Startup   Metrics  For  Pirates Startup   Weekend Sao   Paulo November 2011  -  #SWSP Dave McClure  @DaveMcClure http://ww...
Dave McClure <ul><ul><li>2001-2010: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startup Investor:  500 Startups, Founders Fund </li></ul></...
500 Startups Seed Fund & Accelerator (230+ companies,  10+ countries )
[ This  Talk  ]
Topics <ul><li>Basic Concepts of  “Startup Metrics 4 Pirates” </li></ul><ul><li>3 Steps to AARRR: Product, Market, Revenue...
Key Concepts <ul><li>MVP = F( Customer , Problem, Time or $$$) </li></ul><ul><li>PMF = F( Customer , Solution, Alternative...
Geek  Renaissance <ul><li>Tech  Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Finance  Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Design  Innovation </li...
Platforms 2.0 Search, Social, Mobile
What’s a Platform? Successful Platforms  have 3 Things: 1)  Features 2)  Users 3)  Money Users   . .  Money Features Growt...
Distribution Platforms <ul><ul><li>Customer Reach: 100M+  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search : Google (SEO/SEM) </li></...
DO  Marketing!  (It’s  Not  Evil ) <ul><li>Marketing is Both  Qualitative  +  Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative: ...
[ Interesting  Shit.  ]
Read  Geoffrey Miller Sex  +  Evolution  +  Consumer Mktg  =  Awesome Sauce
More Great  Shit. Psychology  +  Comics
[The  Lean  Startup] [Startup Metrics  4   Pirates ]
Just Gimme the  GOOD  Metrics. Users, Pages, Clicks, Emails, $$$...? <ul><li>Q: Which of these is best?  How do you know? ...
The Lean Startup <ul><li>Talk to  Customers ; Discover  Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Progress ≠ Features ( Less   =  More ) ...
Discover  Customers (Steve Blank, SteveBlank.com)
Iterate , Dammit. (Eric Ries, StartupLessonsLearned.com) LEARN BUILD MEASURE IDEAS CODE DATA
Product/Market Fit  b4  “Launch” (Sean Ellis, Startup-Marketing.com) Startup-Marketing.com
AARRR! : 5-Step Startup Metrics Model Website.com R evenue $$$ Biz Dev Ads, Lead Gen, Subscriptions, ECommerce A CQUISITIO...
Startup Metrics for Pirates <ul><li>A cquisition:   users come to site from various  channels </li></ul><ul><li>A ctivatio...
One Step at a Time. <ul><ul><li>Make a Good Product : Activation & Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market the Product...
Startup Challenges <ul><li>Startups have problems in 3 key areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management : Set Priorities, Defin...
Key Concepts <ul><li>MVP = F( Customer , Problem, Time or $$$) </li></ul><ul><li>PMF = F( Customer , Solution, Alternative...
[ Constructing  MVP  ]
Role: Founder / CEO <ul><li>Q: Which Customers? Problems? Metrics?  Why ? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Focus on  Critical Few Acti...
Optimize  4  Happiness  (both User + Business) <ul><li>Define  States of User + Business Value </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritiz...
What is Minimum Viable Product? <ul><li>MVP = F(Customer, Problem, Time or $$$) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on  CUSTOMER </li>...
Example Conversion Metrics (note: *not* actuals… your mileage may vary) Stage Conversion Status Conv.  % Est. Value (*not*...
KILL  A FEATURE. Something  Sucks . Find It.  KILL   It. <ul><li>STOP  ADDING FEATURES. </li></ul><ul><li>Find the ONE THI...
[ Getting 2  PMF  ]
Role: Product / Eng / Design <ul><li>Q: What Features to Build?  Why?  When are you  “Done”? </li></ul><ul><li>A:  Easy-to...
What is Product/Market Fit? <ul><li>PMF = F(Customer, Solution,  Alternatives* ) </li></ul><ul><li>Product / Market Fit oc...
Better  or   Different .   Funny! Shocking  !!! Accepted Not  Funny.
