    • Youngest universal faith
    • 8th century to Renaissance, Arabic the language of mathematics and science
    • Through political authority of dar-al-Islam and the sharia, Islam developed into a way of life derived from religious principles.
  • 13. Big Question
    • How was the Islam religion able to spread to far and so quickly?
  • 14. Big Question
    • Zeal of new converts
    • Attacked weakened Byzantine and Sasanid territories
    • Overtaxed peasants and oppressed ethnic minorities in empires wished for change
    • All equal before Allah