Diane E. McClure, DVM, PhD, DACLAM ARCVetServices.com
Nonhuman Primates:  Animal Sanctuaries, Who Is Monitoring the Animal’s Welfare?
What is a sanctuary? a refuge a shelter from danger or hardship
Why do we need a sanctuary for apes and monkeys? <ul><li>No longer wanted/needed </li></ul><ul><li>Costly to maintain </li...
Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Z...
Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Z...
Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Z...
The fundamental decision: Who should I give this animal to and how much can I invest while making this decision?
What to do with a pet monkey? <ul><li>New pet owner </li></ul><ul><li>Local animal control or animal shelter </li></ul><ul...
Institution Options <ul><li>American Zoo and Aquarium (AZA) accredited zoos  </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Laboratory Animal...
Institution Options <ul><li>American Zoo and Aquarium (AZA) accredited zoos  </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Laboratory Animal...
Private Primate Sanctuary Oversight <ul><li>USDA is optional! </li></ul><ul><li>American Sanctuary Association – ASA  http...
ASA “Code of Ethics” <ul><li>Rigorous standards of sanctuary management and animal care </li></ul><ul><li>No breeding  (Ex...
ASA “Code of Ethics” <ul><li>Welfare of animals is always primary and that respectful collaboration with others on behalf ...
TAOS:  Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To combine forces in cooperative efforts to rescue and place animals in the b...
TAOS:  Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To strive to keep animals in as natural, spacious, and enriched a setting as ...
TAOS:  Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To provide for both individual and social needs of animals in enclosure const...
TAOS “Code of Ethics”  <ul><li>Responsibility Toward Animals  </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Responsibilities </li></ul>...
Association Accredited Sanctuaries “ 6”
More Sanctuaries? <ul><li>Humane Society of the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer list primate sanctuaries on ...
More Sanctuaries? <ul><li>Allied Effort to Save Other Primates:  AESOP-Project Links to Primate Sanctuaries World Wide –  ...
So who’s left to provide oversight? <ul><li>State Agencies such as the Department of Fish and Game or the Department of Na...
So who’s left to provide oversight? <ul><li>Unless allegations of animal cruelty are made by the public, there may not be ...
Non-Profit/Private  Non-Human Primate Sanctuary Oversight <ul><li>Board </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctuary Management </li></ul>*...
So who are these sanctuary people?  Why should we trust them with the oversight of animal welfare in non-human primate san...
Primate Rescue Center  - April Truitt
<ul><li>1987 Clay Miller saw an ad in USA Today </li></ul><ul><li>Gizmo, crab eating macaque  as a gift for April Truitt <...
1996 - The Dahlonega Five
<ul><li>Dahlonega 5 - Georgia Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>LEMSIP Kids </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated as a group </li></ul><ul><...
Patti Ragan’s Center for Great Apes  www.prime-apes.org Pongo Butch
Orangutan Facilities
Orangutan Facilities
Boswell Walk-About Chute System
Arcus Great Ape Health Center
Evaluating Animal Welfare at Primate Sanctuaries <ul><li>Does the sanctuary apply Accreditation Association Code of Ethics...
Animal Welfare Oversight at Primate Sanctuaries Summary: <ul><li>We do not always have the comfort of outside regulatory o...
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Primate Sanctuary Anmal Welfare

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This presentation was made for the AVMA meeting in 2008. Since then TAOS has become part of a new Global Fund for Animal Sanctuaries (GFAS).

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  • [1] L.L. Weed. Medical records that guide and teach. The New England Journal of Medicine , 278(12), March 21, 1968
  • Each of these have different options.
  • Each of these have different options.
  • Each of these have different options.
  • Zoos have a network of American Zoo and Aquarium or AZA accredited zoos through which to find a new placement for their primates. Research facilities have AAALAC accredited or Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) assured institutions to approach regarding placement of their unwanted primates. Both the zoo and the research institutions would be inspected by the USDA for compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and related CFR Title 9 regulations. Such institutions would be registered as an exhibitor, research facility or as both in some cases. Some sanctuaries have registered as “exhibitors” with the USDA with the intent of having an outside federal agency inspect their program of animal care. This is clearly the preferred option for retirement of research or surplus zoo primates. Institutional liability as a consequence of public exposure animal welfare concerns at a number of animal sanctuaries has resulted in the policy at many research institutions or zoos that primates may only be retired to such inspected institutions. If a placement cannot be found in an organization that is deemed creditable by means of AZA, AAALAC accreditation, OLAW assurance and USDA inspection, monkeys (not chimpanzees) may be euthanized when the cost of care can no longer be justified as an institutional expense.
