Columbian Exchange


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Columbian Exchange

  1. 1. The Columbian Exchange AP World History Dan McDowell
  2. 2. What is the Columbian exchange? <ul><li>Term was coined by Historian Al Crosby of the University of Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Contact between any two peoples geographically separated from one another results in an ‘exchange’ of physical elements </li></ul><ul><li>The three main elements are: animals, plants, and microbes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Animals <ul><li>Llama only domesticated animal in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle, horses, pigs, sheep => Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Changed use of land </li></ul>
  4. 4. Animals <ul><li>Significant environmental impact </li></ul><ul><li>Animal fertilizer became important part of agricultural system </li></ul>
  5. 5. Plants <ul><li>Europeans brought cash crops to Americas, brought new crops back </li></ul><ul><li>Maize, potato, tomato, tobacco, beans, cacao, and cotton => Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar, rice, wheat, coffee, bananas, and grapes => Americas </li></ul>
  6. 6. Plants <ul><li>New crops flourished in Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Many indigenous plants crowded out by new crops and weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Old world crops stronger - had a more competitive original environment </li></ul><ul><li>Economy shifts to large scale agricultural production, labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans adopt crops from Americas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plants
  8. 8. Old World Microbes <ul><li>European disease was particularly virulent </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, chicken pox, bubonic plague, scarlet fever and influenza were the most common microbial diseases exchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all of the European diseases were communicable by air and touch. </li></ul><ul><li>The pathway of these diseases was invisible to both Indians and Europeans </li></ul>
  9. 9. European Belief <ul><li>There was no germ theory at the time of contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Illness in Europe was considered to be the consequence of sin </li></ul><ul><li>Indians, who were largely “heathen” or non-Christian were regarded as sinners and therefore subject to illness as a punishment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Disease Raced Ahead <ul><li>In most cases, Indian peoples became sick even before they had direct contact with Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Trade goods that traveled from tribe to tribe though middlemen were often the vector of disease </li></ul><ul><li>There is little or no evidence to think that Europeans intentionally infected trade items for trade with Indians to kill them </li></ul>
  11. 11. Smallpox <ul><li>Central Mexico - 25 million in 1519 to less than one million in 1605 </li></ul><ul><li>Hispa ñ ola - One million in 1492 to 46,000 in 1512 </li></ul><ul><li>North America - 90% of Native Americans gone within 100 years of Plymouth landing </li></ul>
  12. 12. Smallpox in the Americas
  13. 13. Smallpox
  14. 14. Why were Europeans immune? <ul><li>Has everything to do with their original environments </li></ul><ul><li>Most pathogens originate with animals or insects </li></ul><ul><li>Domesticated animals and plants were more numerous in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Greater diversity meant more ecological protection </li></ul>
  15. 15. Demographic Significance <ul><li>Native American population decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans need labor, import African slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans move to Americas to oversee economic production </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing of all three populations occur in varying degrees </li></ul>