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Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
Communist China
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Communist China

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  • 1. Revolution in China Modern World History, by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, ©2003 Class Notes 12:2
  • 2. Background <ul><li>Manchu Dynasty maintains power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Finally falls in 1911 - ending 2000 year dynasty </li></ul>
  • 3. Background <ul><li>Between 1925 – 1937 a power struggle emerged between Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalist party and Mao Zedong of the Communist party </li></ul>
  • 4. Chiang Kai-shek <ul><li>Leader of the GMD National Revolutionary Army – fought the warlords, the Japanese starting in 1937, and the communists </li></ul><ul><li>He promoted Chinese culture, but he was a Christian and he strongly supported western ideas </li></ul>
  • 5. Chiang Kai-shek <ul><li>Encouraged continued western investment in China </li></ul><ul><li>Worked closely with foreign investors – enforcing their demands </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to consolidate power and modernize China </li></ul>
  • 6. Mao Zedong <ul><li>Not influenced by the west – raised and educated away from foreign influences </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant – who had been ignored by the GMD </li></ul>
  • 7. Mao Zedong <ul><li>Most supporters were peasants, industrialization put aside for land redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>Created army and developed guerilla war tactics to fight Nationalists and then Japanese </li></ul>
  • 8. The Long March <ul><li>In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked communist strong-hold in Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>This experience of bravery, survival, and comradeship would define first generation of communist leaders </li></ul>
  • 9. The Long March
  • 10. Civil War / Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (Northern China) </li></ul><ul><li>GMD continued to attack communists after Long March </li></ul><ul><li>1937 – Japan invaded China proper </li></ul><ul><li>Communists and Nationalists fight Japanese separately </li></ul>
  • 11. Civil War / Japanese Invasion <ul><li>After WWII ends civil war reigns </li></ul><ul><li>Americans begin sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and Russia provides minimal help to Mao Zedong </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – Chiang Kai-shek and Nationalists driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, Communists claim victory and found the Communist People’s Republic of China </li></ul>
  • 12. Power Base <ul><li>Communist Army already established in the fight against Japanese and GMD </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant support grew even more with early redistributions of land </li></ul><ul><li>First years saw massive propaganda movements against “enemies” of the state – many dissidents imprisoned or killed in first years </li></ul>
  • 13. Economic Development <ul><li>1949 – Foreign economic influence eliminated – most foreigners kicked out of China </li></ul><ul><li>1950 – Soviet style five year plan implemented to encourage collectivization with limited success </li></ul><ul><li>1952 – Industrialization five year plan had more success </li></ul>
  • 14. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated private enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced people out of the cities and into communes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Backyard steel mills” – small industrial centers scattered throughout China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan failed miserably – famine caused millions to die, program ended early, Mao’s power reduced </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. The Hundred Flowers Policy <ul><li>1957 </li></ul><ul><li>After end of the successful Industrialization five year plan, government loosened control of people </li></ul><ul><li>People allowed to question government policies </li></ul><ul><li>Significant rise in anti-government rhetoric causes Mao to end policy and arrest top detractors </li></ul>
  • 16. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Mao wished to regain power lost in the Great Leap Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Created Red Guard from the Chinese youth </li></ul><ul><li>Questioned traditional culture, education, and leadership (except Mao) </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of personality forms around Mao </li></ul>
  • 17. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Traditional culture and education destroyed, intellectuals and leaders imprisoned or killed </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos causes economic decline and Mao stabilizes revolution through the reorganization of party </li></ul>

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