  • Zoos have a network of American Zoo and Aquarium or AZA accredited zoos through which to find a new placement for their primates. Research facilities have AAALAC accredited or Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) assured institutions to approach regarding placement of their unwanted primates. Both the zoo and the research institutions would be inspected by the USDA for compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and related CFR Title 9 regulations. Such institutions would be registered as an exhibitor, research facility or as both in some cases. Some sanctuaries have registered as “exhibitors” with the USDA with the intent of having an outside federal agency inspect their program of animal care. This is clearly the preferred option for retirement of research or surplus zoo primates. Institutional liability as a consequence of public exposure animal welfare concerns at a number of animal sanctuaries has resulted in the policy at many research institutions or zoos that primates may only be retired to such inspected institutions. If a placement cannot be found in an organization that is deemed creditable by means of AZA, AAALAC accreditation, OLAW assurance and USDA inspection, monkeys (not chimpanzees) may be euthanized when the cost of care can no longer be justified as an institutional expense.
  • What assessments can they look to without USDA or AZA or AAALAC oversight? Two other organizations profess to accredit animal sanctuaries: 1) the American Sanctuary Association (http://www.asaanimalsanctuaries.org); and 2.) The Association of Sanctuaries ( http://www.taosanctuaries.org) . Tippi Hedren serves as president of the American Sanctuary Association. The American Sanctuary Association has accredited about 30 programs and only a few provide for primates. The Association of Sanctuaries or TAOS has provided a Certificate of Accreditation for six primate sanctuaries at the present time. Both of these accrediting organizations are registered federal 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organizations. They have very similar codes of ethics which include prohibition of exploitation or commercial use of the animals under their care. Thus it would conflict with their philosophy to be exhibit animals. This precludes the transparency is provided some other sanctuary programs by USDA registration and inspections. ASA and TAOS accredited sanctuaries are still not enough to meet the need.
  • What assessments can they look to without USDA or AZA or AAALAC oversight? Two other organizations profess to accredit animal sanctuaries: 1) the American Sanctuary Association (http://www.asaanimalsanctuaries.org); and 2.) The Association of Sanctuaries ( http://www.taosanctuaries.org) . Tippi Hedren serves as president of the American Sanctuary Association. The American Sanctuary Association has accredited about 30 programs and only a few provide for primates. The Association of Sanctuaries or TAOS has provided a Certificate of Accreditation for six primate sanctuaries at the present time. Both of these accrediting organizations are registered federal 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organizations. They have very similar codes of ethics which include prohibition of exploitation or commercial use of the animals under their care. Thus it would conflict with their philosophy to be exhibit animals. This precludes the transparency is provided some other sanctuary programs by USDA registration and inspections. ASA and TAOS accredited sanctuaries are still not enough to meet the need.
  • What assessments can they look to without USDA or AZA or AAALAC oversight? Two other organizations profess to accredit animal sanctuaries: 1) the American Sanctuary Association (http://www.asaanimalsanctuaries.org); and 2.) The Association of Sanctuaries ( http://www.taosanctuaries.org) . Tippi Hedren serves as president of the American Sanctuary Association. The American Sanctuary Association has accredited about 30 programs and only a few provide for primates. The Association of Sanctuaries or TAOS has provided a Certificate of Accreditation for six primate sanctuaries at the present time. Both of these accrediting organizations are registered federal 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organizations. They have very similar codes of ethics which include prohibition of exploitation or commercial use of the animals under their care. Thus it would conflict with their philosophy to be exhibit animals. This precludes the transparency is provided some other sanctuary programs by USDA registration and inspections. ASA and TAOS accredited sanctuaries are still not enough to meet the need.