[ Testing 4  AUX  ]
Discover  Meaning Why Should Users  CARE  About Your Product? Kathy Sierra: “ Creating Passionate Users ”
Discover Meaning Keywords, Images, Call-to-Action <ul><li>Top 10 - 100 words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Brand / Products <...
How 2 Tell if Design/UX is  Good ?
[ Metrics 4  ACQ  ]
Role: Marketing / Sales <ul><li>Q: What channels?  Which users?  Why? </li></ul><ul><li>A: High  Volume  (#), Low  Cost  (...
Example Marketing Channels <ul><li>PR </li></ul><ul><li>Contest </li></ul><ul><li>Biz Dev </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Marketi...
M AARRR keting Plan <ul><li>Marketing Plan = Target Customer Acquisition Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Important Factor...
[ What is  WINNING?  ]
Choose Yer # WIN NING Metrics <ul><li>WIN  = F(Customer, Usage, Dist, Revenue) </li></ul><ul><li>after MVP functional use,...
[ The Lean  Investor  ]
Startup 2.0:  “Lean Investor” Model <ul><li>Method : Invest in startups using incremental investment, iterative developmen...
Investment #1: Incubate ( “Product”) <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-3 founders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$25K-...
Investment #2: Seed ( “Market”) <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-5 person team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$100K-$...
Investment #3: Venture ( “Revenue”) <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-10 person team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$1...
[ Don ’t  Pitch  Me, Bro. ] Seriously : Don ’t.  F*#king .  Pitch Me. (and  don ’t email me  either, cuz i won’t read it)
Don ’t Pitch Me, Bro. <ul><li>1 st : Read my stuff (blogs, decks, tweets). </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd : Get a referral from  s...
Links & Resources <ul><li>Additional References: </li></ul><ul><li>Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion  Robert Cialdin...
Appendix
Startup Metrics Activation
Website.com <ul><li>Activation Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>10-30+ seconds </li></ul><ul><li>2-3+ page views </li></ul><ul>...
Activation What do users do on their first visit? <ul><li>Example Activation Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on somethin...
Activation What do users do on their first visit? <ul><li>Key Metrics to Track </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pages per visit </li>...
Activation <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crazy Egg (Visual Click Mapping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://crazyegg...
Startup Metrics Retention
Website.com <ul><li>Automated emails: </li></ul><ul><li>lifecycle emails @ +3, +7, +30d  </li></ul><ul><li>status /  “best...
<ul><li>Cohort Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Distrib of Visits over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Decay </li></ul><ul><li>E...
<ul><li>Example Retention Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 - 3+ visits per month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% open rate / 2...
Retention How do users come back? How often? <ul><li>Key Metrics to Track </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Retention <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign Monitor / MailChimp (email newsletter software) </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Startup Metrics Acquisition
Website.com <ul><li>Marketing Channels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largest-volume (#)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lowest-cost (...
Acquisition Where are users coming from? <ul><li>Acquisition Methods </li></ul><ul><li>SEO / SEM </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs <...
Acquisition Keyword Vocabulary <ul><li>Top 10 - 100 words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Brand / Products </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Acquisition Where are users coming from? <ul><li>Key Metrics to Track </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity (#) </li></ul></ul><u...
Acquisition <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Analytics (web analytics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>google.com/ana...
Startup Metrics Referral
Website.com Focus on driving referrals * after * users have a “ happy ” experience; avg score >=  8 out of 10 Referral Acq...
Referral How do users refer others? <ul><li>Referral Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Send to Friend: Email / IM </li></ul><ul><l...
Referral Viral Growth Factor <ul><li>Viral Growth Factor =  X  *  Y  *  Z </li></ul><ul><li>X = % of users who invite othe...
Referral <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigya (social media distribution & tracking tool) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Startup Metrics Revenue
Website.com Revenue This is the part *you*  still have to figure out…  (we  don ’t know jack  about your business) R evenu...
Revenue How do you make money? <ul><li>Revenue Tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don ’t Rely on AdSense (only) </li></ul></ul><ul...
Revenue <ul><li>Resources & Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue Metrics (Andrew Chen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ti...
