Introduction to the Industrial Revolution


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An overview of the causes of the Industrial Revolution, early effects, key inventions, and why Britain was first to industrialize.

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Introduction to the Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. Introduction to the Industrial Revolution
  2. 2. Shift from the Agrarian World <ul><li>Agricultural Revolution – New farming methods invented </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Townshend in England introduced crop rotation – land could now be used year-round; certain crops revitalized soil </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public land </li></ul>
  3. 3. Shift from the Agrarian World <ul><li>Smaller farmers pushed off of land to work as wage laborers for various land owners or to move to the growing cities </li></ul><ul><li>More food produced = population increase </li></ul><ul><li>In 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to 190 million. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Textile Industry Takes Off <ul><li>Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products later </li></ul>
  5. 5. Textile Industry Takes Off <ul><li>Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including: </li></ul><ul><li>1733 - Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth </li></ul>The Spinning Jenny
  6. 6. Textile Industry Takes Off <ul><li>1760 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together </li></ul><ul><li>1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frame </li></ul>The Spinning Jenny
  7. 7. Textile Industry Takes Off <ul><li>1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth </li></ul><ul><li>1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton </li></ul>Plans for the Cotton Gin
  8. 8. Textile Industry Takes Off <ul><li>These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory </li></ul>Plans for the Cotton Gin
  9. 9. Britain Industrializes First <ul><li>1715-1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Many natural resources available in Britain, including large amounts of coal and iron </li></ul>
  10. 10. Britain Industrializes First <ul><li>Geographical advantages include a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy trade </li></ul><ul><li>A strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to invest </li></ul>
  11. 11. Britain Industrializes First <ul><li>Colonial empire provided much needed raw materials and markets </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads to continental Europe, United States of America, and Japan between 1850 and 1914 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced </li></ul>
  13. 13. Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Cities begin to dominate the western world </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Poor working conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements </li></ul><ul><li>Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands (imperialism) </li></ul>
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