  • What assessments can they look to without USDA or AZA or AAALAC oversight? Two other organizations profess to accredit animal sanctuaries: 1) the American Sanctuary Association (http://www.asaanimalsanctuaries.org); and 2.) The Association of Sanctuaries ( http://www.taosanctuaries.org) . Tippi Hedren serves as president of the American Sanctuary Association. The American Sanctuary Association has accredited about 30 programs and only a few provide for primates. The Association of Sanctuaries or TAOS has provided a Certificate of Accreditation for six primate sanctuaries at the present time. Both of these accrediting organizations are registered federal 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organizations. They have very similar codes of ethics which include prohibition of exploitation or commercial use of the animals under their care. Thus it would conflict with their philosophy to be exhibit animals. This precludes the transparency is provided some other sanctuary programs by USDA registration and inspections. ASA and TAOS accredited sanctuaries are still not enough to meet the need.
  • What assessments can they look to without USDA or AZA or AAALAC oversight? Two other organizations profess to accredit animal sanctuaries: 1) the American Sanctuary Association (http://www.asaanimalsanctuaries.org); and 2.) The Association of Sanctuaries ( http://www.taosanctuaries.org) . Tippi Hedren serves as president of the American Sanctuary Association. The American Sanctuary Association has accredited about 30 programs and only a few provide for primates. The Association of Sanctuaries or TAOS has provided a Certificate of Accreditation for six primate sanctuaries at the present time. Both of these accrediting organizations are registered federal 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organizations. They have very similar codes of ethics which include prohibition of exploitation or commercial use of the animals under their care. Thus it would conflict with their philosophy to be exhibit animals. This precludes the transparency is provided some other sanctuary programs by USDA registration and inspections. ASA and TAOS accredited sanctuaries are still not enough to meet the need.
  • What assessments can they look to without USDA or AZA or AAALAC oversight? Two other organizations profess to accredit animal sanctuaries: 1) the American Sanctuary Association (http://www.asaanimalsanctuaries.org); and 2.) The Association of Sanctuaries ( http://www.taosanctuaries.org) . Tippi Hedren serves as president of the American Sanctuary Association. The American Sanctuary Association has accredited about 30 programs and only a few provide for primates. The Association of Sanctuaries or TAOS has provided a Certificate of Accreditation for six primate sanctuaries at the present time. Both of these accrediting organizations are registered federal 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organizations. They have very similar codes of ethics which include prohibition of exploitation or commercial use of the animals under their care. Thus it would conflict with their philosophy to be exhibit animals. This precludes the transparency is provided some other sanctuary programs by USDA registration and inspections. ASA and TAOS accredited sanctuaries are still not enough to meet the need.
  • Responsibility Toward Animals •   To combine forces in cooperative efforts to rescue and place animals in the best possible environment for the individual animal. •  To strive to achieve and maintain high standards of animal care through continuing education and an understanding of the sanctuary field and its challenges. •  To acknowledge limitations when appropriate and enlist the assistance of veterinarians, TAOS, or other supporting organizations and professionals as needed. •  To strive to keep animals in as natural, spacious, and enriched a setting as possible and that will exceed minimum conceptions of their needs. •  Optimal animal care shall come before personal gain and the needs of the animals before one&apos;s own emotional needs. •  To strive to provide professional and humane care through all phases of an animal&apos;s life and to provide for the dignity of each animal. •  In providing for the well-being of individual animals, to consider the impact on the sanctuaries&apos; larger community of animals. •  To provide for both individual and social needs of animals in enclosure construction, animal placement, and care practices. •  To be aware of normal behavioral characteristics of all species held and to take appropriate steps to correct problems leading to abnormal behavior. •  To recognize when an animal&apos;s quality of life and prognosis are such as to indicate euthanasia as the potentially preferred option for the good of the animal. •  Facilities and animal care practices shall be maintained in accord with TAOS guidelines. Organizational Responsibilities •   To conduct fundraising with honesty and integrity and to avoid sensationalistic and manipulative funding appeals. •  Facilities shall be maintained in good condition and in line with standard health and safety practices. •  To conduct all business and related activities in a professional manner, with honesty, integrity, compassion, and commitment, realizing that an individual&apos;s behavior reflects on the sanctuary field as a whole. •  To train, support, and supervise employees in doing their jobs well and provide fair compensation. •  Maintain financial stability, keep sound records, and follow standard accounting practices. •  Abide by local, state, and federal regulations. •  To ensure organizational continuity and/or the lifetime care of resident animals in case of such contingencies as the death, disability, or withdrawal of founders. •  To develop and maintain an active, independent Board of Directors to provide support, guidance, and oversight for the sanctuary. •  To encourage community support and involvement through volunteer recruitment and training and public education about sanctuaries and the circumstances that lead to animals&apos; placement there. Responsibilities to Sanctuary Field &amp; Other Social Change Agents •   To treat other organizations with appropriate respect and share skills and knowledge that benefit animals. •  To avoid personalization and gossip in response to differences of opinion or philosophy. •  In public or private communications to give due recognition to the contributions made by others. •  To ensure that information disseminated about others is factual and when misrepresentations are mistakenly made to take necessary steps to fully rectify the error. •  If disputes arise between members and others, or if a member believes that another member has failed to adhere to this Code, every effort shall be made to resolve conflicts in a spirit of goodwill and concern for the welfare of animals.•  Unresolved conflicts shall be brought to TAOS for mediation. Responsibilities to Society •   To promote awareness, empathy, and active concern for all life through education and advocacy insofar as sanctuary resources permit. •  To collaborate with others in efforts to alter attitudes and cultural practices that will improve conditions for nature, animals, and vulnerable human beings. •  To work actively to promote a compassionate ethic in terms that are humble, sensitive, and cognizant of the diversity of views and ways of other people.
