India Overview


Published on

To prepare us for the movie Gandhi, this presentation reviews the major elements of Indian history.

  • The usage of imagery in this display is really efficient. You have done a fantastic job here friend.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Huge topic well devided into 3 main subgroups that characterize the main features of India. The slides are illustrated.The religious problem of India can be easily understood with the logical built of the slides. The background and the text are different colours:it makes easier us focus on the text. Concentrates more on the positive effects of the British role in India. The slides not only give a sketch but also give us examples.<br /><br/>
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

India Overview

  1. 1. India Overview Religion, the Caste System, and British Colonialism
  2. 2. Religion in India <ul><li>Over 80% of India is Hindu – despite centuries of Muslim rule </li></ul><ul><li>About 10-12% of India is Muslim, Muslim leaders generally were from foreign lands </li></ul><ul><li>About 2.5% are Christian </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tensions between Muslim and Hindus <ul><li>Muslims minority controlled most of India </li></ul><ul><li>Hindus suffered special taxes, destruction of temples, and forced conversions to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions eased as the two religions united to fight British colonization </li></ul><ul><li>As independence approached in the 1940s, Muslim fears of the overwhelming Hindu majority would cause Muslim leaders to seek the independence Muslim nation of Pakistan </li></ul>
  4. 4. Caste System <ul><li>Hindu society was divided into major castes or classes </li></ul><ul><li>There are four major castes, but thousands of sub-castes </li></ul><ul><li>People are born into a caste and upward mobility is next to impossible – people only married within their caste </li></ul>
  5. 5. Caste System <ul><li>Part of a complex system of job division – each caste had a role within the community </li></ul><ul><li>Strict rules dictated behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu idea of reincarnation played into the system – to advance you must live well and then you will be reborn into a higher caste </li></ul>
  6. 6. Major Hindu Castes <ul><li>Brahmins – Priests and scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriyas – Warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Baishyas – Farmers and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Shudras – Laborers and serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchables – People who were below the caste system and completed the most undesirable of jobs </li></ul>
  7. 7. British East India Company <ul><li>Became leading commercial power by 1757 </li></ul><ul><li>Exploited Indian indigo, cotton, and tea </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled India, politically and economically (called raj or &quot;rule&quot;) </li></ul>
  8. 8. British East India Company <ul><li>Made alliances with different tribes and ethnic groups, employed sepoys (Indian soldiers) </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the &quot;jewel in the crown&quot; of the British Empire </li></ul>
  9. 9. Direct Control <ul><li>1857 Sepoy Rebellion takes place </li></ul><ul><li>Started with misunderstanding that new bullets had animal grease on them (sacred to Hindus and unclean to Muslims) </li></ul><ul><li>British government saw uprising as a sign that Indians could cause more problems in the future and took direct control of government </li></ul>
  10. 10. Culture Clash <ul><li>English and Western ideas promoted as elite </li></ul><ul><li>Limited social contact between British and Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Only Hindus who became Christians could hold government positions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Culture Clash <ul><li>Instruction in English, became language of the educated </li></ul><ul><li>British did stop suttees (killing wife when the husband dies), child marriages (as early as nine or ten), and infanticide (killing of infant girls because they were too costly to marry) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Impact <ul><li>Modernized India (railroads, irrigation, dams, better sanitation and education) </li></ul><ul><li>British held all economic and political power </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted domestic industries </li></ul>
  13. 13. Indian National Congress <ul><li>1885 – Met for the first time to bring more Indians into the British controlled government </li></ul><ul><li>Over then next thirty years they began to push for home rule and then independence </li></ul>
  14. 14. Indian National Congress <ul><li>Party members generally were English educated and did not represent the 350 million Indians who mostly worked in the fields of rural India </li></ul><ul><li>Many did not separate the Congress members in their minds from the British because they advocated similar ideas (i.e. industrialization), but under Indian rule </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mohandas Gandhi <ul><li>Educated as a lawyer in London </li></ul><ul><li>Spent twenty years in South Africa as a lawyer fighting discrimination against Indian immigrants </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mohandas Gandhi <ul><li>Developed and executed non-violent philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>His actions were aggressive and provocative, but did not employ violence </li></ul><ul><li>1915 – Returned to India and began participating in the Indian National Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced an ideological shift – from possible violent revolt to non-violent action to gain independence </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mohandas Gandhi <ul><li>Gandhi changed the focus of movement to improve conditions for rural population </li></ul><ul><li>He also fought against the caste system and called the untouchables “children of god” </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually helped gain India’s independence in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Despite his tremendous influence, after his death many of his teachings and tactics for conflict resolution were dismissed </li></ul>