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Foundations Part 1: Prehistory to 1000 B.C.E.
Beginnings <ul><li>Early man spreads from Africa to Europe, Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Initially hunters and gathers </li></ul...
Early Civilizations <ul><li>Greater populations, specialization of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Metal working => farming, milita...
Civilization Characteristics <ul><li>Writing system </li></ul><ul><li>Formal government </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding trade ...
Decline <ul><li>1000 B.C.E. all change or decline </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions in Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, Egypt </li></u...
Foundations Part 2: 1000 B.C.E. to 600 C.E. The Classical World
General Characteristics <ul><li>Indo-European Migrations - From central Asia to India, Middle East, southern Europe </li><...
Classical Social Systems <ul><li>Based upon inequality </li></ul><ul><li>India - Development of Caste System </li></ul><ul...
China <ul><li>Decentralized Zhou to centralized state to bureaucratic state </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism encourages self...
India <ul><li>Widely traveled merchants - Middle East and South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism emphasizes duty to caste, ...
Mediterranean <ul><li>Greeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic, philosophical, political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never uni...
Mediterranean <ul><li>Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic granted some powers to citizens - mostly aristocratic </li></ul>...
Elsewhere <ul><li>Agricultural societies expand in Russia, Japan, Northwestern Europe, Africa </li></ul><ul><li>In Africa ...
Major Interactions <ul><li>Alexander connects Europe to India </li></ul><ul><li>Trade routes (Silk Roads, sea routes) woul...
Decline of Classical Societies <ul><li>Invasions from Central Asia end Han Dynasty, later Gupta Dynasty in India </li></ul...
Decline of Classical Societies <ul><li>Europe - western Europe suffers worst decline, Byzantine Empire flourishes in East ...
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Foundations Overview

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  • Transcript of "Foundations Overview"

    1. 1. Foundations Part 1: Prehistory to 1000 B.C.E.
    2. 2. Beginnings <ul><li>Early man spreads from Africa to Europe, Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Initially hunters and gathers </li></ul><ul><li>Between 9000 B.C.E. to 7000 B.C.E. agriculture starts in Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>By 1000 B.C.E. agriculture in most of world </li></ul>
    3. 3. Early Civilizations <ul><li>Greater populations, specialization of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Metal working => farming, military advancements </li></ul><ul><li>Cities emerge - center of politics and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Government structure, social classes distinct </li></ul>
    4. 4. Civilization Characteristics <ul><li>Writing system </li></ul><ul><li>Formal government </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding trade </li></ul><ul><li>Urban centers </li></ul><ul><li>Social inequality </li></ul>
    5. 5. Decline <ul><li>1000 B.C.E. all change or decline </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions in Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>China - Zhou Dynasty begins expansion </li></ul>
    6. 6. Foundations Part 2: 1000 B.C.E. to 600 C.E. The Classical World
    7. 7. General Characteristics <ul><li>Indo-European Migrations - From central Asia to India, Middle East, southern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Iron advances agriculture, weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Trade within regions expand </li></ul><ul><li>Formalize cultural systems develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Hinduism in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism in China </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Classical Social Systems <ul><li>Based upon inequality </li></ul><ul><li>India - Development of Caste System </li></ul><ul><li>China - Confucianism = rigid hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean - Aristocrats to peasants and slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    9. 9. China <ul><li>Decentralized Zhou to centralized state to bureaucratic state </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism encourages self control, mutual respect, hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advances (paper) </li></ul><ul><li>More of a political focus </li></ul>
    10. 10. India <ul><li>Widely traveled merchants - Middle East and South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism emphasizes duty to caste, reincarnation </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism develops as a reaction to Hindu inequality, ritualism </li></ul><ul><li>Overall more of a cultural, economic focus </li></ul>
    11. 11. Mediterranean <ul><li>Greeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic, philosophical, political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never unified, internal warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander would spread Greek culture in Hellenistic period </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Mediterranean <ul><li>Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic granted some powers to citizens - mostly aristocratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire develops after Republic, long period of political unity in region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity develops, spreads in empire </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Elsewhere <ul><li>Agricultural societies expand in Russia, Japan, Northwestern Europe, Africa </li></ul><ul><li>In Africa Bantu migrations start </li></ul><ul><li>In the Americas, civilizations in the Andes, Mayans </li></ul>
    14. 14. Major Interactions <ul><li>Alexander connects Europe to India </li></ul><ul><li>Trade routes (Silk Roads, sea routes) would bring Buddhism to China, Chinese silk to Europe </li></ul>
    15. 15. Decline of Classical Societies <ul><li>Invasions from Central Asia end Han Dynasty, later Gupta Dynasty in India </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic tribes pushed into Western Europe by Central Asia nomads, end Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Massive epidemics </li></ul><ul><li>Growing corruption, political incompetence </li></ul>
    16. 16. Decline of Classical Societies <ul><li>Europe - western Europe suffers worst decline, Byzantine Empire flourishes in East </li></ul><ul><li>China goes through 300 years of disunity </li></ul><ul><li>India declines politically, but Hinduism strengthens, spreads; trade continues strongly </li></ul>
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