  • The Human Society of the United States is opposed to primates in captivity and has focused on stopping the problem of unwanted pet primates by endorsing legislation to eliminated monkeys as pets. This is their stated objective in promotion of the Captive Primate Safety Act which would prohibit interstate and foreign trade of nonhuman primates. The HSUS lists primate sanctuaries on the HSUS website with a disclaimer stating that the HSUS does not endorse these sanctuaries.
  • The Human Society of the United States is opposed to primates in captivity and has focused on stopping the problem of unwanted pet primates by endorsing legislation to eliminated monkeys as pets. This is their stated objective in promotion of the Captive Primate Safety Act which would prohibit interstate and foreign trade of nonhuman primates. The HSUS lists primate sanctuaries on the HSUS website with a disclaimer stating that the HSUS does not endorse these sanctuaries.
  • So who looks after the animal welfare in these facilities? Agencies such as the Department of Fish and Game or the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) may be permitting agencies at the state level. State regulations may only address permits to own, but may address housing and husbandry concerns as well. It may well be that only the local county or city ordinances regarding animal law will be in effect. The primates are viewed as private property and would only be of concern to the local agencies if there were issues involving safety (dangerous animals or public health concerns) or animal cruelty infractions. Unless allegations of animal cruelty are made by the public, there may not be any outside oversight at all.
  • A sanctuary is meant to be a refuge; a shelter from danger or hardship. Sometimes the animals are in such a desperate situation that someone just has to step in. This is the story for many of the individuals that have founded primate’s sanctuaries. From Patti Ragan at the Center for Great Apes in Florida to April Truitt at the Primate Rescue Center in Kentucky, these women stepped up and took responsibility for primates in need. And they are continuing to do so. They are committed to the establishing exemplary programs of care and that means establishing financial stability for the long run.
  • Our History The Primate Rescue Center has roots reaching back to September 1987, when Clay Miller answered an ad which appeared in USA Today and unwittingly purchased Gizmo—a young crab-eating macaque (macaca fascicularis)—from an animal dealer in Cincinnati. He brought Gizmo home and presented him to April Truitt, his future wife—thinking he would be a delightful addition to their multi-animal household. They searched the available literature for information on caring for this fast-growing bundle of energy, and discovered that what would benefit young Gizmo most was the company of another monkey. A search in their local area of Kentucky turned up JoJo, an older monkey of uncertain heritage who had outgrown his cage (and his welcome) and needed a new home. As they sought out other monkey owners to share information with, they came across increasing numbers of monkeys, formerly beloved pets, who were now unwanted as they grew older, stronger and more unpredictable. A few more cages were built, and they began buying monkey chow in bulk. Soon there was a call from a research laboratory wanting to retire a few animals, then a national humane organization who had two confiscated monkeys to place, then an owner who had been badly injured…. “It seems as though one day there were five monkeys to feed, and the next day there were fifty!”, explains Truitt. “It’s so hard to say ‘No’ when there are few alternatives for these animals.” From these humble beginnings, the Primate Rescue Center has evolved into a nationally respected sanctuary housing 50+ primates, including 11 chimpanzees. Their work has been featured in the award-winning book, Animal Underworld , by journalist Alan Green and the Center for Public Integrity, in the magazine Animal’s Agenda (now Animals and Society Institute ), on television and in newspapers nationwide. Supported solely by tax-deductible donations, the Primate Rescue Center is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization, and is licensed and inspected by the USDA.