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Startup Metrics for Pirates (Brazil, Nov 2011)

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  • Startup Metrics for Pirates (Brazil, Nov 2011)

    1. 1. Startup Metrics For Pirates Startup Weekend Sao Paulo November 2011 - #SWSP Dave McClure @DaveMcClure http://www.500startups.com http://500hats.typepad.com http://slideshare.net/dmc500hats AARRR !
    2. 2. Dave McClure <ul><ul><li>2001-2010: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startup Investor: 500 Startups, Founders Fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech Marketing : PayPal, Simply Hired, Mint.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisor, Angel Investor : 200+ Startups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferences : Warm Gun, Lean Startup, SMASH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford Lecturer : Facebook, Startup Metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80 ’s & 90’s: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur : Founder/CEO Aslan Computing (acq.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developer : Windows Apps / SQL DB Admin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Groups : E-Commerce, Internet, Client-Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineer : Johns Hopkins ‘88, BS Eng / Applied Math </li></ul></ul>GEEK, CODER, ENTREPRENEUR Blogger, Marketing, Angel/VC Investor
    3. 3. 500 Startups Seed Fund & Accelerator (230+ companies, 10+ countries )
    4. 4. [ This Talk ]
    5. 5. Topics <ul><li>Basic Concepts of “Startup Metrics 4 Pirates” </li></ul><ul><li>3 Steps to AARRR: Product, Market, Revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing MVP: Just ONE Feature? </li></ul><ul><li>Design (UX) & Distribution (MKTG) </li></ul><ul><li>Winning : Market, Revenue, Profit? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Key Concepts <ul><li>MVP = F( Customer , Problem, Time or $$$) </li></ul><ul><li>PMF = F( Customer , Solution, Alternatives) </li></ul><ul><li>AUX = F( Customer , Design/UX, Metrics) </li></ul><ul><li>ACQ = F( Customer , Campaign, Vol, Cost, Conv) </li></ul><ul><li>WIN = F( Customer , Usage, Dist, Revenue) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Geek Renaissance <ul><li>Tech Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Finance Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Design Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Social Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Global Innovation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Platforms 2.0 Search, Social, Mobile
    9. 9. What’s a Platform? Successful Platforms have 3 Things: 1) Features 2) Users 3) Money Users . . Money Features Growth Profit Profitable Growth Awesome
    10. 10. Distribution Platforms <ul><ul><li>Customer Reach: 100M+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search : Google (SEO/SEM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social : Facebook, Twitter, Zynga, LinkedIn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile : Apple (iPhone, iPad), Android </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media : YouTube (Video), Blogs, Photos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comm : Email, Chat, SMS, Voice </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. DO Marketing! (It’s Not Evil ) <ul><li>Marketing is Both Qualitative + Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative: Create Emotion, Drive Action </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative: Measure Results of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Design (UX) & Distribution (MKTG) Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Volume (#), Cost ($), Conversion (%) </li></ul>
    12. 12. [ Interesting Shit. ]
    13. 13. Read Geoffrey Miller Sex + Evolution + Consumer Mktg = Awesome Sauce
    14. 14. More Great Shit. Psychology + Comics
    15. 15. [The Lean Startup] [Startup Metrics 4 Pirates ]
    16. 16. Just Gimme the GOOD Metrics. Users, Pages, Clicks, Emails, $$$...? <ul><li>Q: Which of these is best? How do you know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000,000 one-time, unregistered unique visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500,000 visitors who view 2+ pages / stay 10+ sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 visitors who clicked on a link or button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20,000 registered users w/ email address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 passionate fans who refer 5+ users / mo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 monthly subscribers @ $5/mo </li></ul></ul>the good stuff.
