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Ch02 Access
 

Ch02 Access

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    Ch02 Access Ch02 Access Presentation Transcript

    • Building The Database
      1
      Chapter 2
      “It is only the farmer who faithfully plants seeds in the Spring, whoreaps a harvest in the Autumn.”—BC Forbes
    • Chapter Introduction
      Learn different techniques for
      Creating tables
      Entering data
      Verifying data
      Relating tables
      Documenting database objects
      Backing up database
      Repairing database
      Securing data
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      2
    • Tools Covered in This Chapter
      Datasheet view
      Design view
      Documenter
      Import spreadsheet wizard
      Input mask wizard
      Lookup Wizard
      Relationships window
      Database Security
      Subdatasheet
      Table Templates
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      3
    • Level 1 Objectives: Creating the Database Tables
      Create a database and tables
      Work in Design view
      Set a field’s data type size and properties
      Use the Input Mask Wizard and the Lookup Wizard
      Validate fields
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      4
    • Using the Database Design to Create the Database
      Blank Database option in the Getting Started Screen
      Database window
      Main control panel for database
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      5
    • Creating a Table by Entering Data
      Click Create tab, and then click Table
      Datasheet view
      Shows table’s records in rows and table’s fields in columns
      Table window
      Indicates table’s name
      Just start entering data
      Access adds ID field to datasheet
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      6
    • Datasheet View
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      7
    • Creating a Table by Entering Data (continued)
      Click save button
      Save as dialog box
      Enter table name
      Change to design view
      Click view button on the Home tab
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      8
    • Working in Table Design View
      Design view
      Define table’s fields and field properties
      Rearrange order of fields as necessary
      Table design grid
      Top part of design view
      Includes field name data type and description columns
      Each row
      Field in table
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      9
    • Working in Table Design View (continued)
      Field properties pane
      Bottom part of design view
      Displays field properties for selected field
      Rules when naming fields and database objects
      Up to 64 characters
      Any combination of
      Letters
      Numbers
      Spaces
      Special characters except ., !, `, [, and ]
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      10
    • Working in Table Design View (continued)
      Rules when naming fields and database objects
      Cannot begin with space
      Some organizations establish standards for naming objects and fields
      Field size property
      Limit number of characters to store in text field
      Type of numeric data to store in number field
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      11
    • Adding Descriptions to Fields in Table Design View
      Description property
      Document contents
      Identify field as primary or foreign key
      Provide users with instructions about entering values into field
      Primary key button
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      12
    • Creating a Table Using the Table Templates
      Table Templates
      Includes sample tables for business and personal needs
      Select and modify fields to create tables
      Good method to use when
      Table already exists as sample table
      Accept default field properties assigned to fields in template or easily change them
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      13
    • Table Template
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      14
    • Creating a Table in Design View
      Click Design button on Create tab
      Enter field names and data types
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      15
    • Evaluating and Testing the Table Design
      By moving to next record
      Access saves record in table
      To cancel record
      Press Esc key
      After designing table
      Evaluate for potential problems
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      16
    • Displaying Descriptive Field Names Using the Caption Property
      Caption property
      Change way field name displayed
      Specifies how field name will appear in different database objects
      Default caption property
      Field name for all data types
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      17
    • Formatting Field Values Using an Input Mask
      Input mask
      Predefined format
      Applied to field
      Values are displayed using format specified
      Ensures that all of necessary data entered
      Literal characters
      Not stored in database
      User does not need to type them
      Input Mask Wizard
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      18
    • Input Mask Characters and Descriptions
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      19
    • Validating Fields to Ensure Accurate and Consistent Data
      Validation rule
      Compares data entered by user against one or more valid values
      Validation Rule property
      Specifies valid values that users can enter
      Validation Text property
      Displayed if user enters invalid value
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      20
    • Sample Validation Rules and Validation Text
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      21
    • Automating Data Entry by Using a Default Field Value
      Default Value property
      Enters default value into any type of field
      Except for AutoNumber field
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      22
    • Automating Data Entry by Using a Lookup Field
      Lookup field
      Lets user select field value
      From
      List of existing field values stored in database
      List of values specified when lookup field created
      Change field’s data type in Lookup Wizard
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      23
    • Level 1 Summary
      Create tables by
      Entering data
      Using design view
      Create table templates
      Customizing tables
      Captions
      Validation rules
      Using lookup wizard
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      24
    • Level 2 Objectives:Populating and Relating the Database Tables
      Import data into a database
      Set a table’s primary key
      Create foreign keys
      Create one-to-many and many-to-many relationships
      Use a subdatasheet to view related records in a table
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      25
    • Populating the Database Tables
      Populating database
      Load tables with data
      Enter data in datasheets
      Import data
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      26
    • Copying Records from One Table to Another
      Import existing data from another table
      Table structure must be identical
      Select all of records
      Click copy button
      Open target database table
      Click paste button
      Correct errors with AutoNumber field record numbers that should be incremented sequentially
      Delete AutoNumber field from table
      Add it back
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      27
    • Importing Data from an Excel Workbook
      Can import data and create table at same time
      Review contents of workbook to understand how it is arranged
      If column heading names comply with rules for naming fields in access
      Access uses them as field names data imported
      If column headings absent or do not comply
      Access assigns generic field names
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      28
    • Importing Data from an Excel Workbook (continued)
      Access can import most data from worksheet
      Not graphics
      Formulas converted to numbers
