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Inception Report Inception Report Document Transcript

  • Updating of Bangladesh National Building Code 1993 INCEPTION REPORT FEBRUARY 2010 Submitted to Housing and Building Research Institute (HBRI) Bureau of Research Testing and Consultancy (BRTC), Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)
  • ii SUMMARY Ministry of Housing and Public Works formed a steering committee with the responsibility of Updating BNBC 1993 by a G.O. having circular no. Section 8/IM-5/93(part) 812 (28) date: 15.09.2008. The Housing and Building Research Institute (HBRI) has been entrusted with the task of providing secretarial service to the steering committee and managing the implementation of the project. In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) from HBRI, Bureau of Research, Testing and Consultation (BRTC) of Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) submitted Technical and Financial proposals for updating the code. Consequently an agreement was signed between HBRI and BRTC on the 15th of December, 2009 giving the task of updating the Code to BRTC, BUET. According to the TOR of the agreement the major tasks assigned to BRTC are; • Review and Update of BNBC 1993 • Review and Update of the Building Construction Act 1952 and the Administrative Arrangement and Implementing Provisions of it A team of experts consisting of 33 Professionals from various disciplines (27 from BUET and 6 from outside) were gathered for updating the code. For management and co-ordination of the work, a team leader and a coordinator has been assigned from among the consultants. It is to be remembered that the present version of the BNBC was prepared in 1993. Since then major changes have taken place in every discipline of the Building technology. To make the Updated code time worthy and at par with the codes of both the neighboring and developed countries, the codes and other related documents have been collected from these countries. These documents, including books, journals, manuals, research reports etc. available in the libraries of the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) have been preliminarily reviewed by the consultants to identify changes / modifications of BNBC 1993. The preliminary reviews and suggestions and the tentative table of contents proposed for the Updated BNBC have been presented in the inception report. The process of collection and review of documents will continue along with inclusion of the findings of the review in the updated code at different stages of its preparation till finalization of the Updated version. It is proposed that the Updated BNBC will have 10 parts with a total of 54 chapters. Moreover some chapters will contain a number of appendices wherein sample calculations, design tables, graphs etc. will be provided for use by the readers for important analysis and designs. Part-6 Structural Design has 13 chapters which is the maximum among all the parts. In the contents of the proposed Updated Code, almost all of the topics of BNBC 1993 have been retained. Moreover some of these have been elaborated to accommodate the changes identified during review of the BNBC 1993 and the various codes and documents collected to make their scope wider, up to date and user friendly. In the following sections the changes are discussed with emphasis on the needs for the changes and the inclusions suggested. Part-6 “Structural Design” chapter in the Updated Code will include two new chapters, one on Bamboo Structure and the other on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures. The former is
  • iii intended for use in the rural areas. The use of well designed and economic bamboo structures is expected to be attractive to the rural people. The Steel Concrete composite structures are expected to be widely used in the industries. In urban areas this type of structure is expected to find application in high rise construction. Contrary to the presentation of Geotechnical engineering in BNBC 1993 wherein it has been treated as “Foundation” having limited scope, in the Updated code the Geotechnical engineering has been re-named as “Soils and Foundations” as revealed during review of most of the codes. The scope of the proposed “Soils and Foundations” chapter has been made wider by including topics such as ground improvement, geo-textiles, soil reinforcement, slope stability, foundation on problematic soils and sanitary landfills, dewatering, evaluation of liquefaction potential of soils. The new scope of the “Soils and Foundations” chapter is in line with the codes reviewed and requirements of the Geotechnical professionals of the country. Depletion of energy resources and environmental changes is a major concern worldwide. Bangladesh is no exception to it. Keeping these aspects in mind, changes and modifications have been suggested in BNBC 1993 for use of energy saving appliances, non-conventional fuels etc. in buildings. It has also been proposed that the Updated BNBC will contain chapters addressing the issues of energy conservation, rainwater harvesting and distribution mechanisms in the buildings. These are discussed in details below. In Part 3, “General Building Requirements, Control an Regulation” new Chapter-4 “Energy Efficiency and Passive Energy Design Features” has been proposed giving minimum code requirements for achieving the efficiency, targeting solar energy use in buildings of 10% to 20% by 2020. To reduce energy consumption in buildings provisions for use of variable refrigeration system in HVAC applications, Variable Voltage, Variable frequency drives in elevator applications has been proposed in Chapter-3 “Air Conditioning, Heating and Ventilation” of Part-8 “Building Services”. Energy conservation in lighting using energy saving lamps, Fluorescent lamps and GLS lamps has also been proposed in Chapter-2, “Electrical Installation” of the same part. To augment water supply in Buildings, Chapter-8, “Rainwater Management” in Part-8 “Building Services” has been included in the Updated Code containing specific guidelines for harvesting, storage and distribution of rainwater. To make the fire fighting services available to people residing in the congested urban areas, rural areas and remote areas, special provisions have been proposed in the Chapter “Specific Requirements for Rural Areas and Remote Areas of Part-4 “Fire Protection” of the Updated Code. Chapter-4 “Administration, Permit and Inspection” and Chapter-5 “Legal Proceedings” of Part-2 “Planning, Environment, Administration and Legislation” have been included for control and enforcement of the provisions of the Updated Code in all activities related to the building planning and construction at all levels. It is proposed that the sections will demarcate the administrative and legal issues more clearly for smooth management of the building construction activities.
  • iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Summary ii Introduction 1 1.1 General 1 1.2 Background 2 1.3 Objectives 3 1.4 Scope of Services 4 1.5 Scope of the Report 5 Work Plan 7 2.1 Methodology 7 2.1.1 Inputs 7 2.1.2 Process 9 2.1.3 Outputs 9 2.1.4 Review 10 2.1.5 Final Output 10 2.2 Organization and Management 10 2.2.1 Organization 10 2.2.2 Management 15 2.3 Work Schedule 17 2.4 Personnel Deployment Schedule 18 Planning, Environment, Administration and Legislation 24 3.1 Terms of Reference of the Group 24 3.2 Terms of Reference of Individual Consultants 24 3.3 List of Collected Documents/Information 26 3.4 List of Documents to be Collected 26 3.5 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 26 3.5.1 Planning 26 3.5.2 Environment 27 3.5.3 Administration and Legislation 27 3.6 Preliminary Review of BNBC 1993 29 3.7 Tentative Structure of the Updated Code 29 Architecture 31 4.1 General 31 4.2 Terms of Reference of the Group 31 4.3 Terms of Reference of Individual Consultants 32 4.3 Collection of Relevant Documents 33 4.3.1 Introduction 33 4.3.2 Documents Already Collected 33 4.3.3 Documents to be Collected 34
  • v 4.4 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 34 4.4.1 Introduction 34 4.4.2 Preliminary Review of International Building Code (IBC_2009) 34 4.4.3 Preliminary Review of National Building Code of India (2005) 37 4.4.4 Preliminary Review of Building Code of China 37 4.5 Preliminary Review of BNBC-1993 38 4.6 Tentative Structure of the Updated Code 40 Materials, Structure, Construction and Seismic Provisions 41 5.1 Terms of Reference of the Subgroups 41 5.1.1 Subgroup: Materials 41 5.1.2 Subgroup: Structure 42 5.1.3 Subgroup: Construction 42 5.1.4 Subgroup: Earthquake Engineering 43 5.2 Terms of Reference of Individual Consultants 44 5.2.1 Subgroup: Materials 44 5.2.2 Subgroup: Structure 45 5.2.3 Subgroup: Construction 47 5.2.4 Subgroup: Earthquake Engineering 48 5.3 List of Collected Documents 49 5.4 List of documents to be collected 50 5.5 Preliminary Review of Documents and Tentative Structure of the Code for Materials Subgroup 51 5.5.1 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 51 5.5.2 Preliminary Review of BNBC 1993 52 5.5.3 Tentative Structure of Relevant Part of the Code 53 5.6 Preliminary Review of Documents and Tentative Structure of the Code for Structural Engineering 53 5.6.1 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 53 5.6.2 Preliminary Review of BNBC 1993 58 5.6.3 Tentative Structure of relevant part of the code 59 5.7 Preliminary review of documents and tentative structure of the code for Construction practices 61 5.7.1 Preliminary review of the collected documents 61 5.7.2 Review of the BNBC 1993 63 5.7.3 Tentative structure of relevant part of the code 63 5.8 Preliminary review of documents and tentative structure for Seismic provisions 64 5.8.1 General 64 5.8.2 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 64 5.8.3 Review of BNBC 1993 66 5.8.4 Tentative Structure of the Relevant Part of the Code 67 Geotechnical Engineering 69 6.1 Terms of Reference of the Group 69
  • vi 6.2 Terms of Reference of Individual Consultants 69 6.3 List of Collected Documents 69 6.4 List of Documents to be Collected 70 6.5 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 70 6.6 Preliminary Review of BNBC 1993 71 6.7 Tentative Structure of the Relevant Part of the Code 73 Building Services 74 7.1 Fire Protection 74 7.1.1 Terms of Reference 74 7.1.2 List of Collected Materials 74 7.1.3 List of Documents to be Collected 75 7.1.4 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 75 7.1.5 Review of the BNBC 1993 76 7.1.6 Tentative Structure of Relevant Part of the Code 76 7.2 HVAC, Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks 76 7.2.1 General 76 7.2.2 Terms of Reference of the Consultant 77 7.2.3 List of Collected Documents : 77 7.2.4 List of Documents to be Collected 77 7.2.5 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 78 7.2.6 Preliminary Review of BNBC 1993 78 7.2.7 Tentative Structure of Relevant Part 80 7.3 Electrical Engineering 81 7.3.1 Terms of Reference of the Subgroup 81 7.3.2 List of Collected Documents 82 7.3.3 List of Documents to be Collected 82 7.3.4 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 83 7.3.5 Review of BNBC 1993 83 7.3.6 Tentative Structure of Relevant Part of the Code 87 7.4 Fuel and Gas Supply 88 7.4.1 Terms of Reference of the Consultant 88 7.4.2 List of Collected Documents 88 7.4.3 List of Documents to be Collected 88 7.4.4 Preliminary Review of Collected documents 89 7.4.5 Review of BNBC 1993 89 7.4.6 Tentative Structure 89 7.5 Water Supply and Sanitation 89 7.5.1 Terms of Reference of the Sub-group 89 7.5.2 Terms of Reference of Individual Consultants 90 7.5.3 List of Collected Documents 90 7.5.4 List of Documents to be Collected 90 7.5.5 Preliminary Review of Collected Documents 90 7.5.6 Preliminary Review of BNBC 1993 91 7.5.7 Tentative Structure of Relevant Part of the Code 94
  • vii 7.6 Information Technology 94 7.6.1 Terms of Reference of the Consultant 94 7.6.2 Collection of Documents 95 7.6.3 Tentative Structure of Relevant Part of the Code 95 Tentative Structure and Table of Contents of the Updated Code 96 8.1 Tentative Structure of the Updated Code 96 8.2 Summary Table of Contents of the Updated Code 96 8.3 Tentative Table of Contents of the Updated Code 99
  • 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL In order to provide safe and healthy habitat, all activities related to building construction such as planning, design and construction needs to be regulated properly. Technological and socio-economic developments in recent times have led to remarkable increase in demand for more and more sophistication in buildings resulting in ever increasing complexity. Buildings are products of a multi-disciplinary profession involving specialized professional inputs from disciplines like Architecture, Fire prevention, Materials science, Structural engineering, Geotechnical engineering Construction technology, Electrical engineering, Mechanical engineering, Acoustics, Sanitation and plumbing technology, Chemical engineering, Law, etc. It is therefore imperative that a uniform standard of practice covering all aspects of planning, design and construction of buildings, including the service facilities provided in it such as electrical, mechanical, sanitary and other services, be followed to ensure safety, minimization of wastage in construction and optimum return for the user. In the Building code each of the above aspects are addressed adequately by professionals specializing in the relevant disciplines to ensure safety and comfort of the users of the buildings. In order to regulate the technical details of building construction and to maintain the standard of construction the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first published in 1993. It is a 1000 page detailed document specifying safe and acceptable practices in all aspects of building design and construction. However, since its publication, significant changes and developments have taken place in both building technology and material properties requiring the use of the present state of the art knowledge and practices in building planning, design and construction. To keep pace with the changed circumstances, it is a routine practice to update codes. Sixteen years have elapsed since publication of the code. Therefore time is, appropriate for updating of the Bangladesh National Building Code. After introduction of the BNBC in 1993, the technology of building construction in Bangladesh remained almost the same for quite some time as was in practice before its publication. The lack of legal provisions in enforcing its use has been the main reason behind it. In the meantime growing demand for home, scarcity of land and the upward trend in the land prices in the urban areas brought in the culture of construction of moderate to high rise structures and changed the prevailing culture of planning, design and construction of buildings in the private sector. Gradually, the urban dwellers began to accept the concept of living in high rise apartment building and investment in the housing sector turned out to be a profitable business. As a result building construction activities were taken up by real-
  • 2 estate developers following which new trends developed in building planning and construction. Some real-estate developers engaged professional people such as Architects, Planners, Engineers to make their buildings more attractive to the buyers and the code started finding its use among the professionals. However, some owners and developers retained the habit of the old method of construction giving rise to unplanned growth of structures in the urban areas. During this time some high rise structures failed to perform satisfactorily due to structural failure / fire hazard which caused alarm among the urban dwellers as well as the policy makers. The policy makers, therefore felt the urgency of updating the BNBC 1993 to make its contents time worthy and also to bring it under strict legal coverage to make its provisions binding to all involved in the planning, design, construction and use. 1.2 BACKGROUND At the onset of a new decade in the second millennium, the Government of Bangladesh has taken up the task of updating the acts, regulations and the code related to building construction. The building construction sector was first brought into a legal framework through enactment of Building Construction Act 1952. By the power given by the Act, the Government of Bangladesh has promulgated regulations which were amended from time to time. In 2006 the Building Construction Act was amended to include a new Section 18A empowering the Government to promulgate the Building Code as a legally binding document. Since its publication, BNBC 1993 has been referred to and consulted by the professionals and designers in the field of building design and construction. After the endowment of legal status, importance of the BNBC 1993 has further enhanced. However, unlike other building codes available in the world, the Bangladesh National Building Code has not yet been formally reviewed and updated since it was drafted in 1993. Neither any feedback of the professionals regarding the document has been taken into formal consideration. In the last sixteen years, new materials have been introduced, new scientific methods have emerged, new technologies have evolved and both design of structures and construction practices have gone through enormous changes. Researchers, engineers and academics in Bangladesh have also conducted new studies which enrich our knowledge about planning, design, construction and sustainability of buildings. Ministry of Housing and Public Works formed a steering committee with the responsibility of Updating BNBC 1993 by a G.O. having circular no. Section 8/IM-5/93(part) 812 (28) date: 15.09.2008. The Steering Committee comprises representatives from relevant government agencies, universities and professional societies. The Housing and Building Research
  • 3 Institute (HBRI) has been entrusted with the task of providing secretarial service to the Steering Committee and managing the implementation of the project. In response to a Request for Proposal (RFP) from HBRI, Bureau of Research, Testing and Consultancy (BRTC) of Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) submitted Technical and Financial Proposals for updating BNBC 1993. Consequently an agreement (Appendix A) was signed between HBRI and BRTC, BUET on 15th December 2009. According to the agreement BRTC, BUET has to review and update the Bangladesh National Building Code 1993, the Building Construction Act 1952 and the Administrative arrangement and implementing provisions within 12 months. BRTC, BUET has deputed leading experts in all relevant fields from both inside and outside of BUET. Finally the updated code and act will be available both in printed form and soft copy in CDs and on website. 1.3 OBJECTIVES The main objective of the project is to revise and update the provisions of Bangladesh National Building Code to keep pace with present needs. The Building Code is now implemented under cover of the Act of 1952. More than half a century has however elapsed since promulgation of the Act and a significant degree of progress has been achieved in building construction sector during this period. This calls for review and amendment/updating of the Act itself. Besides, in order to ensure compliance of the Building Code by all concerned and effective enforcement of the Act, an effective and achievable Administrative Arrangement must be worked out at all levels. Thus the work will comprise the following three components: • Review, revision and updating of the Bangladesh National Building Code 1993 to bring it at par with the present state-of-the-art paying due consideration to local needs and practices. • Review of the Act with the latest amendments and preparation of draft of an amended/updated version of the Act for consideration of enactment by competent authority. • Review of present administrative arrangement for implementing the provisions of the Act at various levels; rural, union, upazila, district and metropolitan, for both private and government developments. Recommendation of an effective yet achievable administrative arrangement to ensure compliance of the Building Construction Act at all levels.
  • 4 1.4 SCOPE OF SERVICES The project will yield three distinct outputs as described above in separate submissions. To achieve this goal, the following tasks will be performed by the Consultant: • Collection and review of codes and standards of neighbouring as well as other developed countries; • Review of Internationally recognized Building Standards and Codes; • Review of updated standards of building materials and services issued by the Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution (BSTI); • Review of related laws like fire, environment etc. that have already been introduced or updated or are expected; • Present version of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) prepared in 1993 has ten distinct parts addressing different aspects of building construction and building services with cross references as necessary. These are; Part 1: Scope and Definitions Part 2: Administration and Enforcement Part 3: General Building Requirements, Control and Regulation Part 4: Fire Protection Part 5: Building Materials Part 6: Structural Design Part 7: Construction Practices and Safety Part 8: Building Services Part 9: Alteration, Addition to and Change of Use of Existing Buildings Part 10: Signs and Outdoor Display Review of each of the above parts and give due consideration to changes required in the structure and content of the code as well as inclusion of issues like building security & planning, renewable energy, rain water harvesting etc.; • Formulation of ways and means for making BNBC more effective in terms of acceptability, ease of application, and un-ambiguity keeping in view the socio- economic aspects of the country; • Critical examination and review of each Section of the present Building Code and reformulation of the provisions as necessary in consideration of the new legislative status of the Code; • Preparation of a draft of the recompiled code for public review; • Incorporation of commentary on important sections of the code, if necessary; • Arrangement of Seminars/Workshops to gather views of relevant professionals and feedbacks from existing BNBC users;
  • 5 • Arrangement of Seminars/Workshops on the revised draft to gather views of relevant professionals and feedbacks before finalization of the Update BNBC; • Incorporation of the results of review and editing of the recompiled code by national level experts forming various editorial committees; • Preparation of appropriate reference aids such as Index and detailed Table of Contents; • Selection of appropriate printing layout and format from consideration of utility and convenience of different user groups of the Code; • Preparation of electronic form of the approved Code with appropriate index/search facility and making it available for download from a government website; • Review of the Act in the light of present needs and examination of its suitability for enforcing the provisions of Building Code; • Preparation of draft of an updated version of the Act, submission of the draft for review by an editorial board comprising legislative experts, finalisation of the edited draft Act, submission of the draft Act for consideration of the Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs for enactment by competent constitutional authority; • Review of administrative provisions of the Building Code vis-à-vis the present administrative machinery and structure of the Government concerned with implementation and enforcement of legal provisions and suggest changes, if necessary ; • Formulation of an administrative procedure necessary for effective implementation of the updated Building Code in the light of its new legal status, and recommendation for formulation of a nationally applicable institutional arrangement for enforcement of provisions of the Building Code. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE REPORT The inception report provides an outline of the updated code along with an overall structure of the project management. The report also presents a review of the existing code and other collected documents conducted in the first seven weeks of the project. The following points are specifically elaborated in the report: • Preliminary review of present code and other collected data/information • A draft of the Table of Contents of the Revised Code • Detailed work plan • Proposed schedule for deployment of personnel The inception report contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 presents the background, objectives and scope of the project. Chapter 2 gives an account of the methodology, management structure, work plan and personnel deployment schedule of the project. Terms of references
  • 6 of different Groups and individual Consultants, lists of documents collected and other required documents and preliminary reviews of the collected documents and the BNBC 1993 are presented in a group wise manner in Chapters 3 to 7. Finally a tentative structure and Table of Contents of the revised code is proposed in Chapter 8.
  • 7 WORK PLAN 2.1 METHODOLOGY The tasks of the present assignment will be carried out keeping in view of the quality of services and the time frame provided for completion of the assignment. The quality of services will be ensured by employing specialists in each area of the Code, Act and the Administrative arrangement for detail review and updating. Feedback on the updated Code and the Act will be obtained from the whole cross-section of the end-users and stakeholders. The assignment will be realized following the methodology of input-process-output- review-final output basis (Fig. 2.1). 2.1.1 INPUTS The inputs for updating the Code will be gathered from the following: • Examining the existing code • Reviewing other documents like building codes, standards etc. available around the world • Feed-back from the end-users of the present code Above mentioned methods are elaborated in the following sections. EXAMINING THE EXISTING CODE The overall structure as well as every detail of the existing code will be revisited. For this purpose a soft copy of the existing code has been produced. Each part of the code will be reviewed by each group of consultants during the review process. Clauses that require modification and improvement will be identified and Lapses and laggings will be pointed out with specific suggestions for improvement. The method of inclusion of newer topics and their relation to the existing clauses of the existing code will also be examined. General issues like planning, environment, administration and legislation will be reviewed in respect of prevailing regulations concerning land use and building construction and environmental guidelines which are in use. Both old and newly introduced construction materials may need to be discussed at appropriate chapters in a coherent manner. Using recent statistics, design loads may need reevaluation. New issues like climate change and geo-hazard have to be addressed with proper relevance.
