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An overview of Syllabi in ELT

An overview of Syllabi in ELT
by Mohammed Mohseni Far

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    Sylabuss powerpoitn Sylabuss powerpoitn Presentation Transcript

    • An Overview of Syllabuses in English Language Teaching
      William Hall ESL 501
    • What is the definition of Syllabus?
      In Wilkins’(1981) words, syllabuses are “specifications of the content of language teaching which have been submitted to some degree of structuring or ordering with the aim of making teaching and learning a more effective process.”
      “a plan or what is to be achieved through our teaching and our student’s learning.”(Breen, 1984)
    • Syllabus definition part 2
      function of a syllabus is “to specify what is to be taught and in what order.” (Prabhu, 1984)
      “a summary of the content to which learners will be exposed.”(Yalden, 1987)
    • Syllabus definition part 3
      “social constructions, produced interdependently in classrooms by teachers and learners…They are concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned, frequently set down in some written form as prescriptions for action by teachers and learners.” (Candlin, 1984)
    • Syllabuses in ELT
      Procedural syllabus
      Cultural syllabus
      Situational syllabus
      Skill-based syllabus
      Structural or formal syllabus
      Multi-dimensional syllabus
      Task-based syllabus
      Process syllabus
      Learner-led syllabus
      Proportional syllabus
      Content-based syllabus
      Notional/functional syllabus
      Lexical syllabus
    • Procedural Syllabus
      Structure can be best learned when attention is concentrated on meaning
      Focus is on the learner
      Tasks and activities are designed but not the linguistic content
      Learner focuses on trying to solve the meaning behind the text
    • Cultural Syllabus
      Based on learner’s own country
      Requiring teacher to have knowledge of student’s culture
      Goals to develop interest, curiosity and empathy for cultures
      Emphasis on socio-cultural implications of language usage
    • Situational Syllabus
      Based on real life situations, such as going to the dentist, seeing a movie, meeting a new student
      Content of language is based on such situations.
      Learners find meaning from relevant context.
    • Skill-Based Syllabus
      Skills are taught that are needed for language competency
      Specific skills such as pronunciation, grammar and discourse are improved through activities such as: listening to language to find the main idea, writing well-formed paragraphs, and giving lectures.
    • Structural (Formal) Syllabus
      Organized along grammatical lines.
      Focus on outcomes or the product
      Learner expected to master each structural step while increasing grammar
      Uses structured, sequenced practice drills
    • Multi-Dimensional Syllabus
      Flexible syllabus incorporating elements of other models.
      Example: a syllabus that includes important functions, reviewing important situations, and teaching specific skills
      A combination of other models.
    • Task Based Syllabus
      Using specific task to achieve a purpose
      Language is developed through interaction and practice.
      Task must be relevant to the real world
    • Process Syllabus
      Program is designed as the school year takes place
      Decision to follow a pre-designed content syllabus, or develop an on-going syllabus using alternative assessment, activities and tasks
      Develops a strong relationship between subject matter, learning, and the contributions of a classroom.
    • Learner-Led Syllabus
      Learners engaged in the implementation and design as much as practically possible
      The hope is that the learner is more motivated due to their awareness of the course and their involvement.
      Questions on practicality of program as syllabus is guided by learner
    • Proportional Syllabus
      Focus is on flexibility and spiral technique of language sequencing leading to the recycling of language.
      Goal is to develop an overall competence
      Themes are chosen by the learner
      Shift from form to interaction.
      States syllabus has to indicate what will be taught, rather than what will be learned
    • Content-Based Syllabus
      Goal is to teach specific information and content using the language that learners are learning.
      Subject matter is primary, and language learning happens concurrently.
      For example, in a chemistry class, linguistic adjustments are made to make the chemistry more understandable.
    • Notional/Functional Syllabus
      Focus is on the communicative purpose and the conceptual meaning of language.
      Calls for needs analysis to establish objectives
      Functions such as inviting, requesting, agreeing, apologizing are taught.
      Notions such as age, color, size, comparison, time, etc.
    • Lexical Syllabus
      Firmly based on real language.
      Use of the commonest words and phrases and their meanings
      Learning the patterns of language
      Language is carefully selected for the learner to analyze by themselves.
    • Why syllabus would you chose, and why?