    17. 17. The Lean Startup <ul><li>Talk to Customers ; Discover Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Progress ≠ Features ( Less = More ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fast, Frequent Iteration (+ Feedback Loop ) </li></ul><ul><li>Measure Conversion ; Compare 2+ Options </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Product/Market Fit (don ’t “launch” b4) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it Simple & Actionable </li></ul>
    18. 18. Discover Customers (Steve Blank, SteveBlank.com)
    19. 19. Iterate , Dammit. (Eric Ries, StartupLessonsLearned.com) LEARN BUILD MEASURE IDEAS CODE DATA
    20. 20. Product/Market Fit b4 “Launch” (Sean Ellis, Startup-Marketing.com) Startup-Marketing.com
    21. 21. AARRR! : 5-Step Startup Metrics Model Website.com R evenue $$$ Biz Dev Ads, Lead Gen, Subscriptions, ECommerce A CQUISITION SEO SEM Apps & Widgets Affiliates Email PR Biz Dev Campaigns, Contests Direct, Tel, TV Social Networks Blogs Domains R etention Emails & Alerts System Events & Time-based Features Blogs, RSS, News Feeds
    22. 22. Startup Metrics for Pirates <ul><li>A cquisition: users come to site from various channels </li></ul><ul><li>A ctivation: users enjoy 1 st visit: &quot; happy ” experience </li></ul><ul><li>R etention: users come back , visit site multiple times </li></ul><ul><li>R eferral: users like product enough to refer others </li></ul><ul><li>R evenue: users conduct some monetization behavior </li></ul>(note: If you ’re in a hurry, Google “Startup Metrics” & watch 5m video) AARRR !
    23. 23. One Step at a Time. <ul><ul><li>Make a Good Product : Activation & Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market the Product : Acquisition & Referral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Money : Revenue & Profitability </li></ul></ul>“ You probably can’t save your Ass and your Face at the same time… choose carefully .” – DMC
    24. 24. Startup Challenges <ul><li>Startups have problems in 3 key areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management : Set Priorities, Define Key Metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product : Build “Right” Features. Measure, Iterate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing : Distribution, Distribution, Distribution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ( Search , Social , Mobile ) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Key Concepts <ul><li>MVP = F( Customer , Problem, Time or $$$) </li></ul><ul><li>PMF = F( Customer , Solution, Alternatives) </li></ul><ul><li>AUX = F( Customer , Design/UX, Metrics) </li></ul><ul><li>ACQ = F( Customer , Campaign, Vol, Cost, Conv) </li></ul><ul><li>WIN = F( Customer , Usage, Dist, Revenue) </li></ul>
    26. 26. [ Constructing MVP ]
    27. 27. Role: Founder / CEO <ul><li>Q: Which Customers? Problems? Metrics? Why ? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Focus on Critical Few Actionable Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(if you don ’t use the metric to make a decision, it’s not actionable) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesize Customer Lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Target ~3-5 Conversion Events (tip: Less = More) </li></ul><ul><li>Test, Measure, Iterate to Improve </li></ul>
    28. 28. Optimize 4 Happiness (both User + Business) <ul><li>Define States of User + Business Value </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize (Estimate) Relative Value of Each State </li></ul><ul><li>Move Users: Lower Value -> Higher Value </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize for User Happiness + Business $$$ </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve High Cust Value + Low ACQ$ @ Scale </li></ul>$$$
    29. 29. What is Minimum Viable Product? <ul><li>MVP = F(Customer, Problem, Time or $$$) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on CUSTOMER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative Discovery, Quantitative Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get to know habits, problems, desires ( FUN MATTERS ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what causes pain?  what causes pleasure? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define 1-5 TESTABLE Conversion Metrics of Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention/Usage (session time, clicks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Data (email, connect, profile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue (direct or indirect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention (visits over time, cohort behavior) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referral (users evangelize to other users) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: Paid Solutions drive FOCUS (& pay rent)  </li></ul>
    30. 30. Example Conversion Metrics (note: *not* actuals… your mileage may vary) Stage Conversion Status Conv. % Est. Value (*not* cost) Acquisition Visitors -> Site/Widget/Landing Page (2+ pages, 10+ sec, 1+ clicks = don’t abandon) 60% $.05 Activation “ Happy” 1 st Visit; Usage/Signup (clicks/time/pages, email/profile reg, feature usage) 15% $.25 Retention Users Come Back; Multiple Visits (1-3x visits/mo; email/feed open rate / CTR) 5% $1 Referral Users Refer Others (cust sat >=8; viral K factor > 1; ) 1% $5 Revenue Users Pay / Generate $$$ (first txn, break-even, target profitability) 2% $50
    31. 31. KILL A FEATURE. Something Sucks . Find It. KILL It. <ul><li>STOP ADDING FEATURES. </li></ul><ul><li>Find the ONE THING that users LOVE . </li></ul><ul><li>How to figure out? TAKE. SHIT. AWAY . </li></ul><ul><li>When they SCREAM , you ’ve FOUND it. </li></ul><ul><li>Then Bring it Back … Only Better. </li></ul><ul><li>Tip: KILL a Feature Every Week . </li></ul>