  • 8 Fig. 2.1: Schematic diagram showing the methodology for updating the code Inputs • Review of the present code • Review of other codes and standards • Feedback from the end- users Process Compilation of the input and feedbacks and updating the code in a coordinated manner Output Revisions to the provisions of the code presented in ‐ Inception report ‐ Interim report ‐ Draft Review • By the steering committee • By the editorial committee and national panel of experts • By Designers, Professionals and other end-users and stake- holders Final Output Revisions to the provisions of the code presented in the form of ‐ Hardcopy ‐ Electronic copy ‐ Website
  • 9 REVIEWING OTHER DOCUMENTS Prevailing buildings codes and standards of other countries will be reviewed and compared with the BNBC 1993. For this purpose current important codes and standards like IBC 2009, Euro Code, ACI 318-08, ASCE 7-05 etc. have been collected. National Building Code of India 2005 has already been collected and codes of other neighbouring countries are in the process of collection. BUET being the premier technical university in the country has a rich library with many reputed journals and proceedings which will be consulted for review. Indigenous knowledge developed through research and practice by local researchers and professionals will also be sought out through a survey and inclusion of the findings will be explored. FEEDBACK FROM END USERS/STAKEHOLDERS At different stages of the preparation of the Updated version of the BNBC 1993 the outputs will be submitted for examination / scrutiny by the end users / stakeholders for suggestions and guidance for improvement of the material content and quality of the materials included in the context of up-to-date building design, availability of material and construction practices prevailing in the building sector. Such inputs from the end uses / stakeholders will be obtained in five stages which are shown in Fig.2.1. It is hoped that multiple interactions with the end users / stake holders will enable the consultants to develop the updated BNBC maintaining its quality at par with other reputed codes. 2.1.2 PROCESS The assignment of updating the BNBC 1993 will be conducted in a coordinated manner so that the tasks are completed in due time and the milestones of the project are properly achieved. For this purpose review and updating in the different areas of the Code will be simultaneously carried out. Coordination of the interrelated areas will be achieved through the contribution of the coordinator. The collected information will be compiled and an outline of the up-date requirements will be prepared. After review and approval, the outline will be detailed and appropriate contents will be prepared. 2.1.3 OUTPUTS Before delivering the final output, interim outputs will be produced through three reports: Inception report, Interim report and Draft documents. A detailed work plan and preliminary review of BNBC 1993 and other collected documents are presented in the inception report. The interim report will contain a complete review of the BNBC 1993, the Building Construction Act and the existing administrative and institutional arrangement for enforcement of the Code. The interim report will also provide an outline of the updated Code, the revised Act and the revised administrative arrangement for enforcing the Code. In
  • 10 the Draft documents the feedbacks from National Workshops, Steering Committee and Editorial Committees will be incorporated. 2.1.4 REVIEW The outputs of the present project will be reviewed at five different stages. The initial outline of the Code, Act and Administrative arrangement presented in the Inception report will be reviewed by the users of the BNBC 1993 at a day-long National Workshop. The Editorial Committees will examine the Interim report. Draft of the Code, Act and Administrative arrangement will first be discussed at a National Workshop and then be reviewed by the Editorial Committees. Based on the feedbacks from these reviews the final manuscript will be prepared and approval will be obtained from the Editorial Committees. 2.1.5 FINAL OUTPUT Finally the Code, the Act and the document for administrative arrangement for enforcing the Code will be produced in printable format. Electronic copies of these documents will also be made available in CD. The electronic format of the Code, the Act and the document for the administrative arrangement for enforcing the Code will be uploaded to a government website. 2.2 ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT 2.2.1 ORGANIZATION A team of 33 Consultants have been deployed for Updating BNBC 1993. The team of Consultants is headed by the Team Leader who guides and supervises the members for an efficient and smooth completion of the assignment. He also interacts with the client on behalf of the team. The Coordinator facilitates interaction among different groups of Experts and support staff. The entire process is monitored by the Team Leader. The team will comprise of Experts from the following disciplines: Architecture Planning Fire Materials Geotechnical Engineering Structural Engineering Construction Practices and Safety Earthquake Engineering Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walkways
  • 11 Electrical Engineering Fuel and Gas Supply Environmental Engineering Plumbing Information Technology Administration Law and legislation The team composition and responsibilities of each member are shown in Table 2.1. The organization chart is shown in Fig. 2.1. Fig. 2.1: Organization Chart Steering Committee HBRI Director, HBRI BUET Department of Civil Engineering Team Leader Experts: Architects Planners Fire Experts Materials Engineers Geotechnical Engineers Structural Engineers Construction Engineers Earthquake Engineers HVAC, Lifts & Escalators and Moving Walkways Expertt Electrical Engineers Fuel and Gas Supply Expert Environmental Experts Plumbing Engineers IT Expert Administrative Expert Legal Expert CoordinatorSupport Staff
  • Table 2.1: Team Composition and Task Assignments OFESSIONAL STAFF Name of Staff Firm/Organisation Area of Expertise Position Assigned Task Assigned of. Md. Hossain Ali BRTC, BUET Geotechnical/earth quake engineering Team Leader Responsibilities for overall technical, adminis and financial management of the p coordination of activities of different disc liaison with client and relevant agencies; act principal author and editor of the consu organize and finalize various reports documents; chief resource person of worksho Raquib Ahsan BRTC, BUET Structural engineering Coordinator Review and revision of general structural requirements, liaison with client, relevant ag and team leader of. Md. Shahidul Ameen BRTC, BUET Architecture Senior Architect 1 Review and redrafting of general b requirements, control and regulation of. Zebun Nasrin med BRTC, BUET Lighting/Arch. Senior Architect 2 Contribute to general building requirements, and update of and lighting requirements h. Ziaul Islam Asia Pacific University Architecture Architect Review and redrafting of general b requirements, control and regulation of. Rokhsana Hafiz BRTC, BUET Urban and Regional Planning Senior Planner Planning aspects of the building. of. Nizamuddin Ahmed BRTC, BUET Fire/Architecture Senior Fire Expert Contribute to general building requirements, and revision of the fire protection and ac requirements Selim Newaz Bhuiyan --- Fire Fire Specialist Review and revision of the fire pro requirements of. Muhammad Zakaria BRTC, BUET Materials/Transport ation Engineering Senior Materials Engineer Review and updating of provisions relat building materials of. Munaz Ahmed Noor BRTC, BUET Materials/Structural Engineering Materials Engineer Review and updating of provisions relat building materials of. Syed Fakhrul een BRTC, BUET Geotechnical Engineering Senior Geotech. Engineer 1 Review and updating of foundation provisions
  • OFESSIONAL STAFF Name of Staff Firm/Organisation Area of Expertise Position Assigned Task Assigned of. Abu Siddique BRTC, BUET Geotechnical Engineering Senior Geotechnical Engineer 2 Review and updating of foundation provisions of. Mohammed Kabirul am BRTC, BUET Geotechnical Engineering Geohazard Engineer Review and update provisions regarding geoh Md. Shariful Islam BRTC, BUET Geotechnical Engineering Geotechnical Engineer Review and updating of foundation provisions of. A. M. M. Taufiqul war BRTC, BUET Civil/Structural Engineering Senior Structural Engineer 1 Review and revision of general structural requirements, loads, structural design in materials, detailing of. Ahsanul Kabir BRTC, BUET Civil/Structural Engineering Senior Structural Engineer 2 Review and revision of general structural requirements, loads, structural design in stressed concrete, detailing of. Khan Mahmud anat BRTC, BUET Civil/Structural Engineering Senior Structural Engineer 3 Review and revision of general structural requirements, loads, structural design in detailing Raquib Ahsan BRTC, BUET Civil/Structural Engineering Structural Engineer Review and revision of general structural requirements, loading, structural dyn detailing, coordination with team leader A. F. M. Saiful Amin BRTC, BUET Civil/Structural Engineering Structural Engineer Review and revision of general structural requirements, loads, masonry and timber stru detailing of. Md. Shafiul Bari BRTC, BUET Civil/Structural Engineering Senior Construction Engineer Review and updating of construction practi safety provisions gr. Sabbir Siddiquee DPM Civil/Structural Engineering Construction Engineer Review and updating of construction practi safety provisions of. Tahmeed M. Al- ssaini BRTC, BUET Earthquake/Geotec hnical Engineering Senior Earthquake Engineer Review and revision of earthquake zoning, lo design and detailing requirements of. Tahsin Reza ssain BRTC, BUET Civil/Earthquake Engineering Earthquake Engineer Review and revision of earthquake zoning, lo design and detailing requirements
  • OFESSIONAL STAFF Name of Staff Firm/Organisation Area of Expertise Position Assigned Task Assigned gr. Belal Ahmed --- HVAC, Lifts, Escalators etc Senior Mechanical Engineer Review and updating of provisions related to lifts, escalators and mechanical services protection equipment and arrangements of. Saiful Islam BRTC, BUET Electrical Engineering Senior Electrical Engineer Review and updating of electrical installatio wiring requirements . Shaikh Anowarul tah BRTC, BUET Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineer Review and revision of electrical requirements of. A. K. M. A. Quader BRTC, BUET Fuel and Gas Supply Senior Chemical Engineer Review and updating of gas supply provisions of. Farooque Ahmed BRTC, BUET Civil/Environmental Engineering Senior Plumbing Engineer Review and updating of water supply, draina sanitation requirements, fire protection, plu provisions gr. Azizul Hoque, Eng. PWD Civil/Water Supply Engineering Plumbing Engineer Review and updating of water supply, draina sanitation requirements, fire protection, plu provisions of. Md. Mujibur Rahman BRTC, BUET Environmental Engineering Senior Environmental Experts Review and revision of environmental aspe code provisions of. Md. Delwar Hossain BRTC, BUET Environmental Engineering Senior Environmental Experts Review and revision of environmental aspe code provisions Saiful Alam --- Administrative and Institutional Expert Senior Administrative Expert Review of administrative arrangement of b approval process throughout the c formulation of an institutional and adminis arrangement for nationwide enforcement o provisions Md. Asaduzzaman Southeast University Law and Legislature Senior Legislative Expert Review of building construction act, re regulations, bylaws and practices, identifica deficiencies and inadequacies of these preparation of updated draft of the Act Md. Humayun Kabir BRTC, BUET IT Specialist IT Expert Formulation of index linked search mechani code soft copy, uploading to specified gove web site
  • 15 2.2.2 MANAGEMENT The team of Consultants have been divided into five groups for management of the project. A Group Leader has been assigned to each group for coordination within the group and for interaction with the Team Leader. The groups are: Group 1: Planning, Environment, Administration and Legislation Group (Acronym: PEAL) Group Leader: Prof. Md. Mujibur Rahman Group 2: Architecture (Acronym: Arch) Group Leader: Prof. Md. Shahidul Ameen Group 3: Materials, Structure, Construction and Earthquake Engineering (Acronym: MSCE) Group Leader: Prof. A.M.M. Taufiqul Anwar Group 4: Geotechnical Engineering (Acronym: Geo) Group Leader: Prof. Syed Fakhrul Ameen Group 5: Building Services (Acronym: BS) Group Leader: Prof. Md. Hossain Ali Division of groups and the relevant parts of BNBC1993 assigned to the groups are shown in Fig. 2.2. Names of the members of each group are provided in the following sections. PEAL GROUP Planning Expert : Prof. Roxana Hafiz Environmental Experts: Prof. Md. Mujibur Rahman (Group Leader) Prof. Md. Delwar Hossain Administration Expert: Mr. Saiful Alam Legislation Expert: Mr. Md. Asaduzzaman
  • ARCH MSCE Par GROUP Architectu Pro Pro Arc E GROUP Materials E Pro Pro Structure E Pro Pro Pro Dr. Dr. Constructi Pro rts of BNBC Fig.2.2: Di re Experts: of. Md. Shah of. Zebun Na ch. Ziaul Isla Experts: of. Muhamm of. Munaz Ah Experts: of. A. M. M. T of. Ahsanul K of. Khan Mah . Raquib Ahs . A. F. M. Sai ion Experts: of. Md. Shafi 1993 vision of Gr idul Ameen asreen Ahme am ad Zakaria hmed Noor Taufiqul Anw Kabir hmud Amana san iful Amin ul Bari oups of the (Group Lead ed war (Group L at Team of Co der) Leader) nsultants 16
  • 17 Engr. Sabbir Siddiquee Earthquake Engineering Experts: Prof. Tahmeed M. Al-Hussaini Prof. Tahsin Reza Hossain GEO GROUP Geotechnical Engineering Experts: Prof. Syed Fakhrul Ameen (Group Leader) Prof. Abu Siddique Prof. Mohammed Kabirul Islam Dr. Md. Shariful Islam BS GROUP Fire Design Experts: Prof. Nizamuddin Ahmed Mr. Selim Newaj Bhuiyan Mechanical Engineering / HVAC Expert: Engr. Belal Ahmed Electrical Engineering Subgroup: Prof. Saiful Islam Dr. Shaikh Anowarul Fattah Chemical Engineering / Gas Supply Expert: Prof. A. K. M. A. Quader Water Supply and Sanitation Engineering Subgroup: Prof. Farooque Ahmed Engr. Syed Azizul Hoque, P.Eng. Group Leader: Team Leader Prof. Md. Hossain Ali 2.3 WORK SCHEDULE The objectives of the project will be achieved through 16 activities as shown in the Work Schedule presented in Table 2.2. Table 2.3 shows the project milestones. The activities are planned focusing the following reporting milestones: Submission of Inception Report: 7th February 2010
  • 18 Submission of Interim Report: 7th May 2010 Submission of Draft Code, Act, Administrative arrangement: 21st August, 2010 Submission of Final Manuscripts: 15th November 2010 Uploading of Electronic versions to the Web: 7th December 2010 2.4 PERSONNEL DEPLOYMENT SCHEDULE All 33 Consultants of the project has already been formally mobilized at the beginning of the project. All of them have participated in preparation of the Inception Report. The Consultants will be deployed on an intermittent and part-time basis. They will provide their inputs for achieving the milestones mentioned above. Thus they will be deployed throughout the duration of the project. Depending on the volume of their contributions the person-months vary. The staffing schedule is shown in Table 2.4.
  • Table 2.2: Work Schedule ription of ity Date15/12/09 15/01/10 15/02/10 15/03/10 15/04/10 15/05/10 15/06/10 15/07/10 15/08/10 15/09/10 15/10/10 tion of codes and ards from other ies w of BNBC'93 and and standards of countries ration and ssion of Inception t ssion with the users sent Code at al Workshop ration of Interim t outlining the ed Code ssion with Editorial ittees and tance of Interim ration of Draft Act and istrative ration of materials tional Workshop ntation and sion on Draft Code onal Workshop w of the Drafts by ctive Editorial ittees ation and approval Drafts ration of Final script of Code with and in printable val of Final script ration of electronic f the Code g of the Code ration of CD and ding to website
  • Table 2.3: Project Milestones cription of Activity Date 15/12/09 15/01/10 15/02/10 15/03/10 15/04/10 15/05/10 15/06/10 15/07/10 15/08/10 15/09/10 15/10/10 estones tion Report nal Workshop on Existing Code m Report outlining the updated Code, Act and Administrative gement nal Workshop on Draft Code Manuscript of the Code ading to web
  • Table 2.4: Staffing Schedule No. Name of Staff Staff-month input by month Total staff- month input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Prof. Md. Hossain Ali 12 2. Dr. Raquib Ahsan 3 3. Prof. Md. Shahidul Ameen 3 4. Prof. Zebun Nasrin Ahmed 3 5. Arch. Ziaul Islam 3 6. Prof. Rokhsana Hafiz 2 7. Prof. Nizamuddin Ahmed 3 8. Mr. Selim Newaz Bhuiyan 3 9. Prof. Muhammad Zakaria 2 10. Prof. Munaz Ahmed Noor 2 11. Prof. Syed Fakhrul Ameen 2 12. Prof. Abu Siddique 2 13. Prof. Mohammed Kabirul Islam 1.5 14. Dr. Md. Shariful Islam 2
  • No. Name of Staff Staff-month input by month Total staff- month input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15. Prof. A. M. M. Taufiqul Anwar 3.5 16. Prof. Ahsanul Kabir 3.5 17. Prof. Khan Mahmud Amanat 3.5 18. Dr. Raquib Ahsan 3 19. Dr. A. F. M. Saiful Amin 3 20. Prof. Md. Shafiul Bari 3 21. Engr. Sabbir Siddiquee 2 22. Prof. Tahmeed M. Al-Hussaini 3 23. Prof. Tahsin Reza Hossain 3 24. Engr. Belal Ahmed 3 25. Prof. Saiful Islam 2 26. Dr. Shaikh Anowarul Fattah 2 27. Prof. A. K. M. A. Quader 1 28. Prof. Farooque Ahmed 1 29. Engr. Azizul Hoque, P.Eng. 1
  • No. Name of Staff Staff-month input by month Total staff- month input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 30. Prof. Md. Mujibur Rahman 1 31. Prof. Md. Delwar Hossain 1 32. Mr. Saiful Alam 3 33. Mr. Md. Asaduzzaman 3 34. Dr. Md. Humayun Kabir 2
  • 24 PLANNING, ENVIRONMENT, ADMINISTRATION AND LEGISLATION 3.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE GROUP a. Review of relevant codes and other related documents. b. Review of the existing codes/acts/bylaws and proposal for modifications/corrections/changes required. c. Devise ways and means to ensure application of the updated BNBC in all kinds of building construction both under the public and private sector domain and individual level. d. Suggestions for making the lawful and responsible agencies to be really active to apply updated code at all levels of building construction from central to the village level. e. Suggestions for making the lawful and responsible agencies for execution of the code at different levels. f. Collection and review of various codes related to environmental influencing factors. g. Identification of environmental factors relevant to Bangladesh. h. Identification and Incorporation Environmental Planning in the process of presentation of Waste disposal, presentation of Heritage Sites and Monuments, Transportation System and Land use Planning, Infrastructure, Utility, Water Supply, Sub-Station, Residential, Commercial and Industrial Development etc. i. Preliminary analysis of environmental factors and incorporation at appropriate sections of the updated code. j. Recommendations for proper enforcement of the codes/acts/bylaws/rules and regulations. 3.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF INDIVIDUAL CONSULTANTS Planning Expert- Prof. Roxana Hafiz a. Review of relevant codes and other related documents. b. To highlight those areas or factors which need to be taken into account when planning and developing an area e.g. Residential, Commercial and Industrial Development; Transportation System and land use Planning; Infrastructure and Utility; Water Supply; Sub-Station; Waste disposal; Heritage Sites and Monuments, etc. c. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters.
  • 25 Environmental expert- Prof. Md. Mujibur Rahman a. Act as Group Leader and maintain liaison with the Team Leader/Coordinator. b. Guide, supervise and coordinate the works of other professionals in the group. c. Identification of environmental factors relevant to Bangladesh. d. Interaction with other subgroups regarding analysis and incorporation of environmental influence in planning, design, construction of buildings. e. Assist the Team Leader in preparation of all reports. f. Assist the Team Leader in preparation of the materials for the workshop. g. Assist the Team Leader in preparation of the draft Code. Environmental expert-Prof. Md. Delwar Hossain a. Review all relevant items of BNBC, other codes and related documents. b. Collection and review of various codes for related environmental influencing factors. c. Identification of environmental factors relevant to Bangladesh. d. Interaction with other subgroups regarding analysis and incorporation of environmental influence in planning, design, construction of buildings. e. Assist the Group Leader. Administration Expert- Mr. Saiful Alam a. Gather both primary and secondary data/information to make such provisions under the updated code so that it really works as a guideline for building construction for all and the document is used as a National Document. b. Draw feedback and opinion from central to the grass root level to make the code functional. c. Collect relevant papers and documents for review. d. Make field visits on randomly selected territorial coverage. e. Review the latest updated code and find out the weakness and incorporate strong issues under the new one. f. Incorporate own observation, experiences and realistic views to make a really effective and functional document to administer and enforcement of building code. g. Provide input in the group for overall final report preparation. h. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters. Legislation Expert- Mr. Md. Asaduzzaman a. Review the enforcement mechanism of the present Bangladesh National Building Code along with the Building Construction Act, 1952. b. Compare the enforcement mechanism of the present Code with the Codes of other countries.
