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A Road Map for Cellular Respiration Cytosol Mitochondrion High-energy electrons carried by NADH High-energy electrons carr...
Fate of Pyruvate
2 Pyruvic acid Overview of Glycolysis
Glycolysis: 1
Phosphoryl transfer reaction.  Kinases transfer phosphate from ATP to an acceptor.   Hexokinase has a more general specifi...
Isomerization by phosphoglucose isomerase The enzyme opens the ring, catalyzes the isomerization, and promotes the closure...
Glucose to fructose -  isomerization aldose    ketose Step 2- again Changed the structure –  moved the carbonyl (C=O)  fr...
Adding another phosphate  The 2 nd  investment of an ATP in glycolysis. Step 3- add phosphate  to #1 C Name of the molecul...
Cleavage to two triose phosphates Enzyme:   aldolase C=O on the end – a aldehydye C=O is on the #1 C C=O in middle – a ket...
Cleavage of six-carbon sugar:  step 4 again shows where the cut is made and why two different sugars result This one will ...
Salvage of three-carbon fragment ketone     aldehyde Step 5- moving the carbonyl - isomerization
Glycolysis: 3
Done in two steps – this shows the overall result glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate  1,3 bisphosphoglycerate Step 6- adding  anot...
Stage 3: The energy yielding phase. Step 6- adding  another phosphate w/o using ATP!!!! An aldehyde is oxidized to carboxy...
The two steps. Aldehyde Acid
Step 7 Substrate-level phosphorylation Phosphate group moved from the substrate to ADP generating an ATP. Kinase enzyme in...
Step 8: Phosphate shift setup Step 8- moving the phosphate group from #3 to #2 C ENZYME-  phosphoglycerate – substrate mut...
Step 8- moving the phosphate group from #3 to #2 C
Generation of second very high energy  compound by a  dehydration reaction Step 9- forming an enol with a double bond betw...
An enol phosphate is formed:  step 9   Dehydration elevates the transfer potential of the phosphoryl group, which traps th...
Step 10:  Formation of Pyruvate & ATP ENZYME-  pyruvate – substrate kin – phosphate transfer between substrate and ATP/ADP...
<ul><li>Substrate level phosphorylation is the synthesis of ATP from ADP that is not linked to the electron transport syst...
 
Diverse fates of pyruvate To citric acid cycle
In anaerobic yeast, pyruvate->ethanol Pyruvate is  decarboxylated. Acetaldehyde is  reduced.
ATP
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Short version glycolysis

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Transcript of "Short version glycolysis"

  1. 1. A Road Map for Cellular Respiration Cytosol Mitochondrion High-energy electrons carried by NADH High-energy electrons carried mainly by NADH Glycolysis Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid Krebs Cycle Electron Transport
  2. 2. Fate of Pyruvate
  3. 3. 2 Pyruvic acid Overview of Glycolysis
  4. 4. Glycolysis: 1
  5. 5. Phosphoryl transfer reaction. Kinases transfer phosphate from ATP to an acceptor. Hexokinase has a more general specificity in that it can transfer phosphate to other sugars such as mannose. Phosphate group added to #6 carbon from the ATP ENZYME- Hexo – substrate kin – transfer P b/t substate and ATP/ADP ase - enzyme The name of the molecule phosphate on #6 carbon Step 1- add phosphate to #6 C
  6. 6. Isomerization by phosphoglucose isomerase The enzyme opens the ring, catalyzes the isomerization, and promotes the closure of the five member ring. GLUCOSE Aldose sugar An aldehyde with C=O on end C FRUCTOSE ketose sugar A ketone with C=O on a middle C Step 2- glucose  fructose
  7. 7. Glucose to fructose - isomerization aldose  ketose Step 2- again Changed the structure – moved the carbonyl (C=O) from #1 C to #2 C. An isomer ENZYME- Hexo – phosphohexose isomer – 6 member ring to 5 member ring ase - enzyme
  8. 8. Adding another phosphate The 2 nd investment of an ATP in glycolysis. Step 3- add phosphate to #1 C Name of the molecule Fructose – 5 member ring Phosphate on #1 and # 6 carbons ENZYME- phosphofructo – substate kin – transfer P b/t substate and ATP/ADP ase - enzyme
  9. 9. Cleavage to two triose phosphates Enzyme: aldolase C=O on the end – a aldehydye C=O is on the #1 C C=O in middle – a ketone Dihydroxy – two OH (except phosphate in second OH spot Step 4- break 6C into two 3C sugars
  10. 10. Cleavage of six-carbon sugar: step 4 again shows where the cut is made and why two different sugars result This one will not go down the pathway – that would be a waste of half the original glucose. STOP!!! This one will go down the pathway – the enzymes are shape specific. GO!!!
  11. 11. Salvage of three-carbon fragment ketone  aldehyde Step 5- moving the carbonyl - isomerization
  12. 12. Glycolysis: 3
  13. 13. Done in two steps – this shows the overall result glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate Step 6- adding another phosphate w/o using ATP!!!! ENZYME- Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate – substrate dehydrogen – hydrogen removed and replaced by phosphate ase - enzyme Phosphate from cytoplasm
  14. 14. Stage 3: The energy yielding phase. Step 6- adding another phosphate w/o using ATP!!!! An aldehyde is oxidized to carboxylic acid and inorganic phosphate is transferred to form acyl-phosphate. NAD + is reduced to NADH. Note, under anaerobic conditions NAD + must be re-supplied. With oxygen and mitochondria, NADH will go down electron transport chain and generate ATP.
  15. 15. The two steps. Aldehyde Acid
  16. 16. Step 7 Substrate-level phosphorylation Phosphate group moved from the substrate to ADP generating an ATP. Kinase enzyme involved in the change At this point 2ATPs were invested and 2ATPs are produced. Step 7- moving the phosphate group from substrate to ADP
  17. 17. Step 8: Phosphate shift setup Step 8- moving the phosphate group from #3 to #2 C ENZYME- phosphoglycerate – substrate mut – changes the structure (sorry not isomerase) ase - enzyme
  18. 18. Step 8- moving the phosphate group from #3 to #2 C
  19. 19. Generation of second very high energy compound by a dehydration reaction Step 9- forming an enol with a double bond between carbons Dehydration reaction the energy is locked into the high energy unfavorable enol configuration C=C with OH group alkene alcohol
  20. 20. An enol phosphate is formed: step 9 Dehydration elevates the transfer potential of the phosphoryl group, which traps the molecule in an unstable enol form Enol: molecule with hydroxyl group next to double bond
  21. 21. Step 10: Formation of Pyruvate & ATP ENZYME- pyruvate – substrate kin – phosphate transfer between substrate and ATP/ADP ase - enzyme Step 10- forming pyruvate
  22. 22. <ul><li>Substrate level phosphorylation is the synthesis of ATP from ADP that is not linked to the electron transport system. </li></ul>Pyruvate Kinase 2 nd example of substrate level phosphorylation. The net yield from glycolysis is 2 ATP unstable enol form  more stable ketone form
  23. 24. Diverse fates of pyruvate To citric acid cycle
  24. 25. In anaerobic yeast, pyruvate->ethanol Pyruvate is decarboxylated. Acetaldehyde is reduced.
  25. 26. ATP
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