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HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
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HOME Iowa / Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment

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Presentation delivered as part of a training for Iowa septic professionals to help them communicate septic system info to Iowa homeowners.

Presentation delivered as part of a training for Iowa septic professionals to help them communicate septic system info to Iowa homeowners.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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    • 1. Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment
    • 2. Please turn off or silence your cell phone Thanks!
    • 3. Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment <ul><li>http://septic.umn.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Sara Christopherson </li></ul><ul><li>State Extension Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Onsite Sewage Treatment Program </li></ul><ul><li>612-625-7243 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Doug Malchow Extension Educator OnSite Sewage Treatment Program 507-280-5575 [email_address]
    • 4. Operation and Maintenance of Septic Systems: Protect Your Investment Doug Malchow Extension Educator On-Site Sewage Treatment Program 507-280-5575 [email_address] http://septic.umn.edu (no www in front) Click on “Homeowner Information”
    • 5. <ul><li>Professional Training – Designers, Inspectors, Pumpers, Installers </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Homeowner Operation & Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Small Community Wastewater Solutions </li></ul>
    • 6. Why Are We Here? <ul><li>Learn how to use the Homeowner Operation and Maintenance Education (HOME) curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss “good” teaching methods </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss various venues to use HOME </li></ul><ul><li>Practice and discuss HOME curriculum </li></ul>
    • 7. <ul><li>These materials were developed by the </li></ul><ul><li>Onsite Sewage Treatment Program </li></ul><ul><li>at the University of Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>and are the collective effort of numerous individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>© 2007, Regents of the University of Minnesota. </li></ul><ul><li>All rights reserved. </li></ul>
    • 8. Before Session <ul><li>Know material </li></ul><ul><li>Know location of venue </li></ul><ul><li>Know venue </li></ul><ul><li>Arrive early </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare emergency kit – white sheet, extension cords, duct tape, tacks, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sign-in sheet? </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize observer the first few times you present </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume projector works </li></ul>
    • 9. Beginning session <ul><li>Turn down lights to direct attention to screen- </li></ul><ul><li>Can you hear me? </li></ul><ul><li>Thank sponsors, restroom location, refreshments? </li></ul><ul><li>Use slides as prompts for topics – introduction, topics, restrooms, cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>Turn up lights so attendees can take notes </li></ul><ul><li>Address questions throughout presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down, it gives attendees chance to think bout what you are saying, avoid ahhs </li></ul><ul><li>Use humor </li></ul>
    • 10. Septic System Owner’s Guide
    • 11. Iowa Rules & Septic Systems <ul><li>Iowa Administrative Code (IAC) 567, Chapters 68 and 69 </li></ul><ul><li>Undergoing an update </li></ul><ul><li>local boards of health have primary responsibility for regulation of sewer systems serving less than 15 people, DNR larger systems </li></ul><ul><li>Counties have right to be more restrictive </li></ul>
    • 12. Why Are We Here? <ul><li>To learn how a septic system works </li></ul><ul><li>To potentially save </li></ul><ul><li>you money by </li></ul><ul><li>following some </li></ul><ul><li>simple practices </li></ul><ul><li>Protect human </li></ul><ul><li>health and environment </li></ul>
    • 13. Home Management tips <ul><li>Tank pumping </li></ul><ul><li>Bathrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>Laundry </li></ul><ul><li>Other water using </li></ul><ul><li>devices </li></ul><ul><li>Soil treatment system </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Landscaping </li></ul>
    • 14. Typical water use <ul><li>150 gallons per day per bedroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes 2 people per bedroom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to size systems </li></ul>
    • 15. Definitions <ul><li>Pathogens: Disease-causing organisms, such as viruses, protozoa, and bacteria. Often measured as fecal coliform bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic: Life that requires the presence of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic: Life that does not require the presence of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Retention time: the amount of time sewage spends in the septic tank </li></ul>
    • 16. WHAT IS SEWAGE? Used water
    • 17. What do we add to the water? <ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus, Bacteria (Human health) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus (Environment; weed & algal growth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (Blue Baby Syndrome, environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-nutrients (Human health and the environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solids – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic (biological oxygen demand (BOD) and its impact on the environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. All wastewater must be treated
    • 19. Anatomy of a Septic System <ul><li>Plumbing : wastewater collection </li></ul><ul><li>Septic tank : primary treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Soil treatment </li></ul><ul><li>system : </li></ul><ul><li>final treatment </li></ul><ul><li>and dispersal </li></ul>Source Septic tank Soil treatment system Reserve area