  • 26 c. Recommend effective enforcement mechanism. d. Assist the Group Leader and Team Leader. 3.3 LIST OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS/INFORMATION i. The Building Construction Act, 1952 ii. The Bangladesh Labour Act, 2006 iii. The Pakistan Engineering Council Act, 1976 iv. The National Building Code of India, 2005 (Relevant Part) v. The Bangladesh National Building Code (Relevant Part) vi. The Bangladesh Code, Volume-XI containing the Building Construction Act, 1952. vii. The National Building Code of India, 2005 (Relevant part) viii. The Pakistan Engineering Council Act, 1976 3.4 LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED i. Engineering Council Acts along with relevant Rules of India, and the UK. ii. Leading decisions of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh relating to Building Construction Act and BNBC published in Law Journals like Dhaka Law Reports (DLR) including: • 42 DLR, Page 462 • 43 DLR, Page 187 • 44 DLR, Page 515 • 48 DLR(AD), Page 180 • 52 DLR, Page 461 • 52 DLR, Page 488 • 53 DLR, Page 35 • 56 DLR(AD), 16 iii. Articles of research journals, conference and seminar papers, newspapers reports from home and abroad iv. Relevant parts of Building Codes of some other counties. v. Website will be consulted to access to the data and information of other countries and their success experiences concerning admin and enforcement of building code. 3.5 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS 3.5.1 PLANNING The preliminary requirement for any kind of activities and development, which brings out significant changes to land. Unplanned urbanization and urban development lead to
  • 27 wastage of land and other resources and consequently leading to problems like sprawl, pollution, congestion, threats, etc. which creates condition adverse to good and safe living. The Building Construction Rule thus requires that land and other resources be judiciously used to produce safe, sustainable and livable environment. To regulate development activities each country had to promulgate, formulate and implement laws in the form of Town and Country Planning Act addressing the issues of Town and country planning Act and similar documents collected for updating BNBC 1993 has been reviewed(but not limited to) – a) Urbanization and Urban Development, b) Integration of Urban Development with Regional Development, c) Housing, Industry, Commerce, Recreation and Leisure, etc. d) Building Construction Rules, e) Creation of Different kinds of Facilities, Utilities and Amenities, f) Protection from and control of different kinds of Pollution, g) Protection from and control of different kinds of Hazards, h) Resources Management, i) Heritages and Conservation, j) Agricultural Resource Management, k) Disaster Management, l) Tourism, Environment and Culture, etc. 3.5.2 ENVIRONMENT i. Indian Building Code (Part 10 & General Sections) provides some considerations on environmental factors and influences that will be further reviewed for possible consideration in the process of updating BNBC 2010. ii. Preliminary review of EuroCode, ENV. 1991-1: 1994, ENV. 1991-2: 1995, EuroCode- 2 related documents- DD ENV 1992-1-1: 1992, EN 1992-1-1: 2004 (E) considers various environmental influences and factors related to safety, durability of building materials and building construction that will be further reviewed for possible consideration in the process of updating BNBC 2010. 3.5.3 ADMINISTRATION AND LEGISLATION i. Part 2 of the National Building Code of India deals with the provisions regarding administration and enforcement. Section 1 of the Part begins with General provisions including scope, terminology, applicability of the Code and interpretation. Section 2 deals with organization and enforcement and section 3 deals with permit and inspecting. The Part is ended with some relevant Forms as annexes.
  • 28 ii. The Pakistan Engineering Council is a statutory body, constituted under the Pakistan Engineering Council Act, 1976 to regulate the engineering profession in the country. Its main statutory functions include registration of engineers, consulting engineers, constructors/operators and accreditation of engineering programmes run by universities/institutions, ensuring and managing of continuing professional development, assisting the Federal Government as think tank, establishing standards for engineering products and services besides safeguarding the interest of its members. In exercise of the power conferred by section 25 of the Pakistan Engineering Council Act. 1975, the Pakistan Engineering Council made by-law providing the provisions to the effect that construction of buildings in violation of the Building Code shall be considered as violation of professional engineering work as specified under clause (XXV) of section 2 of the Act. iii. The Building Construction Act, 1952 is an Act to provide for the prevention of haphazard construction of buildings and excavation of tanks which are likely to interfere with the planning of certain areas in Bangladesh. In view of section 3 of the Act no person shall, without the previous sanction of an Authorized Officer, construct or re-construct or make addition or alteration to any building, or excavate or re-excavate any tank within, the area to which this Act applies; and such sanction shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Authorized Officer may think fit to impose. Such sanction shall remain valid for three years from the date of sanction and on the expiry of the period, the applicant shall have to apply for and obtain a fresh sanction. Section 12 of the Building Construction Act, 1952 provides punishment of imprisonment upto 7 years or fine not less than Tk. 50,000/= or both for constructing a building in contravention to any provision of the Bangladesh National Building Code. However, the offence is not treated as cognizable and non-bailable and no court is empowered to take cognizance of an offence except upon a complaint by the Authorized Officer in view of section 13 of the Building Construction Act, 1952. It is to be noted here that section 5 of the Act provides for compensation not exceeding the sum of two hundred and fifty rupees in case removal of building under construction! iv. The Bangladesh Labour Law, 2006 have provisions relating to social compliance. The law deals with the issues relating to employment of workers, relationship between workers and employers, compensation for injuries arising in the course of employment, health, safety, welfare and environment of working conditions, etc. It is the base line for minimum compliance and must be followed by all employers hiring labour’s for construction.
  • 29 3.6 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) of 1993 came into effect with a gazette notification issued on November 15, 2006. It has been made mandatory to comply with in any building construction under the Building Construction Act of 1952 to ensure accountability in the management of overall building construction and safety of the buildings. As per section 2.1 of chapter 2 of part 1 of the BNBC 1993 the Government is under obligation to establish a new or designate an existing agency responsible for the enforcement of this Code with a given area of jurisdiction. However, the Government is yet to set up any Code Enforcement Authority. Thus, absence of regulatory authority to care for all safety aspects of building as per BNBC is a major concern. The BNBC 1993 has dealt only with construction, structure, material, geo-technical, seismic aspects, etc. of development. The BNBC has left out the planning aspects of development as is evident from section (f). All these planning and development factors need to be incorporated in the BNBC, if it is to produce a safe and livable environment at all. Apparently existing BNBC, 1993 provides insignificant consideration on environmental influences on planning, design, construction and selection of construction material for buildings. In exercise of power under Section 18A of the Building Construction Act, 1952, the Government of Bangladesh made the Bangladesh National Building Code in 1993, which came into effect with a gazette notification issued on November 15, 2006. Section 2.6 of Part 2 of the BNBC only provides that violation of the Code will be an offence and the authority shall take legal action. However, it prescribes no procedure for institution of legal proceedings, which need to be addressed. In view of the above, the provisions of the Building Construction Act, 1952 along with the Code need to be updated considering the present socio-economic situation of the country. 3.7 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE UPDATED CODE Part 2 of the BNBC 1993, titled ‘Administration and Enforcement,’ covers the administrative and legal issues. Planning and Environmental issues are absent in the BNBC 1993. In the updated Code, Planning and Environmental issues will be included as separate chapters in Part 2. Thus Part 2 will be titled as ‘Planning, Environment, Administration and Legislation.’
  • 30 The chapter on Planning will focus on those areas or factors which need to be taken into account when planning and developing an area. The main objective is translated into more specific objectives as follows- i. Choosing appropriate sites for development, e.g. residential, commercial, industrial, recreation, etc. ii. Providing and preserving open spaces for recreation as well as for use as evacuation sites during emergencies, such as, fire, earthquake, etc. iii. Preserving sites that are ecologically sensitive and scenic or both. The BNBC needs to include the following features in the updated code, which are - a. Housing, Industry, Commerce, Recreation and Leisure, etc. b. Building Construction Rules, c. Provision of Different kinds of Facilities, Utilities and Amenities, d. Protection from and control of different kinds of Pollution, e. Protection from and control of different kinds of Hazards, f. Resources Management, g. Heritages and Conservation A separate chapter will deal with general considerations regarding water supply, sub- station, waste-disposal and environmental planning issues. Chapters regarding administration and legal issues will be recast with new titles: ‘Administration, Permit and Inspection’ and ‘Legal Proceedings’ to demarcate the administrative and legal issues more clearly.
  • 31 ARCHITECTURE 4.1 GENERAL The basis for the building-code development is to safeguard the health, safety and welfare of the public. The first and foremost goal of the building code is the protection of human life from the failure of life safety provisions in a building, or from structural collapse. There is also a strong component of property protection contained in code requirements. In accordance with that, the basic objective of the code remains same as stated in BNBC 1993. An additional aim in this revision will be to ensure sustainable development in all building and construction activity with a strong component towards the protection of energy reserves and environment. 4.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE GROUP a. Review of relevant codes and other related documents. b. Preparation of a list of terms, definitions, diagrams, abbreviations and acronyms in all parts of the proposed Code in alphabetical order. c. Classification of buildings based on occupancy and types of construction. Occupancy classification will include but not be limited to: • Residential (R1) • Housing (R2) • Educational (E) • Institutional (I) • Healthcare facilities (H) • Assembly (A) • Business (B) • Industrial/Factory (F) • Storage (S) • Hazardous (HZ) • Transportation (T) • Heritage Conservation (C) etc. d. Review of the existing codes/acts/bylaws and proposal for modifications/ corrections/changes required. e. Recommendation for incorporation of new categories (where and as necessary) f. Recommendations for proper enforcement of the codes/acts/bylaws/ rules and regulations. g. Review of provisions for signs and outdoor displays in other relevant codes.
  • 32 h. Recommendations for requirements of graphic signs and outdoor displays with regard to public, structural and other safety. 4.3 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF INDIVIDUAL CONSULTANTS Group Leader- Prof. Md. Shahidul Ameen a. Act as Group Leader and maintain liaison with the Team Leader/ Coordinator. b. Guide, supervise and coordinate the works of other professionals in the group. c. Assist the Team Leader in preparation of all reports. d. Assist the Team Leader in preparation of materials for the workshop. e. Assist the Team Leader in preparation of the draft Code. Group Member- Prof. Zebun Nasreen Ahmed a. Review all relevant items of BNBC 1993 and other codes and related documents and prepare a list of terms, definitions, abbreviations and acronyms. b. Classification and re-organization of existing Code to enhance co-relation and reduce scattering of information as per guideline of the TOR. c. Identification and eradication of contradiction of BNBC with other existing Building Rules or Acts d. Incorporation of new chapters (Housing, Conservation, Energy-efficiency, Accessibility etc.) in the proposed Code e. Assist the Group in all related matters. Group Member- Architect Ziaul Islam a. Review all relevant items of BNBC 1993 and other codes and related documents and prepare a list of terms, definitions, abbreviations and acronyms. b. Classification and re-organization of existing Code to enhance co-relation and reduce scattering of information as per guideline of the TOR. c. Identification and eradication of contradiction of BNBC with other existing Building Rules or Acts d. Incorporation of new categories (Housing, Conservation, Energy-efficiency, Accessibility etc.) in the proposed Code e. Assist the Group in all related matters.
  • 33 4.3 COLLECTION OF RELEVANT DOCUMENTS 4.3.1 INTRODUCTION An important step in the methodology for up gradation of the Code is the review of various codes, specifications, laws, acts, books, journals and other relevant published literature of Bangladesh and other countries. A large number of these documents have already been collected and are being reviewed. During the preliminary review, the Consultants felt the necessity of collecting and reviewing some more documents on related topics. The next two sections list the documents that have already been collected and those planned to be collected. 4.3.2 DOCUMENTS ALREADY COLLECTED CODES i. Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC 1993) ii. International Building Code (IBC_2009) iii. National Building Code of India (NBCI_2005) iv. Building Code of China BUILDING/ LANDUSE LAWS/ BIDHIMALA/ ACTS i. Imarat Nirman Bidhimala, 1996 ii. Dhaka Mohanogor Imarat Nirman Bidhimala, 2008 iii. Chottogram Mohanogor Imarat (Nirman, Unnyon, Shongrokkhon o Oposharon) Bidhimala, 2008 iv. Beshorkari Abashik Bhumi Unnyon Nitimala, 2004 v. Dhaka Town Improvement (TI) Act vi. Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act 1995 BOOKS/ JOURNALS/ ARTICLES i. Correa (C.), The New Landscape- Urbanization in the Third World, MIMAR Book, Concept Media Ltd. (1989) ii. Bay (J.H.) and Ong (B.L.), Tropical Sustainable Architecture- Social and Environmental Dimensions, Architectural Press, London, USA (2006) iii. Thomson (C.W.) and Travlou (P.), Open Space People Space, Taylor & Francis Inc., USA (2007) iv. Jenks (M.) and Dempsey (N.), Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities, Architectural Press, London, USA (2007) v. RIBA, RIBA Book of British Housing, Architectural Press, London (2008)
  • 34 vi. Jenks (M.), Burton (E.) and Williams (K.), The Compact City- A sustainable Urban Form?, Taylor & Francis Inc., USA (2005) vii. Crosbie (M.J.), Multi-Family Housing- The Art of Sharing, Images Publishing, Australia (2003) viii. Towers (G.), At Home in the City, Architectural Press, London (2005) ix. Moughtin (C.) and Shirley (P.), Urban Design: Green Dimensions, Architectural Press, London (2005) x. Pfeifer (G.) and Brauneck (P.), Row Houses- A prospective Housing Typology, Birkhauser, Germany (2008) xi. Kobir (I.), Land Laws in East Pakistan Vol III, A Law House Publication (1969) 4.3.3 DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED i. Building Code of Sri Lanka ii. Building Code of Malaysia iii. Building Code of Singapore iv. International Energy Conservation Code – most recent edition 4.4 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS 4.4.1 INTRODUCTION The Architectural sub-group has identified Part 3 and Part 10 as the major focus area for this group along with minor correction to the rest of the parts of BNBC 1993. 4.4.2 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE (IBC_2009) The International building code 2009 is a model code of building regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small. It is a modern, up-to-date set of regulations addressing the design and installation of building systems through requirements emphasizing performance. It is not the Code adopted by any particular country but, it offers an international forum for building professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. It was therefore considered important to review this code in the process of revision of the Bangladesh National Building Code. Below is a preliminary review of the IBC 2009, which is still ongoing, regarding issues that relate to the Section that is within the domain of the Architecture sub-team of the BNBC Review Team – namely those issues which have been covered under the General Requirements section of the existing BNBC.
  • 35 Building occupancy classification is according to first letter – F for factories, R for residential, etc. with usually smaller numbers indicating higher hazards F1, F2, etc CHAPTERS 4 TO 10 Most of the regulations given between Chapters 4 to 10 seem to be related to safety of occupants from hazards, particularly fire. Chapter 4 contains the requirements for protecting special uses and occupancies. However, the general requirements of the code still apply unless modified within the chapter. For example, the height and area limitations established in Chapter 5 (which deals with general height and area limitations with special reference to fire provisions) apply to all special occupancies unless Chapter 4 contains height and area limitations. In this case, the limitations in Chapter 4 supersede those in other sections. Chapter 6 is about types of construction and their interdependence on fire safety considerations which are determined through Tables showing the fire-resistance ratings of the principal structural elements. Chapter 7 is about fire and smoke protection features. Chapter 8 contains the performance requirements of interior finishes for controlling fire growth within buildings by restricting interior finish and decorative materials. Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active systems of fire protection equipment. The requirements are based on the occupancy, and the height and the area of the building, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard of a specific building or its portion. Chapter 10, Means of Egress, sets forth the general criteria for regulating the design of the means of egress, as the primary method for protection of people in buildings. Chapters 16 to 30, deal with structural design and related issues, and are outside the scope of the Architecture Group. CHAPTERS RELEVANT FOR THE ARCHITECTURE GROUP It is only in Chapter 11 that the issue of accessibility is addressed relating it to other issues than fire – for the physically challenged, etc – where it is stated that everything is required to be accessible. Chapter 12 deals with the Interior environment – stipulating minimum standards for the interior environment of a building – information regarding sizes and environmental variables. Specifications are given about spaces as well as the fabric. Chapter 13 is dedicated to energy efficiency – specifying minimum design requirements for energy efficiency. Architectural and constructional details about the design of building envelopes are referred to the IECC. The requirements here are not mentioned separately and need to be compliant with the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Such a chapter
  • 36 is not included in the present BNBC code, but with new emphasis on climate change and realization of the impacts of buildings on energy depletion, this is vital for sustainability. Chapter 14 deals with the composition of Exterior Walls for weather and fire protection and also includes balconies, eaves, decks and architectural trim, i.e. extensions from the superstructure. Chapter 15 codifies roof assemblies and rooftop structures, mainly dealing with weather-proofing, etc. Chapters 16 to 30, dealing with structural design and related issues, as mentioned above, are outside the scope of the Architecture Group and are therefore not discussed here. Chapter 31 contains a collection of regulations for a variety of unique structures and architectural features, eg pedestrian walkways and tunnels connecting two buildings, swimming pools and temporary structures, etc. Once again in Chapter 32, Encroachments into the Public Right-of-way – some structural – but some architectural decision making is addressed. Chapter 33 provides safety requirements during construction and demolition of buildings and structures. Chapter 34 Existing Structures – registered historic buildings. The chapter suggests alternative methods or reduced compliance requirements when dealing with existing building constraints, without compromising the minimum standards for fire prevention and life safety features. Chapter 35 on Referenced standards is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards for the various issues in the code. There are A – K, on various issues, out of which Appendix E are on the Supplemental Accessibility Requirements that are not otherwise mentioned or mainstreamed throughout the code or in Chapter 11. SECTIONS RELEVANT TO THE ARCHITECTURE GROUP Though the sections related to fire escapes and planning of egress are related to Architectural planning and decisions, this section is being treated independently by a separate group and will not be included in this discussion. From the review of the IBC certain points that relate to the BNBC emerge and need to be included in its revision. These are: a. An independent chapter on energy efficiency which will specify passive architectural features that form minimum standards for buildings in different regions of Bangladesh. If possible carbon emissions can be related to the construction. This can
  • 37 include codes for inclusion of renewables within the framework of the energy consumption of the building. b. A chapter on modifications, extensions to existing buildings and their standards c. A chapter on conservation of heritage structures giving minimum codes in order to preserve the historic character of sites and the building structure. d. A chapter on landscaping, using and developing sites for safety and sustainability. 4.4.3 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA (2005) A basic difference lies between BNBC 1993 and NBC of India 2005 in its organizational approach. The NBCI has taken the land-use plan as its basis for classification whereas in BNBC the basis is occupancy based building classification. The advantage of the NBCI is evident whenever settlement planning or housing or open space based developments are referred- community facilities, cultural facilities, sports and public open spaces are direct outcome of such provision in the Code, whereas no such provision lies within the BNBC. Approaching from the land-use plan the Indian code encompasses even construction in rural areas as well as preservation of natural resources as wetland, agricultural land etc. This approach seems highly relevant in a country like ours where land resource in comparison to population density is limited and the code apart from providing guidelines for building/ development should also focus on conservation of natural resources. The other advantage of the Indian Code is its recognition for old city built forms and further provision for its inclusion within the building code. Thus different typologies e.g. core type, row type, semi-detached type etc. gets validity and creates variety within the city fabric. Provisions for Heritage conservation is also highlighted in the Indian code. This may be helpful for formulation of guidelines for conservation in the Proposed Code. 4.4.4 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BUILDING CODE OF CHINA The Chinese Code focuses on making households suitable, safe and economical. It categorizes residential buildings into four distinct categories- low-rise, multi-rise, middle-high-rise and high-rise, which may be considered here as well. However the guidelines leads to some basic models that is very specific about minimum space standards especially for housings. There are strict codes for natural lighting provisions for each household. The specificity of the code is sometimes very
  • 38 meaningful as it is in the case of minimum kitchen size- the minimum size of a kitchen varies according to the type of fuel in use. (pipe gas or liquefied petroleum gas – 3.5m2, improved coal –m 4m2, raw coal – 4.5 m2, fire wood – 5m2) The Code may be helpful in certain areas e.g. provisions for sun light, building height classification, minimum space guidelines etc. 4.5 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BNBC-1993 The initial review of the existing building code reveals that a line by line scrutiny is required as some of the existing clauses need clarification, many clauses contradict with other existing building rules and the existing code is inadequate for certain relevant fields (e.g. housing, energy-efficiency, conservation, accessibility etc.). During this review there will be revisions, deletions and additions. The scope of work has therefore been marked as following: • Eradication of contradictions with other construction rules/acts (e.g. Dhaka Mohanogor Imarat Nirman Bidhimala 2008, Beshorkari Abashik Bhumi Unnoyon Nitinala 2004 etc.) • Classification and re-organization of the existing Code to enhance co-relation and to reduce scattering of information • Review of gap between objectives and practices of the Code • Incorporation of new Codes (e.g. Housing and settlement, Sustainability and Energy efficiency, Universal Accessibility etc.) The following observations have been made on different sections of Part 3 of the BNBC 1993: Section 1.2: TERMINLOGY • New terminologies need to be included, more graphical references need to be used Section 1.3: OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION • Should be part of land-use classification instead of being a separate classification • First Letter of occupancy may be assigned for referring to classification, e.g. Residential – R, Hospitals – H, Factories – F, Educational – E, etc. • New occupancy type for Public Open Space (park, garden etc.) and restricted open space (special recreational zones) need to be included • New occupancy type for communication (tv stations, mobile transmissions etc.) and transportation (rail station, airport, bus depot, truck terminal, container terminal, sea port, dockyards etc.) needs to be incorporated
  • 39 • New occupancy type for socio-cultural facilities (e.g. community hall, library, recreational club, music/dance/drama centre, religious/spiritual centre etc) should be incorporated • New sub-divisions for current occupancy types A to F needed using semi-detached, court-type and row type variations. e.g. Occupancy type Sub-division Nature of use or occupancy Building type Section 1.4: LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION AND PERMITTED USES • New categories to be included: TRANSPORTATION, HERITAGE AND CONSERVATION SITES, HOUSING AND SETTLEMENT PLANNING, CONSERVATION OF WETLAND ETC. • Safeguard against conversion of agricultural land (green fields) to non-agricultural use (brown fields) Section 1.7: OPEN SPACES WITHIN A PLOT • Needs open space guidelines for other typologies: semi-detached, courtyard, clustered, row house etc. • Height- open space proportions should be re-evaluated for different typologies. Section 1.8: GENERAL HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATION • Needs elaboration on what basis should it be done • An appendix should be added on air-funnel of runways for Civil Aviation restriction on buildings near aerodromes Section 1.11: COMMUNITY OPEN SPACE AND AMENITIES • Needs to be upgraded and in harmony with other existing rules and codes. Following new sections may be introduced: a. EXISTING BUILDINGS b. CONSERVATION OF GREENBELTS AND IMPORTANT WATERBODIES • New rules should be added for preservation of WETLAND, CANALS, RIVERFRONT, NATURAL FORESTS AND GREENBELTS, COASTAL FORESTATION etc. c. BUILDINGS AND PLACES OF HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL VALUE Section 2.1: OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION
  • 40 • More occupancy types need to be included Section 2.5: REQUIREMENTS OF OCCUPANCY R: RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS • Typologies other than detached form e.g. semi-detached, cluster, courtyard, row type must be included and sufficiently elaborated Section 2.10: REQUIREMENTS OF OCCUPANCY B: BUSINESS AND MERCANTILE BUILDINGS • For some typologies of this category (F1, F2, F3) ground level promenades (covered walkway) on road front can be devised with incentive on FAR Section 2.11: REQUIREMENTS OF OCCUPANCY F: INDUSTRIAL/FACTORY BUILDINGS • Specific and separate rules are needed for two separate categories: low hazard industries and moderate hazard industries Guidelines for new typologies e.g. multistoried car park, transportation hubs, bus stoppages, rooftop towers for mobile network etc. are needed 4.6 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE UPDATED CODE The proposed Table of Content (TOC) is a tentative one. BNBC 1993 forms the basis for it. Architectural issues are mostly mentioned in Parts 3, 9 and 10 of the BNBC 1993. However inclusion of new chapters and re-classification will need furthermore revision of this TOC. A new chapter on Energy Efficiency and Passive Energy Design Features has been proposed in Part 3. This chapter will give certain minimum codes for achieving energy efficiency using renewable energy with the view of incorporating solar energy use in buildings of 10% to 20% by 2020. Also rainwater harvesting features may be made mandatory. The code can allow concessions to maximum building area when these features are fulfilled. For the time being, most other proposed inclusions are placed as appendices at the end of the TOC.
