Introduction to the Industrial Revolution
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Introduction to the Industrial Revolution

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An overview of the causes of the Industrial Revolution, early effects, key inventions, and why Britain was first to industrialize.

An overview of the causes of the Industrial Revolution, early effects, key inventions, and why Britain was first to industrialize.

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Introduction to the Industrial Revolution Introduction to the Industrial Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to the Industrial Revolution
  • Shift from the Agrarian World
    • Agricultural Revolution – New farming methods invented
    • Lord Townshend in England introduced crop rotation – land could now be used year-round; certain crops revitalized soil
    • Enclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public land
  • Shift from the Agrarian World
    • Smaller farmers pushed off of land to work as wage laborers for various land owners or to move to the growing cities
    • More food produced = population increase
    • In 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to 190 million.
  • Textile Industry Takes Off
    • Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products later
  • Textile Industry Takes Off
    • Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including:
    • 1733 - Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth
    The Spinning Jenny
  • Textile Industry Takes Off
    • 1760 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together
    • 1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frame
    The Spinning Jenny
  • Textile Industry Takes Off
    • 1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth
    • 1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton
    Plans for the Cotton Gin
  • Textile Industry Takes Off
    • These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory
    Plans for the Cotton Gin
  • Britain Industrializes First
    • 1715-1850
    • Many natural resources available in Britain, including large amounts of coal and iron
  • Britain Industrializes First
    • Geographical advantages include a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy trade
    • A strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to invest
  • Britain Industrializes First
    • Colonial empire provided much needed raw materials and markets
    • Spreads to continental Europe, United States of America, and Japan between 1850 and 1914
  • Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
    • Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines
    • Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better
    • Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth
    • Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others
    • Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced
  • Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
    • Cities begin to dominate the western world
    • Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential middle class
    • Poor working conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements
    • Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands (imperialism)