Measurement and layout toolsPresentation Transcript
Construction Tools, Tool Use and Tool Safety Introduction to Hand Tools
Introduction to Hand Tools There are many common tools used in the building trades. Right from the laying of a foundation to the final finishing of a building, there are numerous kinds of construction tools which are used on each step of the building process. The following will describe many of the tools that you will be using and need to be familiar with in the Residential Building Maintenance 12 course and include:
1. Measurement and layout tools 2. Cutting tools 3. Planning, smoothing and shaping tools 4. Gripping and clamping tools 5. Portable power tools 6. Shop tools
1. Measurement and Layout Tools:Ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a tool used in the construction trades to measure distances and/or to draw straight lines. Strictly speaking, the ruler is essentially a straightedge used to rule lines.
Measurement and Layout Tools:Tape Measure Measuring tapes designed for the building trades often use a stiff, curved metallic tape that can remain stiff and straight when extended, but retracts into a coil for storage. This type of tape measure will have a floating tang on the end to aid measuring. The tang will float a distance equal to its thickness, to provide both inside and outside measurements that are accurate. A tape measure of 25 or even 100 feet can wind into a relatively small container.
Measurement and Layout Tools:Framing Square The framing square is a tool that many carpenters use. There are many tools to lay out a "square" or right-angle, many of which are made of steel, but the title framing square refers to a specific long-armed square that has additional uses for measurement, especially of angles, as well as simple right-angles. There are two arms on the framing square. The wider arm, two inches wide, is called the blade; the narrower arm, one and a half inches wide, the tongue. The square has many uses, including laying out common rafters and stairs as well as being a handy tool for making a quick reference if your work is “square”.
Measurement and Layout Tools:Combination Square A combination square is a tool used for multiple purposes in the building trades. It is made of a ruled blade (a steel ruler) and a sliding head.The most common head is the standard or square head which is used to lay out or check 90° and 45° angles.
Measurement and Layout Tools:Speed Square The speed square, or rafter angle square, is a triangular-measuring tool used to draw straight lines on lumber to be cut, or to lay out angles for roofs, stairways, decks and other general construction. The tool is marked with degree gradations for fast layout and cutting of lumber without performing complex calculations. It is called the "Speed Square," since it provides a short cut for measurements and calculations of angles. Generally, the tool comes in two sizes - the compact 7 inch version for portable use and the larger less portable 12 inch version for stationary work.
Measurement and Layout Tools:Bevel Guage(Sliding T-Square) A sliding T bevel is an adjustable gauge for setting and transferring angles. The handle is usually made of wood or plastic and is connected to a metal blade with a thumbscrew or wingnut. The blade pivots and can be locked at any angle by loosening or tightening the thumbscrew.
Measurement and Layout Tools:Compass A compass is a technical drawing tool that can be used for inscribing circles or arcs. Compasses are usually made of metal, and consist of two parts connected by a hinge which can be adjusted. Typically one part has a spike at its end, and the other part a pencil. Circles can be made by fastening one leg of the compasses into the project with the spike, putting the pencil on the project, and moving the pencil around while keeping the hinge on the same angle. The radius of the circle can be adjusted by changing the angle of the hinge. Scribe-compassis an instrument used by carpenters and other tradesmen. Scribing is one of the key techniques for installing cabinets, countertops and built-in woodwork.
Measurement and Layout Tools:Level A spirit level or bubble level is a tool designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb). Different types of levels may be used by carpenters, stone masons, bricklayers or other building trades workers. A traditional carpenter's level looks like a short plank of wood and often has a wide body to ensure both stability, and that the surface is being measured correctly. Embedded in the middle of the spirit level is a small window where the bubble and the tube are mounted. Two notches (or rings) show where the bubble should be if the surface was level.
Measurement and Layout Tools:Chalk Line A chalk line or chalk box is a tool for marking long, straight lines on relatively flat surfaces, much farther than is practical by hand or with a ruler or other straightedge. It is an important tool in the building trades. A chalk line draws straight lines by the action of a taut nylon string. Specifically, the string, coated with a loose dye such as chalk, is laid across the surface to be marked and pulled tight. The string is then plucked or snapped sharply to cause the string to strike the surface, leaving a straight line.