  • 41 MATERIALS, STRUCTURE, CONSTRUCTION AND SEISMIC PROVISIONS 5.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE SUBGROUPS 5.1.1 SUBGROUP: MATERIALS a. Review of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993, in general. b. Review of Part 5: Building Materials of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993, in particular. c. Review of the minimum requirements for building materials as stated in other relevant internationally reputed codes, standards etc. d. Preparation of a list and collection of all BSTI and other Bangladesh standards related to building materials and review of those. e. Collection of research findings available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else both from within the country and outside and evaluation of those for adoption in the updated code. f. Identification of all building materials in use now in Bangladesh or going to be used in the future taking in to consideration the development of new building materials worldwide. g. Identification of indigenous building materials which are in use in Bangladesh and incorporation of minimum requirements in the revised Code for such materials, if felt necessary. h. Identification of deficiencies of Part 5: Building Materials of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993 in the light of above reviews and study. i. Suggestion for necessary changes in order to eliminate the already identified deficiencies for existing materials as well as to incorporate the minimum requirements for new building materials which may come up in the light of review of national and international standards and codes. j. Analysis of the impediments in the implementation of current Building Code and make recommendations. k. Review and analysis of current provisions for materials affecting the building industry and recommend appropriate amendments to the building materials code
  • 42 and to formulate a revised Building Materials Code for use in regulating building and construction activities in both urban and rural areas. l. Develop a work plan for the revised Building Materials Code and consider and evaluate the principle of material prescription. 5.1.2 SUBGROUP: STRUCTURE a. Review of present version of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993, in general. b. Review of Part 6: Structural Design of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993, in particular. c. Review of the present approaches for evaluation of loads and review of adopted methods of structural design in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. d. Collection of research findings available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of those for adoption in the updated code. e. Identification of areas and fields in load estimation and structural design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. f. Conducting a detailed review of different aspects of structural design as stipulated in BNBC, 1993 and updating necessary parts. The aspects of structural design which will be updated are: Estimation of Different Types of Loads, Working Stress Design and Ultimate Strength Design Methods for Reinforced Concrete, Design for Masonry Structures, Prestressed Concrete Structures, Steel Structures, Timber Structures, Ferrocement Structures etc. g. Introduction of design approaches for indigenous bamboo structures. h. Introduction of design approaches for steel-concrete composite structures. i. Introduction of repair and retrofitting aspects of building structures. 5.1.3 SUBGROUP: CONSTRUCTION a. Review of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993, in general. b. Review of Part 7: Construction Practices and Safety of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993, in particular. c. Study of the present approaches in Construction Practices and Safety in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. d. Study of all relevant codes on construction practices in buildings and safety aspects of personnel and property during construction and demolition operations. e. Identification of areas and fields in Construction Practices and Safety in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating.
  • 43 f. Study of the development of Construction Industry and the Safety Practices both home and abroad. g. Review and upgradation of the Construction Practices and Safety part of the existing BNBC 1993 and preparation of recommendations for safe practices on the basis of the above review and in the light of current practice and future trend in the construction industry. h. Revision of the provisions in the BNBC 1993 for construction and safety in a manner to be both applied and at the same time applicable to the industry. i. Removal of extra and inapplicable provisions from the code and making the code provisions simple and easily applicable. j. Exploring for the introduction of Maintenance Management of buildings. 5.1.4 SUBGROUP: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING a. Review of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993, in general. b. Review of Part 6: Structural Design, Chapter 2: Loads, Section 2.5 Earthquake Loads & Chapter 8: Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Section 8.3 Special Provision for Seismic Design and also other relevant articles of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 1993, in particular. c. Review of the present methods in evaluation of earthquake loads as well as of detailing procedures for reinforced concrete and other structures in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. d. Collection of research findings on seismic design and detailing available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of those for adoption in the updated code. e. Identification of areas and fields in earthquake load estimation, detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures and special provisions for seismic design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. f. Conducting a detailed review of different aspects of earthquake load estimation, detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures and special provisions for seismic design as stipulated in BNBC, 1993 and updating necessary parts. g. Review and analyze current BNBC provisions affecting the building industry and recommend appropriate amendments. Provide recommendations for soft story effect in buildings. h. Revision of seismic design and detailing approaches for brick masonry structures. i. Exploring for the necessity of revising the earthquake zoning map of BNBC, 1993. j. Exploring for the introduction of retrofitting aspects of existing brick masonry building structures to be earthquake resistant.
  • 44 k. Exploring for the introduction of retrofitting aspects of existing reinforced concrete structures to be earthquake resistant. l. Exploring for the introduction of repair techniques for reinforced concrete and masonry building structures subjected to earthquake damage. 5.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF INDIVIDUAL CONSULTANTS 5.2.1 SUBGROUP: MATERIALS SENIOR MATERIALS ENGINEER – PROF. MUHAMMAD ZAKARIA a. Act as Subgroup Leader and maintain liaison with the Team & Group Leader/ Coordinator. b. Guide, supervise and coordinate the works of other professionals in the subgroup. c. Review of the minimum requirements of building materials as stated in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. d. Review of research findings for building materials available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. e. Identification of areas and fields in building materials in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. f. Recommend minimum requirements of different building materials for the revised code. g. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters. MATERIALS ENGINEER – PROF. MUNAZ AHMED NOOR a. Assist the Subgroup Leader in all related matters. b. Preparation of a list of all BSTI or other Bangladesh standards related to building materials and collection & review of those. c. Review of the minimum requirements of building materials as stated in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. d. Review of research findings for building materials available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. e. Identification of areas and fields in building materials in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. f. Recommend minimum requirements of different building materials for the revised code.
  • 45 5.2.2 SUBGROUP: STRUCTURE SENIOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEER 1 – PROF. A.M.M. TAUFIQUL ANWAR a. Act as Group Leader and maintain liaison with the Team Leader/ Coordinator. b. Guide, supervise and coordinate the works of other professionals in the group. c. Assist the Team Leader in preparation of all reports, materials for the workshop and preparation of the revised draft code. d. Review of the present approaches in evaluation of loads and review of methods of structural design adopted in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. e. Review of research findings available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. f. Identification of areas and fields in load estimation and structural design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. g. Review and revision of general structural design requirements, loads, structural design for Steel, Steel-Concrete Composite, Aluminum and Reinforced Concrete Structures. SENIOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEER 2 – PROF. AHSANUL KABIR a. Review of the present approaches in evaluation of loads and review of methods of structural design adopted in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. b. Review of research findings available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. c. Identification of areas and fields in load estimation and structural design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. d. Review and revision of provisions for general structural design requirements, loads, structural design for Masonry, Ferrocement and Prestressed Concrete and their detailing. e. Review, revision and inclusion of provisions for repair, alteration and retrofitting of structures. f. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters. SENIOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEER 3 – PROF. KHAN MAHMUD AMANAT a. Review of the present approaches in evaluation of loads and review of adopted methods of structural design in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. b. Review of research findings available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities,
  • 46 reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. c. Identification of areas and fields in load estimation and structural design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. d. Review and revision of provisions for all types of loads in BNBC and addition of new loads. Recommend modifications for wind loads, particularly modifications necessary for wind speed map & else. e. Review and revision of general structural design requirements, loads, structural design for Steel, Steel-Concrete Composite, Aluminum and Reinforced Concrete Structures and detailing. f. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters. STRUCTURAL ENGINEER – DR. RAQUIB AHSAN a. Review of the present approaches in evaluation of loads and review of adopted methods of structural design in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. b. Review of research findings available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. c. Identification of areas and fields in load estimation and structural design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. d. Review and revision of general structural design requirements, loads, structural design for Timber, Ferrocement, Prestressed Concrete and Bamboo and detailing. e. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters. f. Act as coordinator to Team Leader and assist the Team Leader in preparation of all reports, materials for the workshop and preparation of the revised draft code. STRUCTURAL ENGINEER – DR. A. F. M. SAIFUL AMIN a. Review of the present approaches in evaluation of loads and review of adopted methods of structural design in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. b. Review of research findings available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. c. Identification of areas and fields in load estimation and structural design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. d. Review and revision of all types of loads in BNBC and addition of new loads. Recommend modifications for wind loads, particularly modifications necessary for wind speed map & else.
  • 47 e. Review and revision of general structural design requirements, loads, structural design for Timber, Bamboo, Masonry and Reinforced Concrete and detailing. f. Review, revision and inclusion of repair, alteration and retrofitting of structures. g. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters. 5.2.3 SUBGROUP: CONSTRUCTION SENIOR CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER – PROF. MD. SHAFIUL BARI a. Act as Subgroup Leader and maintain liaison with the Team & Group Leader/ Coordinator. b. Guide, supervise and coordinate the works of other professionals in the subgroup. c. Review of all relevant international codes and standards on construction practices in buildings, and safety aspects of personnel and property during construction and demolition operations. d. Review of research findings for construction practices and safety aspects available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. e. Identification of areas and fields in construction practices in buildings, and safety aspects in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. f. Recommend minimum requirements for safe construction practices in the revised code. g. Exploring for the introduction of Maintenance Management of buildings. h. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters. CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER – ENGR. SABBIR SIDDIQUEE a. Assist the Subgroup Leader in all related matters. b. Review of all relevant international codes and standards on construction practices in buildings, and safety aspects of personnel and property during construction and demolition operations. c. Review of research findings for construction practices and safety aspects available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. d. Identification of areas and fields in construction practices in buildings, and safety aspects in BNBC, 1993, which require gross revision and updating. e. Recommend minimum requirements for safe construction practices in the revised code.
  • 48 5.2.4 SUBGROUP: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING SENIOR EARTHQUAKE ENGINEER – PROF. TAHMEED M. AL-HUSSAINI a. Act as Subgroup Leader and maintain liaison with the Team & Group Leader/ Coordinator. b. Guide, supervise and coordinate the works of other professionals in the subgroup. c. Review of the present methods in evaluation of earthquake loads as well as of detailing procedures for reinforced concrete and other structures in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. d. Review of research findings on seismic design and detailing available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. e. Identification of areas and fields in earthquake load estimation, detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures and special provisions for seismic design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. f. Revision of the earthquake zoning map of BNBC, 1993. g. Introduction of retrofitting aspects of existing reinforced concrete structures to be earthquake resistant. h. Assist the Group Leader in all related matters. EARTHQUAKE ENGINEER – PROF. TAHSIN REZA HOSSAIN a. Assist the Subgroup Leader in all related matters. b. Review of the present methods in evaluation of earthquake loads as well as of detailing procedures for reinforced concrete and other structures in internationally reputed codes, standards etc. c. Review of research findings on seismic design and detailing available in the form of research papers, dissertations and reports published by different national and international publishing authorities, reputed universities or else within the country and outside and evaluation of such for adoption in the updated code. d. Identification of areas and fields in earthquake load estimation, detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures and special provisions for seismic design in BNBC, 1993, which require revision and updating. e. Introduction of seismic design and detailing approaches for brick masonry structures. f. Introduction of retrofitting aspects of existing brick masonry building structures to be earthquake resistant. g. Introduction of repair techniques for reinforced concrete and masonry building structures subjected to earthquake damage.
  • 49 5.3 LIST OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS i. ACI 2004. Detailing Manual, American Concrete Institute, USA, 2004. ii. ACI 315-99, Manual of structural and placing drawings of reinforced concrete, American Concrete Institute, USA, 1999. iii. ACI 315R-04, Details and detailing of concrete reinforcement, American Concrete Institute, USA, 2004. iv. ACI 318-02. Building code requirements for structural concrete, American Concrete Institute, USA, 2002. v. ACI 318R-02. Building code requirements for structural concrete-Commentary American Concrete Institute, USA, 2002. vi. AISC 05 Basic Design Values, American Institute of Steel Construction, USA, 2005. vii. AISI 2001. North American Specification for the Design of Cold Formed Steel Structural Members, American Iron and Steel Institute, USA, 2001. viii. AISC 05. Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges, American Institute of Steel Construction, USA, 2005. ix. AISC 05. Seismic provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, USA, 2005. x. AISC 2005. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, USA, 2005. xi. ASCE-48-05. Design of steel transmission pole structures, American Society of Civil Engineering, USA, 2005. xii. ASCE-7-02. Minimum Design Loads for buildings and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineering, USA, 2002. xiii. ASCE-7-05. Minimum Design Loads for buildings and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineering, USA, 2005. xiv. BNBC 1993. Bangladesh National Building Code, Housing and Building Research Institute and Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Dhaka, Bangladesh. xv. Pakistan Code 2008. The Building Code of Pakistan, National Housing Authority,  Islamabad, Pakistan,  2008.  xvi. EIA/TIA-F. Structural standard for Antenna supporting structures and antennas, Telecommunications Industry Association, USA. xvii. EIA-222-G-draft Structural standard for Antenna supporting structures and antennas, Telecommunications Industry Association, USA. xviii. Eurocode Parts 0-9. The European Standard, The British Standards Institution 2009. xix. IBC 2006. International building code, International Code Council, USA, 2006. xx. IBC 2009. International building code, International Code Council, USA, 2009. xxi. Japan Code 2009. The Building Standard Law of Japan, The Building Centre of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 2009.
  • 50 xxii. NBI 2005. National Building Code of India, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 2005. xxiii. Wind Speed Data for Bangladesh 1948-2009. Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Dhaka, Bangladesh. xxiv. EN Standards for Testing and Inspection of Building Materials, The British Standards Institution (partial). xxv. ASTM Standards to Testing and Inspection of Building Materials, ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959 USA (partial). xxvi. IS Standards for Testing and Inspection of Building Materials, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India (partial). xxvii. Bangladesh Standards for Testing and Inspection of Building Materials, Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Dhaka, Bangladesh (partial). 5.4 LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED i. AISC 325-05. Steel Construction Manual, Thirteenth Edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, USA. ii. Building Code of Australia, Australian Building Codes Board, Australia. iii. Building Code of New Zealand, Act and Regulations, Compliance Documents and Building Code Handbook, Department of Building and Housing, New Zealand. iv. EN Standards for Testing and Inspection of Building Materials, The British Standards Institution (partial). v. ASTM Standards to Testing and Inspection of Building Materials, ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959 USA (partial). vi. IS Standards for Testing and Inspection of Building Materials, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India (partial). vii. Bangladesh Standards for Testing and Inspection of Building Materials, Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Dhaka, Bangladesh (partial). viii. Geographical and Geopolitical Map of Bangladesh, Published by Survey of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ix. Geological Map of Bangladesh, Published by Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. x. Flood, Tidal Surge and Tsunami Zoning Maps of Bangladesh, Institute of Water and Flood Modeling, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. xi. Data for Historical Earthquakes, United States Geological Survey, USA. xii. Information for Rain, Temperature and Humidity, Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • 51 xiii. Undergraduate, Postgraduate dissertations, reports, journal papers, conference proceedings and individual’s research works (published/unpublished) but suitable for adoption in the updated code in Bangladesh Context. 5.5 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF DOCUMENTS AND TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE CODE FOR MATERIALS SUBGROUP 5.5.1 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA, 2005 The National Building Code of India (NBC), a comprehensive building Code, is a national instrument providing guidelines for regulating the building construction activities across India. It serves as a Model Code for adoption by all agencies involved in building construction works by the Public Works Departments, other government construction departments, local bodies or private construction agencies. The Code mainly contains administrative regulations, development control rules and general building requirements; fire safety requirements; stipulations regarding materials, structural design and construction (including safety); and building and plumbing services. The comprehensive NBC 2005 contains 11 Parts some of which are further divided into Sections totalling 26 chapters. The salient features of the revised NBC include, apart from other changes made, the changes specially in regard to further enhancing peoples response to meet the challenges posed by natural calamities and reflecting the state-of-the-art and contemporary applicable international practices. The code makes it clear that the manufacturer/supplier shall satisfy himself' that materials conform to the specifications and if requested shall supply a certificate to that effect to the purchaser or his representative. List of IS standards includes those relating to all materials required for building constructions. BUILDING CODE OF PAKISTAN, 2008 The building code of Pakistan, 2008 is their latest version in Pakistan covering all aspects regarding building construction in Pakistan. Part 10 of the code covers the minimum requirements for materials generally used in the design and construction of buildings. The code stipulates that all materials shall conform to the specifications of and shall be tested by standard procedures given in the relevant standards of Pakistan Standards Institution. For materials for which such Pakistan Standards are not available the code recommends the use of ASTM, ANSI, BS and ISO standards.
  • 52 The construction materials covered by the code include masonry units, timber, reinforcing and structural steel, plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete, precast and cast-in-situ flooring materials, sealing and water proofing materials and insulating and facade materials and materials for all other services required for a building. The code also covers the materials used in mechanical and electrical works in buildings. BANGLADESH STANDARDS Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution (BSTI) has prepared/adopted specification and test methods for some building materials. These include clay bricks (including facing bricks. and hollow bricks); Cement (EU); coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete; abrasion characteristics (coarse aggregates), soundness, and sieve analysis of aggregates; steel bars and wires for reinforcement; and sanitary pipes, pressure pipes; asbestos sheets for roofing and cladding; steel sheets including galvanised corrugated sheets: bitumen emulsion: concrete; ceramic wash basins and pedestals; vitreous sanitary appliances (general requirements and specific requirements for water closets, urinals, foot rests and squatting pans); cement concrete flooring tiles: hot rolled steel beam, column, channel and angle sections: bend test on steel tubes; and acid resistant tiles and bricks. INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE, 2009 The International Building Code, in its 2009 edition, is designed to meet the needs of building construction through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small. This comprehensive building code establishes minimum regulations for building systems using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building designs. This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a building code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction 5.5.2 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 In BNBC, 1993 part 5 deals with building materials. However, several other parts and chapters also contain specifications and details of building materials. In present update all the relevant specifications and details of all relevant building materials may be incorporated and placed in one part. Review of the present code shows the necessity of updating and modification of the Part 5 i.e building materials along with other parts of the code.