    32. 32. [ Getting 2 PMF ]
    33. 33. Role: Product / Eng / Design <ul><li>Q: What Features to Build? Why? When are you “Done”? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Easy-to-Find , Fun / Useful , Unique Features that </li></ul><ul><li> Increase Conversion (stop iterating when increase decelerates) </li></ul><ul><li>Wireframes = Conversion Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Measure, A/B Test, Iterate FAST (daily/weekly) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize for Conversion Improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% on existing feature optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% on new feature development </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. What is Product/Market Fit? <ul><li>PMF = F(Customer, Solution, Alternatives* ) </li></ul><ul><li>Product / Market Fit occurs when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers like your stuff better than other options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not static, Not optimal – just Local Max 4 F(customers, solution, time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make sure you’re moving in optimal direction 2 local max </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q: what competitive solutions are available? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… that your customers know about? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how are you diff/same?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in ways that people care about? (will pay for) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KILL a FEATURE regularly (or rotate 1% tests) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: what is MOST $ cust pay 4 LEAST func MVP relative 2 BEST alt? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NICHE 2 WIN : RE-define cust + DIFFerentiated features </li></ul>
    35. 35. Better or Different . Funny! Shocking !!! Accepted Not Funny.
    36. 36. [ Testing 4 AUX ]
    37. 37. Discover Meaning Why Should Users CARE About Your Product? Kathy Sierra: “ Creating Passionate Users ”
    38. 38. Discover Meaning Keywords, Images, Call-to-Action <ul><li>Top 10 - 100 words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Brand / Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Needs / Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitor ’s Brand / Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Equivalents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misspellings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relevant images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Call-to-Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Button/Link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral (= Death) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A/B test & Iterate </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. How 2 Tell if Design/UX is Good ?
    40. 40. [ Metrics 4 ACQ ]
    41. 41. Role: Marketing / Sales <ul><li>Q: What channels? Which users? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>A: High Volume (#), Low Cost ($), High Conv (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Design & Test Multiple Marketing Channels + Campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Select & Focus on Best-Performing Channels & Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize for conversion to target CTAs, not just site/landing page </li></ul><ul><li>Match/Drive channel cost to/below revenue potential </li></ul><ul><li>Low-Hanging Fruit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEO/SEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landing Pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Emails </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Example Marketing Channels <ul><li>PR </li></ul><ul><li>Contest </li></ul><ul><li>Biz Dev </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Radio / TV / Print </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Telemarketing </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>SEO / SEM </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs / Bloggers </li></ul><ul><li>Viral / Referral </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliate / CPA </li></ul><ul><li>Widgets / Apps </li></ul><ul><li>LOLCats ;) </li></ul>
    43. 43. M AARRR keting Plan <ul><li>Marketing Plan = Target Customer Acquisition Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Important Factors = Volume (#), Cost ($), Conversion (%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure conversion to target customer actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test audience segments, campaign themes, Call-To-Action ( CTA s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[Gradually] Match Channel Costs => Revenue Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Vol. & Conversion, Decrease Cost, Optimize for Revenue Potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avg Txn Value ( ATV ), Ann Rev Per User ( ARPU ), Cust Lifetime Value ( CLV ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design channels that (eventually) cost <20-50% of target ATV, ARPU, CLV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider Costs, Scarce Resource Tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual $ expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing time & resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product/Engineering time & resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cashflow timing of expense vs. revenue, profit </li></ul></ul>ACQ = F(Customer, Campaign, Vol, Cost, Conv)