    • 20. Septic Tank
    • 21. System Components Source Tank Drainfield Treatment in Soil Saturated Zone or Confining Layer Well 3 feet
    • 22. Mound Drainfield Saturated Zone or Confining Layer Distribution Pipes Rock Topsoil Sand 3 feet
    • 23. Mound System Slightly more “advanced”: electricity required Source Septic Tank Soil Pump Tank Sand
    • 24. Typical Sand Filter <ul><li>Most typically constructed on-site </li></ul><ul><li>Use clean, coarse sand and washed rock </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral and collector lines are perforated </li></ul>
    • 25. Pretreatment Units Source Drainfield Saturated Zone or Confining Layer Well Septic Tank Pretreatment Unit
    • 26. Peat Filter Peat Filter
    • 27. Textile Filter
    • 28. Aerobic Treatment Unit
    • 29. System type based upon soil borings for characteristics and soil conditions <ul><li>System size based upon: </li></ul><ul><li>number of bedrooms, percolation test results, soil type (sand, loam, clay, and water use (i.e. garbage disposal) </li></ul><ul><li>Type of soil (sand, loam, clay) </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water used, garbage disposal, bedrooms. </li></ul>
    • 30. What Kind of System is Bad (failing)? <ul><li>Backup into home </li></ul><ul><li>Leaky tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Surfacing to </li></ul><ul><li>ground </li></ul><ul><li>Surfacing to water body </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate vertical separation to saturated zone or confining layer </li></ul>
    • 31. Leaky Tanks
    • 32. A Surfacing System: An imminent health threat
    • 33. Surfacing Systems
    • 34. Inadequate Vertical Separation Source Tank Drainfield Treatment in Soil Saturated zone or confining layer Well 1 foot
    • 35. System Components Source Tank Drainfield Treatment in Soil Saturated zone or confining layer Well 3 feet
    • 36. Where are pathogens treated ? <ul><li>Tank? Soil? How do they die? </li></ul>
    • 37. Pathogens - captured by the soil Soil is Sticky Electrical charges
    • 38. Aerobic Soil bacteria snacks! Held long enough to starve!
    • 39. Treatment Performance of Soil: Fecal Coliform Removal Source: Onsite Sewage Treatment Program Manual Backgrd. Backgrd. - 100 1,000 to 1 million 1 million to 100 million Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml; less than ½ cup) Three Feet of Soil Treatment One Foot of Soil Treatment Septic Tank Effluent Raw Sewage Component of Sewage
    • 40. Where are nutrients treated? Tank? Soil? What happens to them?
    • 41. Where are nutrients treated? <ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attach to soil particles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lost to air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dilution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 42. Where are solids treated? Organics and Inorganics Tank? Soil? What happens to them?
    • 43. Septic Tank: Primary Treatment <ul><li>Job of tank: catch the solids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose organic solids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store inorganic solids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layers in tank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scum layer: floating soap, grease, toilet paper, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid layer: water, liquid, and suspended solids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sludge: heavy organic and inorganic materials in the bottom of the tank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic bacteria breakdown organic solids </li></ul>
    • 44. Septic Tank
    • 45. Where are chemicals, cleaners, & medications treated? <ul><li>2 issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Not many are destroyed in tank or soil treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Can destroy good tank and soil bacteria </li></ul>
    • 46. Common Causes of Problems <ul><li>Overloading the System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong choice of system design </li></ul>
    • 47. Home Management tips <ul><li>Minimize water use </li></ul><ul><li>Tank pumping </li></ul><ul><li>Bathrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>Laundry </li></ul><ul><li>Other water using </li></ul><ul><li>devices </li></ul><ul><li>Soil treatment system </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Landscaping </li></ul>
    • 48. Where does it come from? <ul><li>Water use (per cent </li></ul><ul><li>of total) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bathroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toilet = 27% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bathing = 17% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laundry = 22% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kitchen = 17% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks and other = 17% </li></ul></ul>
    • 49. Tank Pumping <ul><li>Removes accumulated sludge and scum layers </li></ul><ul><li>Done by licensed “Commercial Septic Tank Cleaner” </li></ul><ul><li>Only allow cleaning from manholes. Never from inspection pipes </li></ul>
    • 50. Tank Pumping Continued <ul><li>Remove all scum sludge and liquid from the tank </li></ul><ul><li>Flushing and backflushing liquids is required </li></ul><ul><li>Check baffles and structural integrity of tank </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended every 3-5 years </li></ul>
    • 51. Septic Tank
    • 52. How Often? <ul><li>As needed – scum or sludge build up </li></ul><ul><li>Impacted by water & product use </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Thumb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every 1 to 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer than 3 years without pumping or inspection – state code requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal home/cabin – same as above! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New home or remodel: 1 st 3 months – finishing materials are toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New owners – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start on maintenance program </li></ul></ul>