  • 53 It is apparent from the preliminary review of various documents that specifications and test methods of building materials are issued separately by relevant national authorities on standards and materials. Building codes refer to these standards and do not in themselves contain the details of the material standards. National Building Code of India provides a list of the Indian Standards, which are available for most common building materials. For any material not covered by the Indian Standards, the code permits the use of standards issued by recognized authority. Similarly, the Building Code of Pakistan refers to relevant Standards adopted by the Pakistan Standards Institution wherever available. For materials for which Pakistan Standards are not available, the Code permits the use of relevant standards of ASTM. ANSI, BS, and ISO. In this way the Code recognizes the limitations of Pakistan Standards. Presently, standards for building materials issued by Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution (BSTI) are not limited in number and scope. Standards have been adopted namely from ISO and EN for many required building materials. 5.5.3 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE In the present code (BNBC,1993) Part 5 deals with building materials. However, several other parts and chapters also contain specifications and details of building materials. In the present update all the relevant specifications and details of all relevant building materials may be incorporated and placed in a separate part. The relevant materials of this part may be quoted or referred to from other parts of the updated version. Different codes, textbooks, manuals and other published literature will be utilized for preparing the code provisions for these materials. 5.6 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF DOCUMENTS AND TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE CODE FOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 5.6.1 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE (IBC), 2009 International Building Code (IBC), published by the International Code Council, is followed widely in the United States. It is the successor to three former US codes namely BOCA/NBC, SBC and UBC. IBC was first published in 2000 and since then its updated versions are being published every three years. Presently, the latest edition is the 2009 edition. It is a model code that provides minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare of the occupants of new and existing buildings and structures. The IBC addresses structural strength, means of egress, sanitation, adequate lighting and
  • 54 ventilation, accessibility, energy conservation and life safety in regards to new and existing buildings, facilities and systems. The IBC 2009 code consists of about 33 chapters of which chapters related to structural design of buildings and components are Chapter 15 (roof), Chapter 16 (structural design), Chapter 17 (tests for structural design), Chapter 18 (soil), Chapter 19 (concrete), Chapter 20 (aluminum), Chapter 21 (masonry), Chapter 22 (steel), Chapter 23 (wood) etc. Provisions in these chapters are mainly related to specifying basic design methodologies (e.g. allowable stress design or limit state design), minimum gravity and environmental loads, serviceability limits, material and test specifications etc. Details of the analysis and design procedures of buildings are not dealt in IBC. Rather it refers other established codes for such procedures. For example, IBC refers to ACI (American Concrete Institute) code for structural design of reinforced concrete structures. Similarly for the detailed design procedure of steel structures, AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) is referred. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2005 The National Building Code of India (NBC), a comprehensive building Code, serves as a Model Code for adoption by all agencies involved in building construction works be they Public Works Departments, other government construction departments, local bodies or private construction agencies. The code mainly contains administrative regulations, development control rules and general building requirements; fire safety requirements; stipulations regarding materials, structural design and construction (including safety); and building and plumbing services. NBC 2005 contains 11 Parts some of which are further divided into Sections totaling 26 chapters. The salient features of the revised NBC include, apart from other changes made, the changes especially in regard to further enhancing response to meet the challenges posed by natural calamities and reflecting the state-of- the-art and contemporary applicable international practices. The NBC gives special importance to safe structural design of building which is clear from the fact that about 33% of its total volume is dedicated to structural design of issues like minimum design load, design methodology etc. covering concrete, steel, masonry, timber and bamboo structures. In some cases it directly refers to other Indian standards. For example, for pre-stressed concrete structures, it directly refers to a separate Indian Standard called IS-1343. CODES AND STANDARDS BY AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08): The Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete prepared by American Concrete Institute is the flagship American code which covers materials, design, and construction of structural concrete used in buildings and where applicable in non-building structures. The Code also
  • 55 covers the strength evaluation of existing concrete structures. Among the subjects covered are: drawings and specifications; inspection; materials; durability requirements; concrete quality, mixing, and placing; formwork; embedded pipes; construction joints; reinforcement details; analysis and design; strength and serviceability; flexural and axial loads; shear and torsion; development and splices of reinforcement; slab systems; walls; footings; precast concrete; composite flexural members; pre-stressed concrete; shells and folded plate members; strength evaluation of existing structures; provisions for seismic design; structural plain concrete; strut-and-tie modeling in Appendix A; alternative design provisions in Appendix B; alternative load and strength reduction factors in Appendix C; and anchoring to concrete in Appendix D. The quality and testing of materials used in construction are covered by reference to the appropriate ASTM standard specifications. Welding of reinforcement is covered by reference to the appropriate AWS standard. ACI 318 fully follows strength based design of reinforced concrete elements. References to service load analysis is only made in relation of deflection and crack control and other relevant issues. Details of Concrete Reinforcement (ACI 315-04): ACI detailing manual ACI 315 is a complementary code for ACI 318 where standard procedure for detailing of reinforcement for concrete structures and elements are specified. The 2004 edition of this comprehensive detailing manual provides answers to many questions from design engineers, architects, contractors, detailers, and engineering students. It is divided into three sections including “Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement (ACI 315-99),” “Manual of Engineering and Placing Drawings for Reinforced Concrete Structures (ACI 315R-04),” and supporting reference data. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421-2R-07): During an earthquake, the unbalanced moments transferred at flat plate column connections can produce significant shear stresses that increase the vulnerability of these connections to brittle punching shear failure. This report gives recommendations for designing flat plate- column connections with sufficient ductility to go through lateral drift without punching shear failure or loss of moment transfer capacity. THE CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE STRUCTURAL USE OF STEEL (HONG KONG, 2005) The Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Steel published in 2005 by The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, gives recommendations for the design of structural steel buildings and allied structures not specifically covered by other standards following limit state philosophy. The code has been developed using worldwide best practice and philosophy from international codes. Particular guidance has been introduced to the Code to cover high rise building design, composite design, long span structures,
  • 56 stability issues, temporary works in construction, a wide range of steel grades, performance based design and structural vibration. CODES AND STANDARDS BY AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION (AISC) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-05): This specification provides the generally applicable requirements for the design and construction of structural steel buildings and other structures. This ANSI-approved specification is the first edition to incorporate both allowable stress design (ASD) and load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods. The design provisions for single angles and hollow structural sections are also included. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 341-05): This ANSI-approved specification is a companion to the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-05) that extends coverage to the connection detailing and member design requirements for structural steel and composite structural steel and reinforced concrete systems in high-seismic applications. This new standard, dated March 9, 2005, replaces and updates the 2002 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings as well as incorporating provisions for two new systems: buckling-restrained braced frames and special plate shear walls. Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications (ANSI/AISC 358-05): This standard has been developed by the AISC Connection Prequalification Review Panel in accordance with Appendix P of the Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 341-05). The connections have been prequalified for use in special and intermediate steel moment frames, without the need for additional testing. The standard currently addresses three types of connections - the reduced beam section (RBS) connection, the bolted unstiffened extended end plate (BUEP) connection, and the bolted stiffened extended end plate (BSEP) connection. EGYPTIAN CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STEEL CONSTRUCTION (LRFD, 2007) This code of practice provides the generally applicable requirements for the design and construction of structural steel buildings and other structures following the load and resistance factor design method. It covers all the basic design methodology of common structural components beams, columns, connections as well as topics like fatigue, composite sections, cold formed sections, inspection and maintenance etc. all relavant to steel buildings and structures. EGYPTIAN CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STEEL CONSTRUCTION AND BRIDGES (ASD, 2001) This code of practice provides the generally applicable requirements for the design and construction of structural steel buildings and other structures following the allowable stress design method. It covers all the basic design methodology of common structural
  • 57 components beams, columns, connections including bridges as well as topics like fatigue, composite sections, cold formed sections, inspection and maintenance etc. all relavant to steel buildings as well as bridges. BUILDING STANDARD LAW OF JAPAN (2009) The Building Standard Law of Japan is a collection of Japanese documents translated in English by the Building Center of Japan (BCJ). BCJ contributes to international information sharing in building-related areas, such as those of building regulations and technical assessments, by publishing collections of English translations of Japanese laws and regulations concerning building standards. It includes the mainly the Japanese regulations which are in enforcement in Japan. It also contains guideline for estimating loads eg. Earthquake load, wind load etc. However it does not elaborate any structural design methodology. EUROCODES (2002, 2006) Eurocodes are a set of pan-European model building codes developed by the European Committee for Standardisation. The Eurocodes are organised in 57 parts, each part published as a separate European Standard. By 2002, ten Eurocodes have been developed and published: EN 1990: Basis of structural design, EN 1991: (Eurocode 1) Actions on structures EN 1992: (Eurocode 2) Design of concrete structures, EN 1993: (Eurocode 3) Design of steel structures, EN 1994: (Eurocode 4) Design of composite steel and concrete structures, EN 1995: (Eurocode 5) Design of timber structures, EN 1996: (Eurocode 6) Design of masonry structures, EN 1997: (Eurocode 7) Geotechnical design, EN 1998: (Eurocode 8) Design of structures for earthquake resistance, EN 1999: (Eurocode 9) Design of aluminium structures. The Eurocodes form a common European set of structural design codes for civil engineering work. By March 2010 the Eurocodes will be mandatory for European public works and likely to become the de-facto standard for the private sector. The Eurocodes will therefore replace the existing national codes published by national standard bodies (e.g. BS 5950), although many countries will have a period of co-existence. Eurocodes extensively cover almost all aspects of building design with special emphasis to fire resistant design of all types of buildings and structures. CODES BY AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (ASCE) ASCE Standards provide technical guidelines, or instructions, for promoting safety, reliability, productivity and efficiency across all areas of civil engineering. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7 – 05) : The new ASCE Standard 7-05 Standard provides requirements for general structural design and includes means for determining dead, live, soil, flood, wind, snow, rain, atmospheric ice, and
  • 58 earthquake loads, and their combinations that are suitable for inclusion in building codes and other documents. A detailed commentary containing explanatory and supplementary information to assist users of ASCE 7-05 is included. This ASCE 7-05 edition is a complete revision of ASCE 7-02. The new Standard includes revised and significantly reorganized provisions for seismic design of structures, as well as revisions in the provisions for determining live, flood, wind, snow, and atmospheric ice loads. The earthquake load provisions in ASCE 7-05 are substantially adopted by reference in the 2006 International Building Code and the 2006 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Numerous other provisions of all other ASCE 7-05 sections are also adopted by reference by both model building codes including the provisions for calculating wind loads and snow loads. Structural engineers, architects, and those engaged in preparing and administering local building codes will find the structural load requirements essential to their practice. Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures (ASCE 10-97): This standard, provides requirements for the design of guyed and self-supporting latticed steel electrical transmission structures. They are applicable for hot-rolled and cold-formed steel shapes. Analysis techniques are outlined for the geometrical configurations presently in use. Procedures for the design of individual members reflect extensive experience and test data on steels with yield points up to 65 ksi. Connection design procedures allow the engineer to match connection capability to the most suitable end and edge distances for detailing. If full scale structure testing is required procedures are outlined to assist in obtaining critical information. Design procedures cover structural steel members and connections used in foundations. The commentary provides supporting background data. AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY (AWS D 1.1 2008) This code covers the welding requirements for any type of welded structure made from the commonly used carbon and low-alloy constructional steels. Clauses 1 through 8 constitute a body of rules for the regulation of welding in steel construction. There are eight normative and twelve informative annexes in this code. A Commentary of the code is included with the document. 5.6.2 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 Since 1993 a lot of changes have taken place in design concepts of reinforced concrete structures. Strength design method has been widely accepted all over the world with serviceably restrictions on deflection and crack control. Shear strength evaluation procedure for determining web reinforcement needs up gradation. So, it appears to update the strength design method for reinforced concrete based on recent research findings.
  • 59 Another observation of BNBC 1993 was its inclusion of concrete materials in the structural design (part-6) section. So, in the revision it is suggested to describe all structural materials in the separate chapter on ‘Materials’ in part-5 of the code. Further three new chapters on bamboo structure, steel concrete composite structure and repair & retrofitting of concrete structures are proposed. Bamboo structures are widely used in Bangladesh as a non-engineered construction. It will be explored to include Bamboo structure under the purview of engineered design for safety and economy. Steel concrete composite structure is another important topic that needs to be included in the revised version of BNBC. Possibility of its inclusion will be investigated. Repair and retrofitting concrete structure had been left out of BNBC 1993. But recently, damages in concrete buildings are quite common. So, guidelines for appropriate repair methods should be included in the revised code. Several structural deficiencies are also common in different concrete structures. Specially, to improve performance of existing buildings under earth quake loading some retrofitting measures may be needed. So, this topic is also proposed to be included in the code update. 5.6.3 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE Structural Engineering aspects are mostly discussed in Part 6 of the code. Part 6 of BNBC 1993 contains twelve chapters. It covers nearly all the important aspects of structural design. As its revision is now undertaken in 2010, some new chapters are proposed for inclusion. It is decided to keep the original get up of the chapters in this part as far as possible. In this respect the basic title and contents of each chapter should preferably be kept in line with the original document (BNBC 1993). However, as it appears that Chapter 5 “Concrete Material” should be transferred to Part 5 Materials, so change in the names of chapters following chapter 5 is expected. In order to minimize such changes, chapter 4 (Masonry Structures) is shifted to 5th place and a new chapter on Bamboo Structures is placed as chapter 4. This will retain all the chapters from 6 to 12 in their original positions. Now the tentative structure of Part 6 of the Revised Code are briefly described below along with major changes proposed - CHAPTER 1 DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The title is changed from ‘General Design Requirements.’ Articles 1.2 and 1.4 are renamed as ‘Definitions’ and ‘General Requirements’ respectively. Other article names are left undisturbed.
  • 60 CHAPTER 2 LOADS It has few inclusions like Loads due to Tsunami, Fire, Impacts and Collisions, Creep and Shrinkage, Dynamic Loads due to vibrations, Moving Loads for Crane Movement and Fatigue. Another new article on special combinations for Buildings with soft storey has been proposed. CHAPTER 3 FOUNDATION Structure of this chapter is discussed in Chapter 6 of the present report. CHAPTER 4 BAMBOO STRUCTURES (NEW ITEM) A fresh chapter is proposed for inclusion in order to standardize our indigenous versatile product used for low cost housing and other temporary structures. Its tentative contents are foreword, scope, terminology, symbols, materials, permissible stresses, design, considerations, design and techniques of joints, storage of bamboo CHAPTER 5 MASONRY STRUCTURE (SHIFTED FROM 4TH TO 5TH PLACE) Plain concrete has been included in the article (Art 4.2) on Materials. Design for Concentrated loads and Design of Non-load Bearing Wall has been included in the article on Design of unreinforced Masonry. Design for Concentrated load is also placed in another article on Design of Reinforced Masonry. CHAPTER 6 REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES: STRENGTH DESIGN Its title is modified. New articles and sub-articles proposed for inclusion are serviceability requirements for structural elements, crack control (of different structural members), columns subjected to bi-axial bending, deflection of framed structures, (design of) Pre-cast pile, cast-in-situ Pile, Dog legged and Open Well Stair, Free Standing Stair, Helicoidal Stair, deflection (of stairs) and structural design for fire protection. Article on precast and composite construction is reduced to precast construction as steel composite construction is proposed to form a separate chapter. CHAPTER 7 REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES: WORKING STRESS DESIGN” It has a slightly modified title name. The contents are least disturbed with couple of inclusions like columns subjected to bi-axial bending, crack control etc. CHAPTER 8 DETAILING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE Major revisions are proposed for special provision for Seismic Design. All the sub-article names of this article are changed. CHAPTER 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
  • 61 A few inclusion proposed are Shape Selection, Minimum Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement, Partial Prestressing, Crack Control and Fire Protection. CHAPTER 10 STEEL STRUCTURES Working Stress Design Method is renamed as Allowable Stress Design Method and Load Factor Design Method is changed to Load and Resistance Factor Design Method. Other inclusions are Consideration for Fatigue and Detailing of Steel Structures. CHAPTER 11 TIMBER STRUCTURE Major inclusions are Design of Nail Laminated Timber Beams, Design of Bolted Construction Joints, Design of Timber Connector Joints, Glued Laminated Veneer Lumber, Design of Glued Laminated Beams, Structural Use of Plywood, Trussed Rafter, Structural Sandwiches, Nail and Screw Holding Power of Timber. CHAPTER 12 FERROCEMENT STRUCTURES Its content names has no proposed changes at the moment CHAPTER 13 (NEW) STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE STRUCTURE A new chapter is proposed for inclusion. The tentative contents are General Provisions, Nominal Strength of Composite Sections, Material Limitations, Shear Connectors, Axial Members, Encased Composite Columns, Filled Composite Columns, Flexural Members, Strength of Composite Beams with Shear Connectors, Flexural Strength of Concrete-Encased and Filled Members, Combined Axial Force and Flexure and (some) Special Cases 5.7 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF DOCUMENTS AND TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE CODE FOR CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES 5.7.1 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF THE COLLECTED DOCUMENTS Building codes of most countries specify safe practices for various stages and for various elements of building construction. The following is an account of the preliminary review of various documents for coverage of construction practices and safety. THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE, 2009 The International Building Code, 2009, gives a brief coverage of construction safety under the heading, “Special Construction”, “Encroachments Into the Public Right of Way” and “Safeguards During Construction” in chapters 31, 32 and 33 respectively. Chapter 31 Special Construction: This chapter contains a collection of regulations for a variety of unique structures and architectural features. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels
  • 62 connecting two buildings are addressed in Section 3104. Membrane and air-supported structures are addressed in Section 3102. Safeguards for swimming pool safety are found in Section 3109. Standards for temporary structures, including permit requirements are provided in Section 3103. Structures as varied as awnings, marquees, signs, telecommunication and broadcast towers and automatic vehicular gates are also addressed in Sections 3105 through 3108 and 3110. Chapter 32 Encroachments into the Public Right-of-way: Buildings and structures are designed to extend over a property line and into the public right-of-way. Local regulations outside of the building code usually set limits to such encroachments, and such regulations take precedence over the provisions of this chapter. Standards are provided for encroachments below grade for structural support, vaults and areaways. Encroachments above grade are divided into below 8 feet, 8 feet to 15 feet, and above 15 feet, because of headroom and vehicular height issues. This includes steps, columns, awnings, canopies, marquees, signs, windows, balconies. Similar architectural features above grade are also addressed. Pedestrian walkways are required to comply with Chapter 31. Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction: Chapter 33 provides safety requirements during construction and demolition of buildings and structures. These requirements are intended to protect the public from injury and adjoining property from damage. In addition the chapter provides for the progressive installation and operation of exit stairways and standpipe systems during construction. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2005 Part 7 of the National Building Code of India 2005 presents a comprehensive treatment of the issue of construction practices. The part is organized into five sections. viz (1) Constructional Practices, (2) Storage, Stacking and Handling Practices, (3) Safety in ,Construction of Elements of a Building, (4) Maintenance Management, Repairs, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Buildings and (5) Safety in Demolition of Buildings. An Appendix on Programme Evaluation and Review Technique and Critical Path Method is also included. An Appendix on Check List for Stacking and Storage of Materials, Common Causes for Maintenance problems, Format for Inspection Report, Guidelines for Maintenance of Electrical Equipments are also included in this Version. OTHER CODES Part 5 of the Building Code of Pakistan deals with "Construction Safety Measures". The code draws extensively from relevant sections of the Indian Code and many requirements of the two codes match.
  • 63 Article 30 of the BOCA National Building Code of the USA. "Precautions During Building Operations" is fairly comprehensive. A useful section on Scaffolds containing a table of required live load capacity of scaffolds is included in this code. As stated earlier, construction practice in Bangladesh is based on local technology, and as such, many provisions of the codes of other countries may not apply here. For example, construction techniques such as double flooring, and steel frame building construction are not yet relevant in this country. On the other hand improved practices of handling and storage of materials and safety procedures for workers, public and adjoining property are essential and can be drawn from some of the codes reviewed. 5.7.2 REVIEW OF THE BNBC 1993 Construction industry in Bangladesh is highly labour intensive and the success of a project lies to a great extent on proper site management and construction practices. Ensuring safety of life during construction and minimization of construction hazards are the concern of Part 7. Constructional responsibilities regarding planning and control of the construction as well as the protection of public, workers and property are specified in this part. The minimum requirements of on-site welfare measure for health and sanitation of the workers are also specified. The specifications additionally provide for the safe and scientific demolition of buildings, where necessary. This Part of the Bangladesh National Building Code 1993 presents a comprehensive treatment of the issue of construction practices and safety. The part is organized into four sections. viz (i) Constructional Responsibilities and Practices. (2) Storage, Stacking and Handling Practices. (3) Safety During Construction (4) Demolition Work. 5.7.3 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE This Part of the Code emphasizes the importance of carrying out all constructional operations in a safe and efficient manner. Workers in large number, both skilled and unskilled, are engaged in the innumerable construction works. Due to increased tempo of such a building activity and large scale mechanization, hazards of accidents could increase considerably. It is, therefore, imperative that adequate safety rules are laid down for every phase of construction work. Planning the various constructional operations before hand and making adequate arrangements for procurement and storage of materials, and the machinery to get the work done is as important as carrying out these constructional operations in accordance with good practice. Lack of planning or defective planning may result in avoidable delay in the completion of work and consequently increased hazards from the point of view of fire, health and structural soundness.