  • Est. 1993 Entertainment apes retire to Florida
  • What would happen to the sanctuary if the primary owner or the primary director becomes incapacitated? What are the motivations of the individuals running the sanctuaries? Are they exhibiting signs of the “animal collector” pathology? What standards of care are in place? Can we agree on minimum standards of care? What veterinary care is being provided? Ultimately we need to recognize that we rely on the integrity and judgment of the individuals responsible for overseeing the care at each sanctuary.
  • What would happen to the sanctuary if the primary owner or the primary director becomes incapacitated? What are the motivations of the individuals running the sanctuaries? Are they exhibiting signs of the “animal collector” pathology? What standards of care are in place? Can we agree on minimum standards of care? What veterinary care is being provided? Ultimately we need to recognize that we rely on the integrity and judgment of the individuals responsible for overseeing the care at each sanctuary. The only ones watching are us. We are not always allowed to see into the programs, but we are not always interested in looking too hard.
  • Primate Sanctuary Anmal Welfare

    1. 1. Diane E. McClure, DVM, PhD, DACLAM ARCVetServices.com
    2. 2. Nonhuman Primates: Animal Sanctuaries, Who Is Monitoring the Animal’s Welfare?
    3. 3. What is a sanctuary? a refuge a shelter from danger or hardship
    4. 4. Why do we need a sanctuary for apes and monkeys? <ul><li>No longer wanted/needed </li></ul><ul><li>Costly to maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous to maintain </li></ul>
    5. 5. Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Zoological collections </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Research </li></ul>
    6. 6. Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Zoological collections </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Research </li></ul>How many non-human privates are in captivity in the US is UNKNOWN
    7. 7. Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Zoological collections </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Research </li></ul>Each of these have different options. How many non-human privates are in captivity in the US is UNKNOWN
    8. 8. The fundamental decision: Who should I give this animal to and how much can I invest while making this decision?
    9. 9. What to do with a pet monkey? <ul><li>New pet owner </li></ul><ul><li>Local animal control or animal shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Euthanasia </li></ul><ul><li>Zoo </li></ul><ul><li>An animal sanctuary </li></ul>
    10. 10. Institution Options <ul><li>American Zoo and Aquarium (AZA) accredited zoos </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) assured institutions </li></ul><ul><li>AAALAC accredited institutions </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Registered Exhibitors or Research Facilities </li></ul>
    11. 11. Institution Options <ul><li>American Zoo and Aquarium (AZA) accredited zoos </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) assured institutions </li></ul><ul><li>AAALAC accredited institutions </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Registered Exhibitors or Research Facilities </li></ul>
    12. 12. Private Primate Sanctuary Oversight <ul><li>USDA is optional! </li></ul><ul><li>American Sanctuary Association – ASA http://www.asaanimalsanctuaries.org </li></ul><ul><li>The Association of Sanctuaries - TAOS http://www.taosanctuaries.org </li></ul>
    13. 13. ASA “Code of Ethics” <ul><li>Rigorous standards of sanctuary management and animal care </li></ul><ul><li>No breeding (Exceptions may be made when an animal's species is on the verge of extinction and a scientifically-based breeding and reintroduction plan is in place.) </li></ul><ul><li>No commercial use of the animals </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime responsibility </li></ul>
    14. 14. ASA “Code of Ethics” <ul><li>Welfare of animals is always primary and that respectful collaboration with others on behalf of that welfare is obligatory. This not only best serves the animals but further demonstrates the fundamental value of respect for all life that is at the foundation of sanctuary existence. </li></ul>
    15. 15. TAOS: Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To combine forces in cooperative efforts to rescue and place animals in the best possible environment for the individual animal. </li></ul><ul><li>To strive to achieve and maintain high standards of animal care through continuing education and an understanding of the sanctuary field and its challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>To acknowledge limitations when appropriate and enlist the assistance of veterinarians, TAOS, or other supporting organizations and professionals as needed. </li></ul>
