Unit Two: Construction Tools, Tool Use and Tool Safety<br />Introduction to Hand Tools:<br />Cutting Tools &<br />Smoothing, Planning and Shaping Tools<br />
Cutting Tools:Crosscut Saw<br />Hand saw (cross cut and rip saw) There are two ways to cut a board: with the grain and across the grain. A cut that's made with (in the direction of) the wood's grain -- or down the length of the board -- is called a rip. A cut that's made across (perpendicular to) the grain is aptly named a crosscut.<br />Crosscut: A crosscut saw is a saw that is specially designed for making crosscuts. Crosscut saws have teeth that are designed to cut wood at a right angle to the direction of the wood grain. The cutting edge of each tooth acts like a knife edge to slice through the wood (in contrast to a rip saw, which tears along the grain, acting like a miniature chisel). Cross cut saws have much smaller teeth than rip saws.<br />
Cutting Tools:Rip Saw<br />In woodworking, a cut made parallel to the direction of the grain (same direction as the grain) of the work piece is known as a rip cut. If one were to cut a two x four from top to bottom, this would be a rip. A rip saw is a saw that is specially designed for making rip cuts. The cutting edge of each tooth has a flat front edge and it is not angled forward or backward. This design allows each tooth to act like a chisel (as opposed to a knife as with the crosscut saw). By acting like a chisel, the saw can more easily cut in a straight line down the length of a workpiece.<br />
Cutting Tools:Back Saw<br />A backsaw is any handsaw which has a stiffening rib on the edge opposite the cutting edge, allowing for better control and more precise cutting than with other types of saws. Backsaws are normally used in woodworking for precise work, such as cutting precise angles or making joints called dovetails. Because of the stiffening rib, the backsaws are limited in the depth to which they can cut. Backsaws usually have relatively closely-spaced teeth.<br />
Cutting Tools:Hack saw<br />A hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade under tension in a frame, used for cutting materials such as metal. Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. The blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke.<br />
Cutting Tools:Drywall Saw<br />A course tooth, pointed blade handsaw used to make holes or cut-outs in dry wall for lights, windows, electrical switches and electrical outlets. The pointed saw blade is used to penetrate the drywall so that a cut can be started<br />
Cutting Tools:Tin Snips<br />Snips, also known as shears, are hand tools used to cut sheet metal and other tough materials. Tin snips are defined by their long handles and short blades. They usually have extra wide jaws and are made of tough steel. Depending on the size they can cut between 23 and 16 gauge steel.<br />
Cutting Tools:Compound <br />Compound-action tin snips are also known as aviation snips because they were developed to cut aluminum in the construction of aircraft.<br />
Cutting Tools:Utility Knife<br />A utility knife (also known as a Stanley knife )is a cutting tool used in various trades for a variety of purposes. Designed to be lightweight and easy to carry, utility knives are commonly used in factories, warehouses, and other situations where a tool is routinely needed to open boxes, packages, or cut through tape or cord. The user can adjust how far the blade extends from the handle, so that, for example, the knife can be used to cut the tape sealing a package without damaging the contents of the package. When the blade becomes dull, it can be quickly reversed or switched for a new one. Spare or used blades are stored in the hollow handle of some models, and can be accessed by removing a screw and opening the handle. Other models feature a quick-change mechanism that allows replacing the blade without tools, as well as a flip-out blade storage tray.<br />
Planning, Smoothing and Shaping Tools:Hand Planes<br />A plane is a tool for shaping wood. Planes are used to flatten, reduce the thickness of, and give a smooth surface to a rough piece of lumber. Hand planes are generally the combination of a cutting edge, such as a sharpened metal plate, attached to a firm body, that when moved over a wood surface, take up relatively uniform shavings, by removing the 'high spots' in the wood. Also by providing a relatively constant angle to the cutting edge, render the planed surface very smooth. <br />A cutter which extends below the bottom surface, or sole, of the plane slices off shavings of wood. A large, flat sole on a plane guides the cutter to remove only the highest parts of an imperfect surface, until, after several passes, the surface is flat and smooth.<br />
Planning, Smoothing and Shaping Tools:Rasp and File<br />A rasp is a tool used for shaping wood or other material. It consists of a point (or the tip), then a long steel bar (or the belly), then the heel (or bottom), then the tang. The tang is joined to a handle, usually made of plastic or wood. The bar has sharp teeth. Rasps generally cut more coarsely than files. <br />A file is a metalworking and woodworking tool used to cut fine amounts of material from a work piece. The hand tool style of file takes the form of a hardened bar with a series of sharp, parallel ridges, called teeth. Most files have a narrow, pointed tang at one end to which a handle can be fitted.<br />
Planning, Smoothing and Shaping Tools:Rasp and File<br />A chisel is a tool with a shaped cutting edge on the blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone or metal. In use, the chisel is forced into the material to cut it. The driving force may be applied or applied using a mallet or hammer. <br />Woodworking chisels range from small hand tools for tiny details, to large chisels used to remove big sections of wood, in 'roughing out' the shape of a pattern or design.<br />
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