  • 64 The requirement of this part is that it will address safety aspects of personnel, property and equipment during construction and demolition operations. Basic structure of this part of the Code shall be as in the existing code, i.e. • Construction Responsibilities and Practices • Storage, Stacking and Handling Practices • Safety in Construction Work • Safety in Demolition Work • Maintenance Management, Repairs, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Buildings 5.8 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF DOCUMENTS AND TENTATIVE STRUCTURE FOR SEISMIC PROVISIONS 5.8.1 GENERAL As a general rule, building codes have developed based on consensus principle through a net work of various technical committees on different subjects. Such committee comprises representatives from Research and Development Organizations, Consumers, Industry, Testing Labs and Govt. Organizations etc. 5.8.2 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS INDIAN CODE 2005 The Civil Engineering Division Council of the Bureau of Indian Standards is responsible for the standardization in the field of Civil Engineering including Structural Engineering, Building materials and components, Planning Design, Construction and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Structures, Construction Practices, Safety in Building etc. This council took initiatives for the preparation of a building code for India in 1967. The first version of the National Building Code of India was published in 1970. 18 specialist panels prepared this code. Based on comments and suggestions received, the building code was later revised in 1983. The third and final version of Indian National Building Code has been published in 2005. Earthquake resistant design was first introduced as an Indian Standard through the publication of IS 1893 “Recommendations for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures in 1962” which was then revised in 1966. As a result of additional seismic data collected in India and accumulation of further knowledge and experience, the standard was revised in 1970, 1975 and then in 1984 which is known as IS 1893:1984 “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures”.
  • 65 One of the major changes in the Indian National Building Code of 2005 is the inclusion of the latest version of earthquake resistant design IS 1893 (Part 1):2002. IS 1893 (Part 1):2002 covers general principles and design criteria, combinations, design spectrum, main attributes of buildings, dynamic analysis and design procedures, seismic zoning map and seismic coefficients of important towns, map showing epicenters, map showing tectonic features and lithological map of India. Following are the major and important modifications made in this revision of IS 1893:2002 (compared to previous version): • The seismic zone map is revised with only four zones, instead of five. Zone I of previous map has been merged with Zone II and hence the present code has only Zones II, III, IV and V. Parts of Eastern coast area is enhanced from Zone II to Zone III and connected with Zone III of Godavari Graben area. • This revision adopts the procedure of first calculating the actual force that may be experienced by the structure during the probable maximum earthquake, if it were to remain elastic. Then the concept of response reduction due to ductile deformation or frictional energy dissipation in the cracks is brought into the code explicitly, by introducing the response reduction factor ‘R’ in place of the earlier performance factor. The value of R varies significantly depending on building structure types. • The values of seismic zone factors have been changed; these now reflect more realistic values of effective peak ground acceleration considering Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) and service life of structure in each seismic zone. • Response acceleration spectra are now specified for three types of founding strata viz. Hard, Medium and Soft. • The empirical formula for calculating fundamental natural period T=0.1n for moment resisting frames without bracing or shear walls is replaced with Ta=0.075h0.075 for RC framed buildings. This formula applies to bare frames e.g. in industrial plant buildings. The formula for framed buildings with in-filled masonry walls is Ta = 0.09h/d0.5 where h and d are the height and base dimension of the building along the considered direction of earthquake. • Accidental torsion is introduced. • Irregularities of building shapes in plan and in elevation (including soft-storey buildings) are defined and taken into consideration in design. • More load combinations are required. • A clause has been introduced to restrict the use of foundations vulnerable to differential settlements in severe seismic zones • The change in earthquake resistant design provisions of IS 1893 has resulted in an increase of seismic loadings in moment frame buildings, the increase is more for ordinary RC moment resisting frame (OMRF) buildings. • New zoning factor Z introduced represents the effective peak ground acceleration to be considered for design. Z values are given as 0.1, 0.16, 0.24 and 0.36 for zones II, III, IV and V respectively. • Increase in structure forces due to building irregularity such as soft storey has been quantified.
  • 66 US CODE 2009 IBC 2009 defines six design categories (SDC): A, B, C, D, E and F. It also defines four occupancy categories: I, II, III and IV. To relate the SDC and the occupancy category, the design spectral acceleration coefficient SDS and SD1 are used, which are obtained from contour maps of maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations SS, S1 at short and 1 sec periods respectively and multiplying them with site coefficient Fa and Fv and a factor of two thirds. Site coefficients depend on soil type as well as SS, S1. Site classes are also termed as A to F which are different from SDCs. Design Acceleration Response Spectrum Sa is calculated from SDS and SD1 and time period of the structure. SDC is determined on the basis of SDS and SD1 as well as occupancy category. The equivalent lateral force is calculated by multiplying effective weight of structure by seismic response coefficient CS which depends on SDS, occupancy importance factor and response modification factor R, values of which are also tabulated. The method is quite complicated and requires contour maps of SS, S1 which are tabulated for USA only. The structural provisions given in IBC 2009 rely heavily on referenced standards, especially the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE-7). The latest version ASCE/7SEI-05 published in 2006 contains a number of chapters related to seismic provisions. IBC 2009 also refers strongly to American Concrete Institute (ACI) Code 318-08 which gives the procedure for design and detailing of structures subjected to earthquake loads but does not address the calculation of seismic forces. Recent ACI Code (ACI 318-08) includes updated provisions of Earthquake Resistant Structures. Chapter 21 contains requirements for design and construction of reinforced concrete members of a structure for which the design forces, related to earthquake motions, have been determined on the basis of energy dissipation in the nonlinear range of response. This chapter contains provisions considered to be the minimum requirements for a cast-in-place or precast concrete structure capable of sustaining a series of oscillations into the inelastic range of response without critical deterioration in strength. 5.8.3 REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 Earthquake engineering discipline has gone through major changes over the past 30 years due to major research findings and experience gathered from structural damage in major earthquakes in various countries of the world. As a result, earthquake resistant design provisions in building codes have been subjected to major changes in this period. USA, mainly due to its high seismicity in California, has been a major player in leading this research initiative, and has an excellent program for updating their building code at regular intervals. Current earthquake resistant design provisions of BNBC 1993, reflects many of the
  • 67 changes in building code introduced at that time in major international building codes. BNBC93 has incorporated many of the seismic design provisions of Uniform Building Code 1991 (UBC91) and American Concrete Institute (ACI) Code 3128. As a result BNBC93 had been a much improved seismic design code compared to the Indian earthquake resistant design provisions IS 1893:1984 prevalent at that time. BNBC93 introduced a zoning map along with the concept of zone factor Z representing the peak ground acceleration and a response reduction factor R. BNBC93 specified response spectrum analysis procedures for four types of soils, and provided detailed structural design procedures for buildings. In BNBC93, the following articles of Part 6 (Structural Design) are related to seismic design and will be evaluated and modified in light of current international standard building codes. Chapter/A rticle No. Title Comment 1.2 Basic Considerations Structure importance category 1.3 Structural Systems Lateral load resisting system, structural irregularities 1.5 Design for Lateral loads Earthquake force, overturning requirements, drift and building separation requirements 1.7 Detailed Design Requirements Structural framing system, ties and continuity, anchorage, boundary elements requirements 1.8 Foundation Design Requirement Special requirement for footings, piles etc. in seismic zone 2,3 2.5 Earthquake Loads Seismic zoning, Equivalent Static Force method, Response Spectrum method, 2.7 Combination of Loads Load combination for RC, masonry, steel structures 4.8 Earthquake Resistant Design (of masonry structures) Special requirements for masonry in zone 2 and 3 Chapter 6 USD of RC structures USD Analysis and design method of structural components i.e. beam, column, slab etc. Chapter 7 WSD of RC structures WSD Analysis and design method of structural components i.e. beam, column, slab etc. 8.3 Special provisions for seismic design Special requirements for zone 2 and 3 10.8.12 Seismic design provisions Special requirements for different steel frames 5.8.4 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE Earthquake design provisions will be included in various portions of Part 6: Structural Design adopting a structure similar to that of BNBC93. The Section 2.5 titled “EARTHQUAKE LOADS” will be expanded and modified to include new design provisions for earthquake loading and analysis procedures. Most notable changes will include updated seismic zoning map, updated static force method, updated response spectrum analysis method etc. Major new inclusions are regional seismotectonics and seismicity, seismic design category, performance level requirements, non-linear static (pushover) analysis method, some seismic design guidelines for base-isolated buildings and detailed procedure for assessing
  • 68 liquefaction possibility of site. Changes will also take place in other sections of Part 6 such as combinations of loads (Sec.2.7), foundation (Chapter 3), earthquake resistant design for reinforced masonry buildings (Sec 5.8), special seismic design provisions for reinforcement detailing of reinforced concrete buildings (Sec.8.3), seismic design provisions for steel buildings (Chapter 10). Retrofitting techniques for improving seismic resistant design of existing buildings may be addressed in chapter 14.
  • 69 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 6.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE GROUP a. Review of the Soils and Foundations/Foundation/Geotechnical Section of different codes. b. Review of the Bangladesh National Building Code (1993). c. Review of existing Geotechnical Practice of Building and Structures in Bangladesh. d. Extensive discussions with geotechnical academics, experts, professionals of this country to determine the various needs and problems of geotechnical practice in Bangladesh. e. Determination of the necessity to extend the scope of the existing code. f. Determination of the necessity to add further details in the relevant sections and sub-sections of the existing codes. g. Determination of the necessity to delete irrelevant/redundant parts of the existing codes. 6.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF INDIVIDUAL CONSULTANTS The individual consultants of the Geotechnical Group will contribute specifically to the following major fields: Professor Dr. Syed Fakhrul Ameen: Design of Foundations and Foundation Construction Professor Dr. Abu Siddique: Geotechnical Investigations and Geotextiles Professor Dr. Mohammed Kabirul Islam: Foundations on Sanitary Landfill, Slope Stability and ground water contamination Professor Dr. Md. Shariful Islam: Liquefaction Potential Analyses and Ground Improvement 6.3 LIST OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS The Soils and Foundations/Foundation/Geotechnical Section of the following code were collected for preliminary review: i. Bangladesh National Building Code (1993): Part 6 Structural Design: Chapter 3 entitled ‘Foundation’. ii. National Building Code of India: Part 6 Structural Design: Section 2 entitled ‘Soils and Foundation’. iii. IBC-2009 Chapter 18 entitled ‘Soils and Foundations’.
  • 70 iv. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design: Part 1, 2 and 3. v. Japanese Code 6.4 LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED It is intended to collect the Soils and Foundations/Foundation/Geotechnical Section of the following documents for further investigation and review: • AASHTO 6.5 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS Preliminary review of the Soils and Foundations/Foundation/Geotechnical Section of the collected documents as given above were carried out. The Soils and Foundations Section of the National Building Code of India comprises of 14 sections. These sections primarily deal with soil investigations, classification of soils and materials; design of shallow and deep foundations; and ground improvement. Sections are also divided into subsections, sub-subsections and sometimes further into sub-sub- subsections. In addition there is an annexure section with 9 sub-sections which provides details regarding various computations that are necessary for foundation analysis and design. The large number of hierarchy in the divisions and sections were found to be tedious and difficult to follow. On the other hand, scope layout and extent and presentation method of this code is possibly more suited for professionals of Bangladesh who do not have ready access to variety of references and information as well as because of the coverage of the material is relevant to the professional practice in this country. The Soils and Foundation Section of the International Building Code of 2009 (IBC 2009) comprises of 10 sections. These sections primarily deal with soil investigations, Presumptive load bearing value of soils, design of shallow and deep foundations. In addition to these, this document contains sections on Excavation, Grading and Fill; Damp proofing and water proofing; Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls and Embedded Post and Poles. Sections are also divided into subsections, sub-subsections and sometimes further into sub-sub- subsections. Even there is section division beyond the sub-sub-subsection level. The large number of hierarchy in the divisions and sections were found to be tedious and difficult to follow. The IBC 2009 Soils and Foundation Section detail in descriptive fashion, the design and other relevant topics of Soils and Foundations. It frequently refers to other parts, chapters and sections of IBC 2009 for necessary details. It is difficult for professionals of Bangladesh who do not have ready access to variety of references and information sources to follow such a code. The scope, layout and extent and presentation method of this code is possibly not convenient for professionals of Bangladesh.
  • 71 The Geotechnical Design Part of the Eurocode 7 consists of three sections which are as follows: • General Rules • Ground Investigations and Testing • Design Assisted by Field Testing Each of these sections deals in extensive detail all issues regarding geotechnical engineering. The general rules has 12 sub-sections and deals with geotechnical design, different types of shallow and deep foundations, retaining structures and embankments. It also deals with provisions for fill, dewatering, ground improvement and reinforcement, anchorages as well as supervision of construction, monitoring and maintenance. Besides, it has 9 annexure which provides information and sample methods for methods and procedure for computing various geotechnical design related values. The Ground Investigation and Testing part has 6 sections and 24 annexure. It deals with planning of ground investigations, sampling and ground water measurements, field and laboratory tests, and ground investigation report. The annexure give details of different field and laboratory tests. Design Assisted by field testing part of Eurocode 7 has 14 sections and 26 annexure. It starts with planning of site investigation and then sections 3 to 11 gives details of different types of field tests. Sections 12 and 13 deal with sampling on soil and rocks while section 14 deals with ground water measurements. It appears that Eurocode 7 is an extensive and modern code. However, many of the details described in this code are still not prevalent in the professional geotechnical practices of Bangladesh. Certain sections such as supervision of construction, embankments, hydraulic failure, and details of relevant field and laboratory tests may be appropriate from the perspective of Bangladesh. 6.6 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 At present the Geotechnical Group has made a preliminary review of Chapter 3 entitled as ‘Foundation’ in part 6 of BNBC (1993). The study showed that there is scope of extension, modification and detailing of several sections and sub-sections of Chapter 3 of BNBC (1993). It has been proposed to add several new sections to the existing code. This is done taking into account both the development of geotechnical engineering practices as a whole throughout the world as well as nationally.
  • 72 The name of the existing Chapter 3 entitled as “Foundation” in BNBC 1993 has been proposed to be revised as Chapter 3 entitled as “Soils and Foundations”. The following sections have been proposed to be added in the draft table of contents of the revised code. i. Geotextiles ii. Foundation on Problematic Soils iii. Foundation on Sanitary Landfills iv. Retaining Walls v. Embankments vi. Hydraulic Fills vii. Ground Improvement viii. Soil Reinforcement ix. Slope Stability x. Supervision of Construction, Monitoring and Maintenance. xi. Dewatering xii. Liquefaction Potential of a Site Sub-sections and sub sub-sections will be added to the above new sections as necessary. It has also been proposed to substantially extend the appendix section of the existing code. The following items may be included in the revised appendices. i. Determination of modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio ii. Modulus of sub-grade reaction iii. Calculation of pressure distribution by conventional method iv. Load carrying capacity: Static Formula v. Determination of depth of fixity, lateral deflection and maximum moment vi. Load carrying capacity of under-reamed piles from soil properties. Some revisions are also proposed to the designation and nomenclature of certain sections as follows: Section 8: Footing Design Section 9: Foundation Design Section 10: Proposed to be deleted Section 11: Modified as Section 10 and named as Design of Pile and Pier Foundation Section 12: Modified as Section 11 Section 13: Modified as Section 12 On the basis of above discussions, proposed topics for inclusion, deletion, reorganization and revision the proposed title of the chapter had been recommended as “SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS”.
  • 73 6.7 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE The structure of the Foundations part of the existing code (BNBC, 1993) was reviewed. It was observed that in the current code, the Foundations part is divided into 13 major sections, some of which are divided into sub-sections, and some further into sub sub- sections. The code also contains 1 appendix, 6 tables and one figure. In the revised code, no fundamental change in the structure of the present code is proposed. However, it has been proposed to modify and revise some of the sections, adding or deleting sub-sections and sub sub-sections. Besides a thorough review of of the Soils and Foundations Section of the National Building Code of India (PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN), Soils and Foundations Section of International Building Code (IBC, 2009) and Geotechnical Design part of Eurocode 7 was carried out. It appeared from the review that it is necessary to add new sections to the BNBC. Accordingly some new sections consisting of geotechnical issues relevant to geotechnical profession and practices in Bangladesh have been incorporated in the tentative table of contents of the revised code. These sections will address important geotechnical topics such as ground improvement, geotextiles, soil reinforcement, slope stability, foundation on problematic soils, foundation on sanitary landfill, dewatering, retaining walls, embankments, hydraulic fill, liquefaction potential of a site and supervision of construction, monitoring and maintenance. In light of the other codes, it is proposed to significantly increase the appendix section incorporating sample calculations and details of important geotechnical analysis and design procedures. This has been shown on the tentative table of contents. It is also proposed to add a section concerning Geohazards related to earthquakes and soil contamination by pollutants and landfills in view of the importance of this issue for Bangladesh.
  • 74 BUILDING SERVICES 7.1 FIRE PROTECTION 7.1.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE Consultant Main focus a) Prof. Nizamuddin Ahmed: Fire and buildings i. General Provisions ii. Precautionary Requirements iii. Means of Escape iv. Specific Requirements for Various Occupancies, incl. tall buildings v. Specific Requirements for Rural Areas vi. Contradiction of BNBC 1993 with various Building Construction Rules, and necessary integration of both b) Firefighter Selim Newaj Bhuiyan: Equipments & techniques i. Equipment and In-built facilities ii. Venting in industrial and storage buildings iii. Fire drill and evacuation procedure for all buildings iv. Fire detection and alarm system v. Training and qualification of fire management officers and staff 7.1.2 LIST OF COLLECTED MATERIALS i. Bangladesh: Dhaka Metropolis Building Constructions Rules, 2008 ii. Brunei: Laws Brunei – Chapter 82, Fire Service iii. Canada: Fire Safety Rules and Measures in Canada iv. Canada: Montreal Conference on Environment v. China: Fire Code of China vi. Dubai: Fire protection, fire prevention, and fire emergency control Regulations of Dubai vii. Finland: Fire Safety Code: Finland viii. Finland: National Building Code, Finland ix. Hong Kong: Fire Safety Regulations, Hong Kong x. India: Indian Building By-laws xi. India: National Building Code 2005, India: Part 4 Fire and Life Safety
  • 75 xii. Jamaica: International Fire Code, Jamaica xiii. Japan: Fire Service Law, Japan xiv. Maldives: The Building Regulations, 2007: Maldives National Building Code xv. New Zealand Fire Services xvi. New Zealand Building Rules xvii. Philippines: Fire Code of the Philippines xviii. Scotland: Fire Safety in Scotland xix. Singapore: National Fire Code, Singapore xx. South Africa: Fire Safety, South Africa xxi. UK: Fire Protection Act, 1971 xxii. UK: Fire Safety Codes, UK xxiii. UK: The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 xxiv. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), Handbook for the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Seventh edition, 2006; ref. ban on use of Halons, CO2, etc xxv. USA: AISC Specification for steel buildings 2005: B. Design Requirements, 10. Design for Fire Conditions xxvi. USA: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2000 xxvii. USA: International Building Code, 2009: International Fire Code 7.1.3 LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED Under further study and, if found, shall be collected 7.1.4 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS a) Provision of health-safe and environment friendly extinguishers (portable and fixed), should be considered b) Comprehensive fire fighting should be introduced i) Fire detection, including by use of CCTV, should be assessed ii) Control measures, smoke exhaust, dampers, etc requires assessment c) Fire management should be modernised i) Training of implementing officers should be made mandatory ii) Qualification of fire officers should be defined iii) Instruction to users (in Bangla) should be simplified, updated and made more effective iv) Fire Hydrant installation must be made compulsory for particular areas, while ensuring water supply as well as keeping them free from encroachment and obstruction d) Special code for congested area and rural areas needed: rapid intervention by motorcycle brigade (as in Malaysia) is a practice that may be considered
  • 76 7.1.5 REVIEW OF THE BNBC 1993 a) The code (BNBC, 1993) should be revised and updated to make the code user friendly and up-to-date with international standards b) The code should be incorporated with building architecture for fire safety i) Compartmentation issue has to be addressed ii) Encasement of staircase should be made mandatory above a certain height iii) Building depth should be controlled iv) Accessibility into building should be ensured for fire-fighting v) Optimum number of users, floor area and number of stories for a single staircase should be redefined vi) Separation of lift lobby and stair landing should be ensured vii) Location of transformer in buildings (presently hampering escape) c) Means of Escape needs to be redefined 7.1.6 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE In the updated Code Fire Protection will be discussed in Part 4 as in the BNBC 1993. Two new chapters are proposed to be included in Part 4. One chapter is on Specific Requirements on Congested Areas and the other on Specific Requirements on Rural Areas and Remote Areas. 7.2 HVAC, LIFTS, ESCALATORS AND MOVING WALKS 7.2.1 GENERAL BNBC 1993 was the first building code of Bangladesh. This was the collective effort of a number of Bangladeshi experts/professionals working in the relevant fields. The code was ratified by the National Assembly in the year 2005. Chapter-3 : Air Conditioning, Heating and Ventilating and Chapter-5 : Lift, Escalator and Moving Walks of Part-8 of this building were written to provide basic data and information to keep provisions in the building for effective installation of the services. A collection of local environmental data and safety requirements are also included in these chapters for effective designing of systems by engineers/professionals. BNBC 1993 was based on information and data collected by reviewing a number of international codes and local technical information. There has been a number of advancements in technology and materials which make it absolute necessary to revise the code to make it compatible with the present day
  • 77 requirements. Moreover, certain technologies have become obsolete and need not be part of the updated code. 7.2.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE CONSULTANT ToR of Engr. Belal Ahmed: a) Scrutinize relevant sections of the code to determine its shortcomings which need changes or modifications. b) Collection of relevant information from other international codes to insert in the revised code. c) Addition of more information required as per present day technological information. d) Organize and write the code to make it user friendly. e) Provide guidelines for engineers/building users/inspectors to check whether the building services are kept as per requirements of the code, specially in the absence of any specific mechanical or electrical or special codes. 7.2.3 LIST OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS Following international codes/documents/ books have been collected: i. 4 volumes of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) handbook: Fundamentals volume, Application volume, Refrigeration volume, Equipment and Systems volume. ii. Sheet Metal and Air-conditioning Contractor’s National Association (SMACNA) handbook iii. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) handbook iv. EN81 standard 7.2.4 LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED Following documents/books/codes will be collected: i. 2009 International Building Code (IBC) ii. 2009 International Mechanical Code (IMC) iii. Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC) iv. HVAC Mechanical Codes v. California Mechanical Codes vi. 2007 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators – ASME A 17.1 vii. DOE : Building Energy Codes viii. Manual of Hydraulic Institute (HI) of USA ix. Manual of Institute of Heating and Ventilating Engineers (IHVE), UK
  • 78 7.2.5 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS There have been substantial changes in environmental conditions, technological advances, requirements of users. All these have prompted changes in relevant codes of standard in all international codes. A review of codes has indicated that there have been new additions in codes viz. variable refrigeration systems in HVAC applications, variable voltage, variable frequency drives in elevator applications. 7.2.6 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 PART-8: CHAPTER 3 AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING AND VENTILATING • The name of this chapter shall preferably be changed from name to Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning (HVAC) in line with the other international codes. Section 3.1.4: Terminology • Additional items shall be included, viz. variable refrigerant flow, variable refrigerant volume, chillers, heat recovery units, primary pumps, secondary pumps, global warming potential etc. Section 3.2.2.2: Building Design and Use of Materials • This section may be rewritten with proper emphasis for methodology for designing buildings with lower energy consumption for HVAC system. Section 3.3.2.1: Inside Design Conditions • This section may be further detailed to cover a broader group/class of spaces. Data for winter design conditions may also be included. Section 3.3.2.2: Outside Design Conditions • Meteorological data for the last ten years for different districts may be collected and analyzed to provide a table for outside design conditions for different districts/zones of Bangladesh. Section 3.3.2.3: Ventilation Air • This section shall be reviewed to cover all types of areas/uses separately, especially with respect to the present level of outdoor air qualities in different zones. Table 8.3.3 may be detailed to cover all the areas/uses separately.