    44. 44. [ What is WINNING? ]
    45. 45. Choose Yer # WIN NING Metrics <ul><li>WIN = F(Customer, Usage, Dist, Revenue) </li></ul><ul><li>after MVP functional use, several options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better Usage – Activation & Retention (AUX ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more Users -- Distribution / Acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mo' Money --- U Wants 2 Get Paid, Yo. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>understand ACQ$ vs REV$ , optimize 4 short-term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High(er) volume usually a priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>costs may change as vol increases </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. [ The Lean Investor ]
    47. 47. Startup 2.0: “Lean Investor” Model <ul><li>Method : Invest in startups using incremental investment, iterative development. Start with lots of small experiments, filter out failure, and expand investment upon success. </li></ul><ul><li>Incubator : $0-100K ( “ Product Viability ”) </li></ul><ul><li>Seed : $100-$1M ( “ Expand Distribution ”) </li></ul><ul><li>Venture : $1M-$5M ( “ Maximize Revenue ”) </li></ul>
    48. 48. Investment #1: Incubate ( “Product”) <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-3 founders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$25K-$100K investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubator environment: multiple peers, mentors/advisors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build Functional Prototype / “ Minimum Viable Product ” ( MVP ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept->Alpha, ~3-6 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Minimal Critical Feature Set => Get to “ It Works ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrument Basic Dashboard, Conversion Metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Cust. Adoption (10-1000 users) / Cust. Satisfaction (Scale: 1-10) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate Concept, Reduce Product Risk, Test Functional Use </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Metrics & Filter for Follow-on Investment </li></ul>
    49. 49. Investment #2: Seed ( “Market”) <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-5 person team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$100K-$1M investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syndicate of Angel Investors / Small VC Funds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve Product, Expand Market , Test Revenue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha->Beta, ~6-12 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Sat ≥ 6 => Get to “ Doesn’t Suck ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setup A/B Testing Framework, Optimize Conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Marketing Campaigns, Cust Acqstn Channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prove Solution/Benefit, Assess Market Size </li></ul><ul><li>Test Channel Cost, Revenue Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Org Structure, Key Hires </li></ul>
    50. 50. Investment #3: Venture ( “Revenue”) <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-10 person team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$1M-$5M investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VC Investors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make Money , Get to Sustainability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta->Production, 12-18 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Sat ≥ 8 => “ It Rocks, I’ll Tell My Friends ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MktgPlan => Predictable Channels / Campaigns + Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability & Infrastructure, Customer Service & Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect with Distribution Partners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prove/Expand Market, Operationalize Business </li></ul><ul><li>Future Milestones: Profitable/Sustainable , Exit Options </li></ul>
    51. 51. [ Don ’t Pitch Me, Bro. ] Seriously : Don ’t. F*#king . Pitch Me. (and don ’t email me either, cuz i won’t read it)
    52. 52. Don ’t Pitch Me, Bro. <ul><li>1 st : Read my stuff (blogs, decks, tweets). </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd : Get a referral from someone I trust . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 Mentors or 500 Founders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Subject Matter Experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Not* Your Mom. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 rd : Be Concise. Don ’t Suck . </li></ul>Email B E D Y 
    53. 53. Links & Resources <ul><li>Additional References: </li></ul><ul><li>Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini (book) </li></ul><ul><li>The Mating Mind Geoffrey Miller (book) </li></ul><ul><li>Putting the Fun in Functional Amy Jo Kim (etech 2006 preso) </li></ul><ul><li>Futuristic Play Andrew Chen (blog) </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’ t Make Me Think Steve Krug (book) </li></ul><ul><li>Designing for the Social Web Joshua Porter (book, website) </li></ul><ul><li> Startup Lessons Learned Eric Ries (blog) </li></ul><ul><li> Customer Development Methodology Steve Blank (presentation, blog ) </li></ul><ul><li>Startup-Marketing.com Sean Ellis (blog) </li></ul><ul><li>KISSmetrics.com Hiten Shah / Neil Patel (website) </li></ul><ul><li>How To Pitch a VC Dave McClure (slides, NSFW) </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Comics Scott McCloud (book) </li></ul>