    • 53. Additives: Not needed!! <ul><li>Starters - Bacteria are abundant in existing wastewater </li></ul><ul><li>Feeders – Wastewater contains a lot of food for bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaners – Unnecessary and potentially hazardous </li></ul><ul><li>Never add these products to your system! They can actually damage your soil treatment system. </li></ul>
    • 54. How to Hire a Pumper <ul><li>Word of mouth - referrals </li></ul><ul><li>List of licensed pumpers from the local unit of government </li></ul><ul><li>Response to interview questions over the phone. Do you: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump through the manhole? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backflush? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend additives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much will it cost? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
    • 55. Screens and Filters? <ul><li>Effluent screens on tanks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents suspended solids from leaving the tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Washing machine lint filters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevent lint from entering system </li></ul></ul>
    • 56. Toilet <ul><li>Low flow – High quality </li></ul><ul><li>Leaking problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaskets & “running” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toilet paper – any is fine </li></ul><ul><li>No other products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue, napkins, butts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(cigarettes), hair, cotton balls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleaners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT Automatic – Tidy Bowl man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small amount with “elbow grease” </li></ul></ul>
    • 57. Bathing <ul><li>Leaks </li></ul><ul><li>Low flow </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shower-clean type hard on system – introduce cleaners everyday. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-bacterial soaps </li></ul><ul><li>Shaving, bath oils hard on system </li></ul>
    • 58. Schedule Laundry <ul><li>Spread out loads – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think even </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>throughout week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>throughout day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use low water level setting for small loads </li></ul><ul><li>Keep lint out of system </li></ul>
    • 59. Soap <ul><li>Powdered – Not recommended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic fillers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay as filler </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommend Liquid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filler - water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only amount needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detergents w/ bleach </li></ul><ul><li>Bleach – limit to ‘as needed’ </li></ul><ul><li>Limit use of liquid fabric softeners </li></ul>
    • 60. Water softener recharge water <ul><li>Does not require treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Impact : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces scum layer- grabs it, takes into drainfield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt – can affect concrete (tank) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge to different place old drainfield/cesspool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce recharge frequency </li></ul></ul>
    • 61. Softener Recharge Solution Example <ul><li>Flex Tube </li></ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape Fabric </li></ul><ul><li>River rock </li></ul>
    • 62. Other Sources of Water That Can Overload a System (and don’t need treatment) <ul><li>Sump pump/tile line discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Lead or other water filters </li></ul><ul><li>Dehumidifier discharge </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency furnace discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Eves trough runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Dripping faucets/”running toilets” </li></ul><ul><li>Any other sources? </li></ul>
    • 63. Odors <ul><li>Outside : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump tank– solves most </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still? Raise vent stack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charcoal filter on stack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inside : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbing problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be frozen vent or dry trap </li></ul></ul>
    • 64. Continual traffic is a problem
    • 65. Soil Treatment System Maintenance <ul><li>Compaction is BAD – keep traffic off system </li></ul><ul><li>Establish vegetative cover - Grass, mow regularly, no fertilizer, no deep rooted plants near system. Watch for gophers! </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection pipes can be cut to ground level after finished grade is established </li></ul>
    • 66. Soil Treatment System Maintenance <ul><li>Replace cracked or missing inspection pipe caps </li></ul><ul><li>Channel rain and snow melt runoff away from drainfield </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect regularly for changes </li></ul>
    • 67.  
    • 68.  
    • 69.  
    • 70. Freezing of Septic Systems <ul><li>Causes of Freezing – lack of cover, compaction, irregular system use, leaking plumbing, cold air into system, poor drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Remedies – figure out why and where; fix the problem (or use tank as a holding tank) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention – Let your grass grow, mulch (or styrofoam), use extra warm water, fix leaks </li></ul>
    • 71. Landscaping
    • 72. Photo: Look for greener stripes
    • 73. Installation Flexibility
    • 74.  
    • 75.  
    • 76. Questions? http://septic. umn.edu (no www in front) “Info for Homeowners” or “Publications” (on right side of page)
    • 77. System type depends on the soil redoximorphic features

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