  • 79 Section 3.3.3.4: Noise Control • This section may be detailed/revised to protect buildings from noise pollution due to air conditioning machineries from adjoining buildings. Section 3.3.3.5: Vibration Control • This section may be elaborated. Descriptions on earth quake restraint supports for ducts, pipes, machinery/equipment etc. shall be included. Section 3.4.1.2: Materials (of ducts) • Details of non-metallic ducting materials and pre-insulated, viz. polyurethane ducting materials, fabric ducting materials etc. shall be included. Section 3.4.1.7: Fire Damper • This section shall be reviewed and rewritten to cover all the requirements of NFPA. New Section: Smoke Damper • A separate section may be included to cover smoke dampers as per requirements of NFPA. New Section: Safety • A separate section may be included to cover safety concerns of man, machine, building and environment from the adverse effects of air conditioning system. Section 3.5.7.2: Air Filters • This section may further be detailed to provide adequate data on different filtration systems to cover a wide range of different applications. Section 3.6.8.2: Refrigerants • This section shall be revised with addition of data of refrigerants which are presently used in the refrigeration systems or other applications. A table will also be provided to include general data on toxicity levels and adverse effects on environment. PART-8 : CHAPTER 5 LIFTS, ESCALATORS AND MOVING WALKS Section 5.1.3: Terminology • Additional terminologies, viz. gearless drive, traction drive, variable voltage variable frequency drive etc. shall be included.
  • 80 Section 5.2.13: Standby Power • This section shall further be elaborated. Section 5.2.2: Safety Considerations • This section shall include descriptions of regulations and methodology to ensure adequate safeties to man, machine/equipment during construction and usage periods. Section 5.2.2.1: Fire Protection • This section shall be elaborated to cover considerations with respect to design and construction. Section 5.2.4: Lift Well and Lift Well Enclosures • This section shall be detailed to cover all the safety features to be considered during design and construction of the building. An annexure may be provided with adequate data to calculate the overhead height and pit depth. Section 5.2.7: Lift Pits • Table 8.5.2 may be rearranged to cover data for all types of buffers and accessories. Section 5.2.9: Machine room and Overhead Structures • This section shall be reviewed to cover all the safety concerns of lift installations. Section 5.3.1: Number of Lifts and Capacity • This section shall be further elaborated. Tables 8.5.3, 8.5.4 and 8.5.5 shall be rearranged and detailed for easy data handling by users. Section 5.3.1.6: Handling Capacity and Interval • Separate tables may be included for calculation of average round trip time (T) of different lifts. An example may be included as an annexure to facilitate designer in selecting proper lift. New Section: Additional • A separate section may be included to cover legal aspects of lift installation, operation and maintenance. A detail guideline may be included as an annexure to facilitate lift inspectors for testing, inspecting of lifts, escalators & moving walks and subsequent certification for use.
  • 81 7.2.7 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF RELEVANT PART CHAPTER: AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING AND VENTILATING • Section-1: This section will cover terminology, scope of code, application field and other general provisions of the code. • Section-2: This section will cover building architectural & structural design criteria with respect to HVAC needs and to cater safety & space needs of the building. • Section-3: This section will provide design methodology, design data for the HVAC system and mechanical ventilation systems for the local environmental conditions. Data on safety needs and other technical data for international conformity will also be included. This section will also cover energy conservation requirements and data for design of energy efficient HVAC system. • Section-4: This section will cover state of the art description of HVAC equipment/machinery at present in use in this field. • Section-5: This section will cover details of inspection, testing, commissioning, operation and maintenance of HVAC and Mechanical Ventilation systems. CHAPTER: LIFT, ESCALATOR AND MOVING WALKS • Section-1: This section will cover terminology, scope of code, application field and other general provisions of the code. • Section-2: This section will cover building architectural & structural design criteria with respect to vertical transportation needs and to cater safety & space needs of the building. • Section-3: This section will provide design methodology, design data for the vertical transportation system. Data on safety needs and other technical data for international conformity will also be included. • Section-4: This section will cover state of the art description of vertical transportation equipment/machinery and their components at present in use in this field. • Section-5: This section will cover details of inspection, testing, commissioning, certification, operation and maintenance of vertical transportation system. 7.3 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 7.3.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE SUBGROUP This subgroup will deal with the Electrical Engineering sections of the BNBC. This section deals with the codes for electrical lighting, design of electrical distribution system, installation of electrical distribution system, Installation of Electronic System and Data Communication System. This section will cover the following topics: a. determination of illumination levels b. Choosing appropriate light fittings c. Choosing appropriate types of lamps, methods of point wiring
  • 82 d. methods of circuit wiring, methods of Sub-distribution wiring e. methods of Distribution wiring f. methods of earthing / grounding for buildings g. methods of earthing / grounding for substations h. methods of earthing / grounding for Lightning Protection System i. design of a substation for various types of buildings j. choosing appropriate types of substation equipment k. choosing appropriate types of cables for various applications l. lightning protection system m. fire alarm system n. telecommunications networks inside buildings o. data Communications / Internet connection inside buildings p. electrical distribution system of shopping malls q. electrical distribution system for apartment buildings, load r. electrical distribution system of High Rise Buildings Previous BNBC Electrical Engineering Section of 1993 require significant modification, up gradation and additions. This sub-group will review the 1993 code and find out the inconsistencies/ short-comings of that code. Changes and modifications will be done to different parts of the existing BNBC, as required, to update the codes to incorporate the current trends in electrical and electronic engineering as applied to buildings. A number of topics / items have been identified for revisions/ modifications/ additions. Some of these topics / items are as follows: a. Addition of Some New Terminologies b. Corrected/ Modified Illumination Levels for various applications c. Inclusion of Energy-Saving Lights d. Earthing / Grounding e. Lightning Protection f. Fire Alarm System g. Telecommunications networks inside buildings h. Data Communications / Internet connection inside buildings i. Special requirements for electrical distribution system of shopping malls j. Special requirements for electrical distribution system for apartment buildings, load k. Special requirements for electrical distribution system of High Rise Buildings 7.3.2 LIST OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS i. National Building code of India (2005) - Photocopy ii. IEE wiring Regulation (16th edition)
  • 83 7.3.3 LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED i. National Electrical Code of USA ii. IEE wiring Regulation (17th edition) BS: 7671 2008 including all parts iii. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 10th Edition, Benjamin Stein, John S. Reynolds, Walter T. Grondzik , Alison G. Kwok, Wiley; 10 edition (November 18, 2005), ISBN-10: 0471465917, ISBN-13: 978-0471465911 iv. Standard Handbook of Electrical Engineering 15ed By Donald G. Fink and H. Wayne Beaty, ISBN: 0071441468, McGraw-Hill v. Draka Cables and Tables Handbook vi. Bangladesh Electricity Act vii. BIP 2109:2008 The Design, Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance of Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems: A Guide to BS 5839-1 (3rd edition) September 2008 Colin S Todd 7.3.4 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS After a preliminary review of the Electrical section of the National Building Code of India, it is found that a significant revision of the existing BNBC Electrical Section is necessary to incorporate the current trends in electrical and Electronic engineering practices. After an initial review of the National Building code of India (2005) and the IEE wiring Regulation (16th edition), it was observed that a major revision of the current BNBC code is necessary. Also consultation of the other internationally codes, e.g. US codes, are also required for the present review of the BNBC code. 7.3.5 REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 For the last seventeen years, from 1993 to 2010, there was no revision/review of the BNBC code. As a result the current engineering practices are either outdated or do not follow the code properly to serve changing needs of the time or both. We have reviewed the current code and some important places that need review are listed in the following. REVIEW ON EXISTING SECTIONS Chapter 1: Lighting 1.1 Scope Principle of lighting and illumination should be updated in accordance with recent standards and practices. For example, the principle of using energy saving lights should be taken into consideration.
  • 84 A new section titled as “Principles of Lighting” is required to be added where detailed description on aims of good lighting, planning the brightness pattern, glare, lighting for movement about a building, corridors, passages and stairways, and entrances will be provided. 1.2 Terminology Different new terminologies are missing and some of the existing terminologies need to be clarified. There are plenty of scopes for contribution in this section depending on recent advancement in electrical lighting and fittings. For example, new terms, such as color temperature, DST, CFL should be included. Different illumination levels are either missing or should be modified. 1.3 Illumination Comments should be added about the illumination of CFL heights. Tables 8.1.5 through 8.1.11 need item-wise detailed revision. 1.4 Light Fittings Topics like daylighting, artificial lighting, aims of good lighting, energy conservation in lighting have to be covered in detail. 1.5 Illumination Exit Signs and Means of Escape Comment should be made for fire emergency, such as the exit sign should always be in such height that it is visible and even in case of power shut down. Revision is required in cleaning schedule for window panes and luminaires. New terms should be included (Flameproof Enclosure, Data Cable for internet etc.) Chapter 2: Electrical Installation 2.1 General Several new additions and inclusions, revisions of comments, limits and ranges should be made. 2.2 Terminology Different new terminologies are missing and some of the existing terminologies need to be clarified. For example, new symbols need to be included in Table 8.2.1 (P. 8-18).
  • 85 2.3 Fittings and Accessories Details regarding some new fittings and corresponding accessories are missing. also modifications are required for some existing fittings. Table 8.2.2 should be revised for number of socket outlets. Air Condition should be considered as a possible appliance and comment should be made on this. 2.4 Load Estimation Table 8.2.5 should be revised to give a better estimation for domestic and non-domestic installation (1KW load for each three-pin socket seems unpractical). 2.5 Circuit wiring in a building Kitchen lighting and office (Corporate) lighting should be discussed. Provision for data cable, TV cable, emergency generator cable, IPS/UPS supply cable should be properly made. Remarks for “channels” as a separate conduit path should be made. 2.6 Sub-station in Building Provision for a PFI plant for Apartment Buildings/Shopping Malls need to be codified. Table 8.2.8 need to be revised as sub-station and transformer room has to be bigger. The noise and other pollution for the emergency generator should be specified in 2.6.4.2 (P. 8-24). Should include pre-paid energy meter option. 2.7 Distribution of supply and cable Table 8.2.10 needs to be revised and corrected accordingly. Design of main switch and switchboards has to be revised. 2.8 Earthing The whole section should be revised and rewritten where needed. Significant additions and modifications are significantly required in this section. Some of the key points to be modified in this section are as follows: a. Three main components are described while a major component Earth Clamps is missing. A removable link which effectively disconnects the neutral bar from the earth bar is missing. b. Earth conductors: Instead of bare copper, an equivalent cable should be specified. c. Instead of single pipe, multiple pipes should be recommended. d. Instead of ground water level, a minimum height should be specified. Also a target resistance should be clearly specified. e. Equipment and portions of installations which shall be earthed should be included
  • 86 f. Detail on Neutral Earthing is missing g. Earthing systems, such as TN, TT, and IT are missing. h. Earthing methods and corresponding figures should be revised (Pipe earthing and plate earthing) 2.9 Lightning protection Calculation for evaluating the need for protection and estimation of exposure risk are missing. Updating required in Table 8.2.13. Geographical data/map indicating average yearly thunderstorm can be added. 2.10 Telecommunication and miscellaneous services Following items are missing that must be included: Public address system, UPS system, Inverter, diesel generating set (<5 KVA), computer networking, internet connections, security system, car-park management. 2.11 Inspection and testing Several inconsistencies in pipe specifications are found and corrections are required in Fig. 8.2.1 and 8.2.2. Delivery of complete drawings (diagrams for wiring, network clearly showing all possible corrections) is essential. Additional protection circuits should be incorporated. NEW ADDITIONS The following general additions are recommended to be included in the code. a. For kitchen illumination, electrical wiring should be redesigned (e.g., sink to power point clearance). b. Toilet circuitry should be redesigned. c. Industry wiring needs to be added. d. Wiring and electrical installation for hazardous building/installation/industry. e. Application of oil-type and dry-type transformer. f. Electrical installations for mining area. g. Application of energy saving lamps, Fluorescent lamp, GLS lamps. h. High bay lighting (e.g., steel mills). i. Light fittings in wire houses (ballast may burn). j. Shopping complex and high rise apartment: Design of distribution board. k. Along with telecommunication circuits, we should now specify design for internet cables which require special specifications. l. Options for solar panel. m. Audio-video conferencing.
  • 87 n. Wireless control for home automation, car parking. o. Low voltage protection requires (i) missing ampere ratings and (ii) revision of circuit level protection. p. Substation detailing needs to be reviewed. q. Recommended fan sizes in rooms. For example, 1442mm corresponds to 57 inch, while standard should be 56 inch. (Table 8.2.4, page 8.20) r. Correction in detail illustration: Layout and Installation Drawings. Specifications: 240V, 2m apart should be updated. (Section 2.5.3, page 8.21) s. Provision for Standby Supply: t. Area required for transformer room and substation for different capacities u. Correction needed in all room areas. It should be mentioned as “minimum” area and the specified areas are much lower than the standard requirements. v. Tables 8.2.8 and 8.2.9 need revision. w. Addition: Change over switch either operated centrally or individually need to be considered. 7.3.6 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE The existing main structure should be retained as in the BNBC 1993 (two sections, namely, lighting and electrical installation). Chapter 1 of the BNBC code discusses terminology regarding lighting, illumination, light fittings, illumination of exit signs etc. The following sub-section will be added here: • Energy conservation in Lighting Chapter 2 discusses the Electrical Installation. Topics included are terminology, fittings and accessories, load estimation, circuit wiring in a building, substation in a building, distribution of supply and cabling, earthing, lightning protection, telecommunication and miscellaneous services and inspection and testing. The following sub-sections to be included: • Safety features of high-rise buildings and shopping malls • Provisions for renewable energy sources as alternate/backup sources. Other than theses inclusions, there will be a major overhaul of the complete code to the finest detail regarding the electrical equipment and their safe operations.
  • 88 7.4 FUEL AND GAS SUPPLY 7.4.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE CONSULTANT As per the TOR revisions of the section on Fuel and Gas Supply will be based on the followings: a. Comments and suggestions made by the users of BNBC-1993 on this chapter within Bangladesh. b. Examining this chapter with similar chapters of other codes such as National Building Code of India-2005, Euro Codes: 2003, International Building Code: 2009, US Codes etc. with latest issues. c. Examining this chapter in the light of • NFPA 58-2008 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code • NFPA 54 – National Fuel Gas Code, 2009 Edn. • 2009 – International Fuel Gas Code (R) d. Revised rules and regulations of the Gas Transmission and Distribution Companies of Bangladesh (Titas, Bakhrabad, Jalalabad, Pashchimanchal, RPGCL) for use of natural gas and LPG inside consumer’s premise. 7.4.2 LIST OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS i. National Building Code of India-2005 (Section 2: Gas Supply of Part:9 Plumbing Services). ii. National Fuel Gas Code of ANSI (1974: edn.) iii. NFPA 58-1989 7.4.3 LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED i. Comments and suggestions made by the users of BNBC-1993 on this chapter within Bangladesh (to be provided by HBR). ii. NFPA 54-National Fuel Gas Code, 2009 Edn. iii. NFPA 58-2008 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code iv. International Fuel Gas Code-2009 v. Revised rules and regulations of the Gas Transmission and Distribution Companies in Bangladesh (Titas, Bakhrabad, Jalalabad, Pashchimanchal, RPGCL of Bangladesh) for use of natural gas and LPG inside consumer’s premise.
  • 89 7.4.4 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS National Building Code of India-2005 includes a separate section on fuel gas supply while other codes such as Euro-Codes 2003, International Building Code 2009 plus national codes of countries like Australia etc. do not have a separate section on fuel gas supply and have suggested the use of respective National Gas Codes or International Fuel Gas Codes. National Building Code of India has adopted the relevant sections or clauses of National Fuel Gas Code of USA with little or no change. In respect of maximum working pressure for piping system, the gas pressure is 2.1 kPa for domestic consumers and 10kPa, 30kPa, 200 kPa for commercial consumers while the main distribution source is at 400 kPa and the maximum operating pressure for domestic use as per BNBC-93 is 3.45 kPa. The section on the use LPG has been revised but content wise consistent with BNBC-93. 7.4.5 REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 Part 8 under the title “Building Services” of BNBC-1993 contains the chapter 8 that deals with Fuel Gas Supply. This chapter covers the requirements for safe use of fuel gases such as natural gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in the vapor phase used for fuel or lighting purposes. The requirements include: design, fabrication, installation, test, operation, inspection and maintenance inside a consumer’s premise and the requirements do not apply to industrial installation and applications. When this chapter was prepared, the requirements of National Fuel Gas Code of ANSI (1974 edition) and NFPA 58-1989 of USA were incorporated for use. At the same time, rules and regulations of the local gas companies were also incorporated and these companies had their rules and regulations based on National Fuel Gas Code of ANSI (1974 edition) and NFPA 58 of USA. 7.4.6 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE This part will have the same structure of BNBC-93 and this will be modified/updated in line with NFPA-54, NFPA-58 and International Fuel Gas Code using the latest editions. 7.5 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION 7.5.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE SUB-GROUP a) Review of works related to updating of the articles in chapter 6 and chapter 7 of BNBC93.