    54. 54. Appendix
    55. 55. Startup Metrics Activation
    56. 56. Website.com <ul><li>Activation Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>10-30+ seconds </li></ul><ul><li>2-3+ page views </li></ul><ul><li>3-5+ clicks </li></ul><ul><li>1 key feature usage </li></ul>do LOTS of landing page & A/B tests – make lots of dumb guesses & iterate FAST Activation SEO SEM Apps & Widgets Affiliates Email PR Biz Dev Campaigns, Contests Direct, Tel, TV Social Networks Blogs Domains
    57. 57. Activation What do users do on their first visit? <ul><li>Example Activation Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on something! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Account sign up / Emails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referrals / Tell a friend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widgets / Embeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Bounce Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activation Tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less is more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on user experience / usability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide incentives & call to actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test and iterate continuously </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Activation What do users do on their first visit? <ul><li>Key Metrics to Track </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pages per visit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time on site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversions </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Activation <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crazy Egg (Visual Click Mapping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://crazyegg.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Website Optimizer (A/B & Multivariate Testing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://google.com/websiteoptimizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketo.com (B2B Lead Generation Management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://marketo.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation and Testing: A Primer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kaushik.net/avinash/2006/05/experimentation-and-testing-a-primer.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landing Page Design Toolbox: 100 Tips & Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://tinyurl.com/326co6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landing Page Tutorials & Case Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.copyblogger.com/landing-pages/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>101 Easy Easy to use Google Website Optimizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://conversion-rate-experts.com/articles/101-google-website-optimizer-tips/ </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Startup Metrics Retention
    61. 61. Website.com <ul><li>Automated emails: </li></ul><ul><li>lifecycle emails @ +3, +7, +30d </li></ul><ul><li>status / “best of” weekly/monthly </li></ul><ul><li>“ something happened” emails </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: </li></ul><ul><li>make it easy to unsubscribe </li></ul><ul><li>Tip on emails: </li></ul><ul><li>> 80% or more on SUBJECT LINE </li></ul><ul><li>< 20% or less on BODY TEXT </li></ul>Retention SEO SEM Apps & Widgets Affiliates Email PR Biz Dev Campaigns, Contests Direct, Tel, TV Social Networks Blogs Domains Emails & Alerts System Events & Time-based Features Blogs, RSS, News Feeds
    62. 62. <ul><li>Cohort Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Distrib of Visits over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Decay </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Customer Lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Retention Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Emails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Track open rate / CTR / Quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RSS / News Feeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Track % viewed / CTR / Quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widgets / Embeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Track impressions / CTR / Quantity </li></ul></ul>Retention How do users come back? How often?
    63. 63. <ul><li>Example Retention Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 - 3+ visits per month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% open rate / 2% CTR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High deliverability / Low spam rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long customer life cycle / Low decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify fanatics and cheerleaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retention Tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email is simple and it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT make unsubscribe easy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% subject line / 20% body text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTUALLY 99% subject line / 1% body text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fanatics = virality + affiliate channel (bloggers?) </li></ul></ul>Retention How do users come back? How often?