      Hyperlinks imported as text data
      Usually entire worksheet imported
      Can import range of data
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      29
    • Import Spreadsheet Wizard
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      30
    • Setting a Primary Key Field
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      31
    • Working with Primary and Foreign Keys
      Primary key and foreign key counterparts
      Must have same data type and field size
      Fields must contain identical values
      Primary key value must exist before entering corresponding record
      If referential integrity set
      User cannot enter null value into primary key field
      Required property
      Nonprimary key field
      Ensure that users enter value into field
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      32
    • Working with Primary and Foreign Keys (continued)
      Works to make data retrieval faster
      Access creates index for primary key field
      Index
      List maintained by database
      Associates field values in indexed field with records that contain field values
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      33
    • Creating an Index
      Increase speed at which access searches
      Open table in design view
      Select field to index
      Click indexed property list arrow
      Create index for any field
      Except fields of type
      Memo
      Hyperlink
      OLE object
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      34
    • Creating an Index for a Nonprimary Key Field
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      35
    • Creating an Index
      View indexes created in table
      Click indexes button on Table Design tab
      Create indexes for as many fields as necessary to optimize searches in database
      Records indexed when table saved
      Updated automatically as records added deleted, or changed
      As database grows
      Indexes might slow down database
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      36
    • Creating an Index (continued)
      Increases size of database
      Slows down database
      Must update index as users add change and delete records
      Add indexes as needed
      When improved performance necessary
      Delete indexes to
      Increase speed
      Reduce file size
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      37
    • Creating One-to-Many Relationships Between Tables
      Open relationships window
      Click relationships button on Database Tools tab
      Relationship has certain properties
      Type
      One-to-many
      One-to-one
      Many-to-many
      Attributes
      Specify how to manage changes when records updated or deleted
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      38
    • Relationships Window
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      39
    • Edit Relationships Dialog Box
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      40
    • Creating a Many-to-Many Relationship Between Tables
      Use junction table to create many-to-many relationship
      Create 1:M relationships between both tables and junction table
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      41
    • Using a Subdatasheet to View Related Records
      After importing data into database
      Good idea to open each table in Datasheet view
      Check data for problems
      Plus box appears for relationships
      Click to view subdatasheet
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      42
    • Level 2 Summary
      Import data from
      Other Access tables
      Excel
      Index
      Used to aid searches
      Create relationships using Relationships Window
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      43
    • Level 3 Objectives:Maintaining and Securing a Database
      Learn about the role of the database administrator
      Compact repair and back up a database
      Document the database design using the documenter
      Secure a database by setting a password encrypting data, and hiding objects
      Create user-level security in a database
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      44
    • The Database Administrator Role
      Database administration (DBA)
      Responsible for maintaining database
      Sets security and other features of database
      Default option for opening database
      Available to other users at same time
      Open access database in four ways
      Open mode
      Open read-only mode
      Open exclusive mode
      Open exclusive read-only mode
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      45
    • Compacting and Repairing a Database
      Compact
      Data and objects reorganized
      Unused spaces reassigned and deleted
      Result
      Decreased file size
      Improved efficiency
      Can be done manually or every time database closed
      Good idea to compact before backing up
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      46
    • Backing Up a Database
      Creates copy of database
      Use to restore in event of loss
      Schedule database backups based on manageable amount of data loss
      Important to store copy in fireproof location offsite
      Created on external media such as
      CD
      DVD
      External hard drive
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      47
    • Backing Up a Database (continued)
      Back up database
      Click Office button
      Point to Manage
      Click back up database
      Default backup database name
      Original database name followed by current date
      Might few minutes to several hours to backup
      Depends on database size
      Backup copy can be opened like any other Access database
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      48
    • Documenting the Database Design
      Documenter tool
      Produces report of every object or just selected objects in database
      Click Database Tools tab, and then click the Database Documenter button
      Tabs at top of documenter dialog box
      Sort objects by type
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      49
    • Documenter Dialog Box
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      50
    • Securing a Database From Unauthorized Use
      Plan for and prevent data loss
      Protect database from unintentional or malicious damage
      DBA must open database with exclusive access prior to setting protection features
      Tools
      Setting database password
      Encrypting database
      Hiding database objects
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      51
    • Using a Password to Protect a Database
      Password
      Collection of characters that user types to gain access to file
      Database administrator sets database password
      Users cannot open database file in access
      Unless they provide correct password
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      52
    • Encrypting a Database to Prevent Unauthorized Use
      If someone steals file and tries to open it with program other than access
      Password will not protect file
      Encrypting database
      Converts data in database into format readable only by Access
      Click the Encrypt with Password button on the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      53
    • Hiding Database Objects From Users
      Casual users may damage database by
      Unintentionally altering object’s design
      Deleting object entirely
      Hide objects from being displayed in database window
      User will not be able to accidentally or intentionally damage database
      Revealing hidden object not difficult
      Hide using properties dialog box
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      54
    • Level 3 Summary
      Compact database
      Backup database
      Document database
      Secure database
      Password
      Encryption
      Hiding objects
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      55
    • Chapter Summary
      Create tables using one of three methods
      Import data from
      Other Access tables
      Excel
      Create relationships using Relationships Window
      Secure database using:
      Password
      Encryption
      Hiding Objects
      Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach
      56