    16. 16. TAOS: Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To strive to keep animals in as natural, spacious, and enriched a setting as possible and that will exceed minimum conceptions of their needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal animal care shall come before personal gain and the needs of the animals before one's own emotional needs. </li></ul><ul><li>To strive to provide professional and humane care through all phases of an animal's life and to provide for the dignity of each animal. </li></ul><ul><li>In providing for the well-being of individual animals, to consider the impact on the sanctuaries' larger community of animals. </li></ul>
    17. 17. TAOS: Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To provide for both individual and social needs of animals in enclosure construction, animal placement, and care practices. </li></ul><ul><li>To be aware of normal behavioral characteristics of all species held and to take appropriate steps to correct problems leading to abnormal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>To recognize when an animal's quality of life and prognosis are such as to indicate euthanasia as the potentially preferred option for the good of the animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities and animal care practices shall be maintained in accord with TAOS guidelines. </li></ul>
    18. 18. TAOS “Code of Ethics” <ul><li>Responsibility Toward Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities to Sanctuary Field & Other Social Change Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities to Society </li></ul>
    19. 19. Association Accredited Sanctuaries “ 6”
    20. 20. More Sanctuaries? <ul><li>Humane Society of the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer list primate sanctuaries on their website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on stopping the problem of unwanted pet primates by endorsing legislation to eliminate monkeys as pets. Captive Primate Safety Act (S. 1498) would amend the Lacey Act to prohibit interstate and foreign trade of nonhuman primates. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. More Sanctuaries? <ul><li>Allied Effort to Save Other Primates: AESOP-Project Links to Primate Sanctuaries World Wide – www.aesop-project.org </li></ul>
    22. 22. So who’s left to provide oversight? <ul><li>State Agencies such as the Department of Fish and Game or the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily permits to own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May address housing and husbandry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local county or city ordinances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety (dangerous animals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public health concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal cruelty infractions </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. So who’s left to provide oversight? <ul><li>Unless allegations of animal cruelty are made by the public, there may not be any outside oversight at all </li></ul>
    24. 24. Non-Profit/Private Non-Human Primate Sanctuary Oversight <ul><li>Board </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctuary Management </li></ul>** Primary Animal Welfare Oversight lies right here!
    25. 25. So who are these sanctuary people? Why should we trust them with the oversight of animal welfare in non-human primate sanctuaries?
    26. 26. Primate Rescue Center - April Truitt
    27. 27. <ul><li>1987 Clay Miller saw an ad in USA Today </li></ul><ul><li>Gizmo, crab eating macaque as a gift for April Truitt </li></ul><ul><li>needed a friend </li></ul><ul><li>A research lab called to retire a few animals </li></ul><ul><li>A National humane organization needed to place two confiscated monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>An owner who was badly injured needed someone to take his pet </li></ul><ul><li>50+ and 11 chimpanzees </li></ul>www.primaterescue.org
    28. 28. 1996 - The Dahlonega Five
    29. 29. <ul><li>Dahlonega 5 - Georgia Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>LEMSIP Kids </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated as a group </li></ul><ul><li>USDA inspected by choice </li></ul>
    30. 30. Patti Ragan’s Center for Great Apes www.prime-apes.org Pongo Butch
    31. 31. Orangutan Facilities
    32. 32. Orangutan Facilities
    33. 33. Boswell Walk-About Chute System
    34. 34. Arcus Great Ape Health Center
    35. 35. Evaluating Animal Welfare at Primate Sanctuaries <ul><li>Does the sanctuary apply Accreditation Association Code of Ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>What standards of care are in place? </li></ul><ul><li>What veterinary care is being provided? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the motivations of the individuals running the sanctuaries? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they exhibiting signs of the “animal collector” pathology? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen to the sanctuary if the primary owner or the primary director becomes incapacitated? </li></ul>
    36. 36. Animal Welfare Oversight at Primate Sanctuaries Summary: <ul><li>We do not always have the comfort of outside regulatory oversight like the USDA. </li></ul><ul><li>We rely on the integrity and judgment of the individuals responsible for overseeing the care at each sanctuary. </li></ul><ul><li>The only other ones watching are US! </li></ul>
    37. 37. Thank you

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