    64. 64. Retention How do users come back? How often? <ul><li>Key Metrics to Track </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visitor Loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Session Length </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Retention <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign Monitor / MailChimp (email newsletter software) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>campaignmonitor.com / mailchimp.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TriggerMail (site-centric email management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triggermail.net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litmus (email and website design testing - clients / browsers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>litmusapp.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 free HTML email templates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>campaignmonitor.com/resources/templates.aspx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Practices in Writing Email Subject Lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mailchimp.com/resources/best-practices-in-writing-email-subject-lines.phtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Viral: Viral Emails of Tagged.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>okdork.com/2008/04/10/learning-viral-studying-taggedcom/ </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Startup Metrics Acquisition
    67. 67. Website.com <ul><li>Marketing Channels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largest-volume (#) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lowest-cost ($) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>best-performing (%) </li></ul></ul>Acquisition SEO SEM Apps & Widgets Affiliates Email PR Biz Dev Campaigns, Contests Direct, Tel, TV Social Networks Blogs Domains
    68. 68. Acquisition Where are users coming from? <ul><li>Acquisition Methods </li></ul><ul><li>SEO / SEM </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media & Social Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Domains </li></ul>
    69. 69. Acquisition Keyword Vocabulary <ul><li>Top 10 - 100 words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Brand / Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Needs / Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitor ’s Brand / Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Equivalents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misspellings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Things to analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Acquisition Where are users coming from? <ul><li>Key Metrics to Track </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity (#) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost ($) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversions (%) </li></ul></ul>Example
    71. 71. Acquisition <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Analytics (web analytics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>google.com/analytics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Keyword Tool (keyword research tool) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adwords.google.com/select/KeywordToolExternal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEO Book Tools (SEO related tools) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tools.seobook.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEO Book Blog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seobook.com/blog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Media Manual: Read Before You Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>searchengineland.com/071120-144401.php </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies to ruthlessly acquire users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>andrewchen.typepad.com/andrew_chens_blog/2007/04/10_obvious_stra.html </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Startup Metrics Referral
    73. 73. Website.com Focus on driving referrals * after * users have a “ happy ” experience; avg score >= 8 out of 10 Referral Acquisition SEO SEM Apps & Widgets Affiliates Email PR Biz Dev Campaigns, Contests Direct, Tel, TV Social Networks Blogs Domains Retention Emails & Alerts System Events & Time-based Features Blogs, RSS, News Feeds
    74. 74. Referral How do users refer others? <ul><li>Referral Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Send to Friend: Email / IM </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media </li></ul><ul><li>Widgets / Embeds </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliates </li></ul>
    75. 75. Referral Viral Growth Factor <ul><li>Viral Growth Factor = X * Y * Z </li></ul><ul><li>X = % of users who invite other people </li></ul><ul><li>Y = average # of people that they invited </li></ul><ul><li>Z = % of users who accepted an invitation </li></ul>A viral growth factor > 1 means an exponential organic user acquisition.
    76. 76. Referral <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigya (social media distribution & tracking tool) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gigya.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ShareThis / AddThis (sharing buttons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sharethis.com / addthis.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GetMyContacts (PHP contacts importing & invitation software) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>getmycontacts.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven Ways to GO VIRAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lsvp.wordpress.com/2007/03/02/seven-ways-to-go-viral/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What ’s your viral loop? Understanding the engine of adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>andrewchen.typepad.com/andrew_chens_blog/2007/07/whats-your-vira.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metrics: Where Users Come From </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slideshare.net/guest2968b8/rockyou-snap-summit-32508 </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. Startup Metrics Revenue
    78. 78. Website.com Revenue This is the part *you* still have to figure out… (we don ’t know jack about your business) R evenue $$$ Biz Dev Ads, Lead Gen, Subscriptions, ECommerce Acquisition SEO SEM Apps & Widgets Affiliates Email PR Biz Dev Campaigns, Contests Direct, Tel, TV Social Networks Blogs Domains Retention Emails & Alerts System Events & Time-based Features Blogs, RSS, News Feeds
    79. 79. Revenue How do you make money? <ul><li>Revenue Tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don ’t Rely on AdSense (only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start Free => 2% “ Freemium ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscription / Recurring transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualify your customers -> Lead generation (arbitrage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell something! (physical or virtual) </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. Revenue <ul><li>Resources & Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue Metrics (Andrew Chen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://tinyurl.com/47r63a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to Create a Profitable “Freemium” Startup (Andrew Chen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://tinyurl.com/8z9ygk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 Affiliate Marketing Review (Scott Jangro) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://tinyurl.com/86wak4 </li></ul></ul>
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