  • 90 b) review of the articles, information, data etc. to be modified, included in the BNBC or omitted from it as required . c) Collection and reviewing national and international documents relevant of the subjects concerned. d) Prepare inception report on updating approaches. e) Prepare the draft copy of concerned part of BNBC. f) Finalize the concerned part of updated BNBC. 7.5.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF INDIVIDUAL CONSULTANTS PROF. FAROOQUE AHMED: (SENIOR PLUMBING ENGINEER) a) Collect and review documents on water supply and Sanitation. b) Review of the articles, information, data etc. to be modified, included in the BNBC or omitted from it as required. c) Finalize the draft copy of the concerned part of the updated BNBC. SYED AZIZUL HAQ, PENG: (PLUMBING ENGINEER) a) Collection and review documents on codes of plumbing b) Point out the articles, information, data etc. to be modified, included in or omitted from the BNBC’93. c) Furnish draft copy of concerned part of updated BNBC. 7.5.3 LIST OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS Following documents have been collected. i. National Building Code of India 2005 ii. Uniform Plumbing Code 2003, Seventh print in February 2006. 7.5.4 LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE COLLECTED Following document will be collected. • Uniform Plumbing Code 2009. 7.5.5 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF COLLECTED DOCUMENTS REVIEW OF UNIFORM PLUMBING CODE 2003 This code is an exclusive code on Plumbing which was revealed first in February 2003 and its 7th printing made in February 2006. This code has covered almost all aspects of plumbing. The special aspects those have been covered here but not in BNBC93 are codes regarding Indirect Special Wastes and Storage of plumbing materials. Considering our socio-
  • 91 economic condition we may not consider the provisions for indirect or special wastes. Storage of plumbing material may be included partially for the safety and economy point of views. In this code many plumbing fixtures and items have been included which might be found in our perspective to be more ambitious or very limited. So adoption of code regarding those items might make little sense. This code will be very helpful in providing guidelines for determination of sizes of pipes and plumbing appliances very precisely. REVIEW OF NATIONAL BUILDING CODE, INDIA 2005 National Building Code of India 2005 has furnished materials covering all aspects building development which is still effective. In this code Water supply, Drainage and Sanitation have been covered in Part 9 as Plumbing Services. In these chapters Solid Waste Management has also been included. From the technological advancement points of view the relevant codes are close to our existing codes with little exceptions. The water demand for buildings and requirement of plumbing fixtures provided herein are found to be adaptive in our perspective with very little modifications where necessary. The plumbing figures furnished in the chapters are found to be very effective for understanding. The refuse Chute System for solid waste management found to be inadequate. 7.5.6 PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BNBC 1993 The code regarding water supply and sanitary drainage works have been furnished in chapter 6 and Chapter 7. Some Codes regarding rain water storage and storm drainage have been included in the sanitary drainage part. In the present context the concerned chapters of BNBC 93 have now been found to be out dated due to absence of guide lines regarding new products, methodologies and systems that have been adopted in various international codes of practices. After having the preliminary review it has been decided that following modifications, omissions and new inclusions may be made in the concerned chapters.
  • 92 CHAPTER 6: WATER SUPPLY: A. Modifications. Section 6.3: Permit for water connection from water supply authority should be more specific and procedure should be simple as present practice adopted by City Corporations and Municipalities. Section 6.4: Qualification and experience for obtaining plumbing license should be more specific. Section 6.5: Water requirement for domestic uses may be modified/ classified on the basis of socio- economic status. Moreover, various other water consumptions like in gardening, car washing, laundry etc. may be incorporated. Section 6.7: Capacity of roof storage tank and ground or underground storage tanks may be based on more details data and specific code. Section 6.8: Design of distribution system should be made more elaborate and detailed. Section 6.9: For protection against any possible contamination, color coding of non potable water may be made more definite. Section 6.10.1: Guidelines regarding installation of pressure reducing valves may be made more acceptable by incorporating bypass system and limiting range of pressure reduction by individual PRV. Section 6.10.2: Methods for recirculation of wastewater may be written more elaborately. Section 6.11: Minimum hot water pipe size may be suggested as 12 mm. Section 6.15: Inspection, Testing and Completion Certificate may be more elaborate B. Inclusions i. Inclusion in existing articles (paragraph) Section 6.6: Water supply system incorporating booster pumps may be incorporated. Section 6.7: Storage tanks other than masonry or RCC tank like plastic and Stainless steel tanks may be included. Section 6.8: For the design of distribution system more design tables should be incorporated. Section 6.11: Hot water requirement may be specified. Section 6.11.6.2: Circulation type hot water supply system may be elaborated and specified..
  • 93 Section 6.12: uPVC, PPR plastic pipe in water supply and distribution may be included ii. Inclusion as new articles I. Water saving appliances and faucets may be included. II. Guidelines for water conditioning and disinfecting may be incorporated. III. Guidelines regarding rainwater storage and supply may be included. IV. Guidelines regarding storage of pipes and other elements may be included. C. Omissions. Section 6.12: Asbestos Cement and gray iron pipe in water supply and distribution shall be omitted. Following modifications, omissions and new inclusions may be made in this chapter CHAPTER 7: DRAINAGE AND SANITATION: Following modifications, omissions and new inclusions may be made in this chapter A. Modifications. Section 7.5: Licensing of Plumber may be more details Section 7.6: Minimum number of fixture requirement may be modified considering local socio-economic status, culture and religion. Section 7.9: a. Design considerations may be written more specifically. b. Provisions for physically handicapped persons may be written in separate paragraph and more details may be incorporated. c. Installation of drainage system may be written in a separate paragraph. d. Guidelines regarding designing of sewage disposal elements of sanitary drainage system including building drains, sewers, inspection pits, septic tanks and disposal fields or soak wells etc. may be written separately and more elaborately. Section 7.9.10: Rainwater drainage may be written in separate chapter and may be numbered as chapter 8 and may be named as Rainwater Management. Section 7.10: Guidelines regarding designing of drainage elements in plumbing may be written more elaborately. e.g. designing branch drain pipes; stacks, building sewers etc. Section 7.12: Refuse chute system may be more elaborated
  • 94 B. Inclusions i. Inclusion in existing paragraphs Section 7.6: Plastic appliances may be included. Euro standard may be adopted instead of ASTM. Section 7.9: Developed Single stack system called Sovent system may be incorporated. Section 7.11: Guidelines regarding installation of drainage pipes may be incorporated. Height of stack vents may be specified. Paragraph may be renamed as “Installation and construction of sanitary drainage elements”. ii. Inclusion as new paragraphs a. Imhoff tank system b. Grease separators in plumbing and sanitation system c. Basement drainage d. Sewage pumping. D. Omissions Section 7.7: Galvanized steel pipe in drainage may be omitted. 7.5.7 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE • The existing structure of the chapter 6 and Chapter 7 of BNBC 1993 will be kept as these were previously. • The articles regarding rainwater and storm water may be dropped from these chapters and a new chapter may be written named as Rainwater Management. • Tentative structure of this part may be as follows. Chapter 6: Water Supply Chapter 7: Drainage and Sanitation Chapter 8: Rainwater Management. 7.6 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 7.6.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE CONSULTANT a. Propose suitable building code for data cabling (Computer Network Cabling). b. Propose suitable building code for building surveillances and hazard alarm system. c. Propose suitable building code for building access control system.
  • 95 d. Prepare an electrical version of the Code with keyword search capability and submit master CD copies of the same. e. Prepare a version of the Code suitable for download and print by eligible users from the government website. f. Upload the download and printable version of the Code to the government website g. Prepare a version of the Code suitable for browse and search by eligible users from the government website. h. Upload the browse and searchable version of the Code to the government website. 7.6.2 COLLECTION OF DOCUMENTS • Consultant searched for data cabling, surveillances, hazard signaling, and access control code documents. No document has been found yet. The search will be continued. If no existing code is available, new codes will be proposed by the consultant. • Software tools for preparing different versions of the Code are being searched. Several options have been found. Further investigations are required on the software tools to choose the most appropriate and economical one. • An application software will be needed to make the Code browse and searchable in the Internet. 7.6.3 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF RELEVANT PART OF THE CODE A new chapter on IT services may be appended in Part 8, ‘Building Services.’ The following topics may be covered in that chapter. • Data Cabling Code • Building Surveillances and Hazard Alarm Code • Building Access Control Code
  • 96 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE AND TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE UPDATED CODE 8.1 TENTATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE UPDATED CODE Over-all structure of the updated will be similar to the BNBC 1993. There will be 10 Parts as in the previous version. However, instead of a single volume these 10 Parts may be produced in three separate volumes as below: Volume 1: Parts 1-4 Volume 2: Parts 5-6 Volume 3: Parts 7-10 Some omissions as well as additions have been proposed to the chapters of the BNBC 1993. Planning and Environmental aspects have been included as separate chapters in Part 2. Part 3 has a new chapter on Energy Efficiency and Passive Energy Design Features. Two new chapters on Specific Requirements for Congested Areas and Specific Requirements for Rural Areas and Remote Areas are included in Part 4. The chapter on Concrete Materials of Part 6 of the BNBC 1993 will be covered in Materials chapter of Part 5. New chapters on Bamboo Structures and Steel-Concrete Composite Structures have been proposed in Part 6. Maintenance, Management, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Buildings will appear as a new chapter in Part 7. Services related to Information Technology will be covered in a separate chapter in Part 8. 8.2 SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE UPDATED CODE Preface Steering Committee Editorial Subcommittees Consultants Summary Table of Contents PART 1 SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS Chapter 1 Title, Scope and General Chapter 2 Definitions Chapter 3 Abbreviations PART 2 PLANNING, ENVIRONMENT, ADMINISTRATION AND LEGISLATION
  • 97 Chapter 1 Purpose and Scope Chapter 2 Planning Chapter 3 Environment Chapter 4 Administration, Permit and Inspection Chapter 5 Legal Proceedings Appendices PART 3 GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS, CONTROL AND REGULATION Chapter 1 General Building Requirements Chapter 2 Classification of Buildings Based on Occupancy Chapter 3 Classification of Building Construction Types Based on Fire Resistance Chapter 4 Energy Efficiency and Passive Energy Design Features Appendices PART 4 FIRE PROTECTION Chapter 1 General Provisions Chapter 2 Precautionary Requirements Chapter 3 Means of Escape Chapter 4 Equipment and In-built Facilities Chapter 5 Specific Requirements for Various Occupancies Chapter 6 Specific Requirements for Congested Areas Chapter 7 Specific Requirements for Rural Areas and Remote Areas Appendices PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS Chapter 1 Scope and Definitions Chapter 2 Materials PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN Chapter 1 Definitions and General Requirements Chapter 2 Loads Chapter 3 Soils and Foundations Chapter 4 Bamboo Structures Chapter 5 Masonry Structures Chapter 6 Reinforced Concrete Structures: Strength Design Chapter 7 Reinforced Concrete Structures: Working Stress Design Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Chapter 9 Prestressed Concrete Structures Chapter 10 Steel Structures Chapter 11 Timber Structures Chapter 12 Ferrocement Structures Chapter 13 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Appendices
  • 98 PART 7 CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES AND SAFETY Chapter 1 Constructional Responsibilities and Practices Chapter 2 Storage, Stacking and Handling Practices Chapter 3 Safety in Construction Work Chapter 4 Safety in Demolition Work Chapter 5 Maintenance, Management, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Buildings PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES Chapter 1 Lighting Chapter 2 Electrical Installation Chapter 3 Air-conditioning, Heating and Ventilation Chapter 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control Chapter 5 Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks Chapter 6 Water Supply Chapter 7 Drainage and Sanitation Chapter 8 Rainwater Management Chapter 9 Fuel Gas Supply Chapter 10 Information Technology Appendices PART 9 ALTERATION, ADDITION TO AND CHANGE OF USE OF EXISTING BUILDINGS Chapter 1 Applicability and Implementation Chapter 2 Evaluation and Compliance PART 10 SIGNS AND OUTDOOR DISPLAY Chapter 1 Scope and General Chapter 2 Requirements Chapter 3 Specific Requirements for Various Types of Sign Appendices
  • 99 8.3 TENTATIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE UPDATED CODE Part 1 SCOPE AND DEFINITION Chapter 1 Title, Scope and General Chapter 2 Definitions Chapter 3 Abbreviations
  • 100 Chapter 1 Title, Scope and General 1.1 TITLE 1.2 PURPOSE 1.3 SCOPE 1.4 EXISTING BUILDINGS 1.4.1 Addition and Alteration 1.4.2 Change of Use 1.5 HISTORIC AND ARCHITECTURALLY VALUABLE BUILDINGS Chapter 2 Definitions 2.1 GENERAL 2.2 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS Chapter 3 Abbreviations 3.1 ABBREVIATIONS OF NAMES 3.2 ABBREVIATIONS OF WORDS
  • 101 Part 2 PLANNING, ENVIRONMENT, ADMINISTRATION AND LEGISLATION Chapter 1 General Chapter 2 Planning Chapter 3 Environment Chapter 4 Administration, Permits and Inspections Chapter 5 Legal Proceedings Appendices
  • 102 Chapter 1 General 1.1 DEFINITION 1.2 SCOPE AND APPLICATION Chapter 2 Planning 2.1 Planning for Housing, Industrial, Commercial, Recreational and Leisure facilities, etc. 2.1.1 Housing 2.1.2 Industrial Development 2.1.3 Commercial Development 2.1.4 Recreation and Leisure Facilities 2.1.5 Educational Institutions 2.1.6 Health Care Facilities 2.1.7 Religious Centers 2.1.8 Burial Sites and Crematory grounds 2.1.9 Waste Dumping Sites 2.2 Provision of Different kinds of Facilities, Utilities and Amenities 2.3 Protection from and control of different kinds of Pollution 2.4 Protection from and control of different kinds of Hazards 2.5 Resources Management 2.6 Heritages and Conservation Chapter 3 Environment 3.1 Water Supply Facilities 3.1.1 Site Planning 3.1.2 Design
  • 103 3.1.3 Environment and Landscape 3.1.4 Maintenance 3.2 Sub-Station 3.2.1 Site Planning 3.2.2 Design 3.2.3 Height 3.2.4 Environment, Topography and Landscape 3.3 Waste disposal 3.3.1 Solid Waste 3.3.2. Toxic Waste 3.3.3 Clinical Waste 3.3.4 Industrial Effluents 3.3.5 Storm Water Drainage 3.4 Environmental Planning: 3.4.1 Environmental Planning and the Development of Resources 3.4.2 Planning of Urban Gardens, Green Areas, Parks, etc. 3.4.3 Urban Social Forestry 3.4.4 Wetlands, Ponds, Streams, Canals and Control of Heat Island Effect 3.4.5 Land Use Planning 3.4.6 Environmental Assessment of Proposed Development Chapter 4 Administration, Permit and Inspection 4.1 DEPARTMENT OF BUILDINGS 4.1.2 APPOINTMENT OF BUILDING OFFICIALS 4.1.3 POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF BUILDING OFFICIALS
  • 104 4.1.4 DELEGATION OF POWERS 4.1.5 APPEAL AGAINST DECISIONS OF THE BUILDING OFFICIALS 4.2 BOARD OF APPEAL 4.2.1 APPOINTMENT OF MEMBERS OF BOARD OF APPEAL 4.2.2 POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF BOARD OF APPEAL 4.2.3 FORM OF APPEAL 4.3 PERMIT 4.4 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OWNER 4.5 INSPECTION Chapter 5 LEGAL PROCEEDINGS 5.1 LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST OWNER AND OCCUPIER 5.2 LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST ENGINEERS 5.3 LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST BUILDING OFFICIALS 5.4 COGNIZANCE OF OFFENCES 5.5 ARREST AND DETENTION 5.6 LIMITATION OF TIME FOR PROSECUTION 5.7 FORM FOR INSTITUTION OF LEGAL PROCEEDINGS Appendices Appendix A Form for First Application to Develop, Erect, Demolish or to Make Alteration in any Part of the Building Appendix B Form for Certificate of Supervision Appendix C Form for Sanction or Refusal of Development/ Building Permit Appendix D Form for Completion Certificate
  • 105 Part 3 GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS, CONTROL AND REGULATION Chapter 1 General Building Requirements Chapter 2 Classification of Building Based on Occupancy Chapter 3 Classification of Building Construction Types Based on fire Resistance Chapter 4 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND PASSIVE ENERGY DESIGN FEATURES Appendices
  • 106 Chapter 1 General Building Requirements, Control and Regulation 1.1 SCOPE 1.2 TERMINOLOGY 1.3 OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS 1.4 LAND USE CLASSIFICATION AND PERMITTED USES 1.5 REQUIREMENTS OF PLOTS 1.5.1 General Requirements 1.5.2 Clearance from Overhead Electric Lines 1.5.3 Plinth and Formation Levels 1.5.4 Boundary Wall 1.5.5 Plot Sizes 1.6 MEANS OF ACCESS 1.7 OPEN SPACES WITHIN A PLOT 1.8 GENERAL HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS 1.9 OFF STREET PARKING SPACES 1.10 STREET ENCROACHMENT 1.11 COMMUNITY OPEN SPACE AND AMENITIES 1.11.1 Community Space for a Single Tail Building 1.11.2 Community Space for a Group of Buildings in One Plot 1.11.3 Community Open Space for Industrial Buildings 1.11.4 Community Open Space Zones in Area Layouts 1.12 REQUIREMENTS OF P ARTS OF BUILD1NGS 1.12.1 Plinth and Formation Levels 1.12.2 Room Dimensions
  • 107 1.12.3 Kitchen 1.12.4 Bathroom and Toilets 1.12.5 Stair Case 1.12.6 Mezzanine Floor 1.12.7 Lofts 1.12.8 Cabins or Chambers 1.12.9 Store Room 1.12.10 Private Garage 1.12.11 Basement 1.12.12 Entrance to the Building 1.12.13 Roof Drainage 1.12.14 Parapet 1.12.15 Septic Tank 1.13 LANDSCAPING 1.14 DAMP-PROOFING AND WATERPROOFING OF FLOORS AND WALLS 1.15 EXISTING BUILDINGS 1.16 CONSERVATION OF GREENBELTS AND IMPORTANT WATERBODIES 1.17 BUILDINGS AND PLACES OF HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL VALUE 1.18 VENTILATION, LIGHTING AND SANITATION 1.19 AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING 1.20 PROVISION OF LIFTS AND ESCALATORS 1.21 SOUND INSULATION
  • 108 1.22 THERMAL INSULATION 1.23 LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS 1.24 RAT PROOFING AND TERMITE PROOFING OF BUILDINGS 1.24.1 Rat Proofing 1.24.2 Termite Proofing 1.24.3 Inspection 1.25 REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS IN FLOOD PRONE AND COASTAL REGIONS OF BANGLADESH 1.25.1 Flood Prone Areas 1.25.2 Surge Prone Areas Chapter 2 Classification of Buildings Based on Occupancy 2.1 OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 2.1.1 Occupancy A : Residential Buildings 2.1.2 Occupancy B : Educational Buildings 2.1.3 Occupancy C : Institutional Buildings 2.1.4 Occupancy D : Health Care Buildings 2.1.5 Occupancy E : Assembly Buildings 2.1.6 Occupancy F : Business and Mercantile Buildings 2.1.7 Occupancy G : Industrial Buildings 2.1.8 Occupancy H : Storage Buildings 2.1.9 Occupancy J : Hazardous Buildings 2.1.10 Occupancy K : Miscellaneous Buildings 2.2 CHANGE OF USE 2.3 MIXED OCCUPANCY
  • 109 2.3.1 Nonseparated Uses 2.3.2 Forms of Occupancy Separations 2.3.3 Types of Occupancy Separation 2.4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF ALL OCCUPANCIES 2.4.1 Location on Property 2.4.2 Allowable Floor areas 2.4.3 Permitted Types of Construction 2.5 REQUIREMENTS OF OCCUPANCY R: RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 2.5.1 Construction, Height and Allowable Area 2.5.2 Location on Property 2.5.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.5.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.5.5 Minimum Dimensions of habitable and Non-habitable Rooms 2.5.6 Smoke Detectors and Sprinkler Systems 2.5.7 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.5.8 Fire Alarm Systems 2.6 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY E: EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS 2.6.1 Construction, Height and Allowable Area 2.6.2 Location on Property 2.6.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.6.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.6.5 Minimum Dimensions of Class Rooms,
  • 110 Common Toilets and Staircases 2.6.6 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.6.7 Sprinkler and Standpipe System 2.6.8 Fire Alarm Systems 2.7 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY I: INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS 2.7.1 Construction, Height and Allowable Area 2.7.2 Location on Property 2.7.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.7.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.7.5 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.7.6 Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2.7.7 Fire Alarm Systems 2.8 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY H: HEALTH CARE BUILDINGS 2.8.1 Construction, Height and Allowable Area 2.8.2 Location on Property 2.8.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.8.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.8.5 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.8.6 Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2.8.7 Fire Alarm Systems 2.9 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY A: ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS 2.9.1 Construction, Height and Allowable Area
  • 111 2.9.2 Location on Property 2.9.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.9.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.9.5 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.9.6 Smoke Detectors 2.9.7 Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2.9.8 Fire Alarm Systems 2.9.9 Stage, Platform, Proscenium Wall and Curtain 2.9.10 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 2.9.11 Sports Facilities 2.9.12 Amusement building Alarm System 2.9.13 Public Address System 2.10 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY B: BUSINESS AND MERCANTILE BUILDINGS 2.10.1 Construction, Height and Allowable Area 2.10.2 Location on Property 2.10.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.10.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.10.5 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.10.6 Highrise Buildings 2.10.7 Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2.10.8 Special Hazards 2.10.9 Open Parking Garages 2.10.10 Helistops 2.10.11 Smoke Detectors
  • 112 2.10.12 Fire Alarm Systems 2.11 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY F: INDUSTRIAL/FACTORY BUILDINGS 2.11.1 Construction, Height and Allowable Area 2.11.2 Location on Property 2.11.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.11.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.11.5 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.11.6 Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2.11.7 Special Hazards 2.11.8 Fire Alarm Systems 2.12 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY S: STORAGE BUILDINGS . 2.12.1 Construction, Height and Allowable Area 2.12.2 Location on Property 2.12.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.12.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.12.5 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.12.6 Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2.12.7 Special Hazards 2.12.8 Smoke Detectors 2.12.9 Fire Alarm Systems 2.13 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY HZ: HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS 2.13.1 General
  • 113 2.13.2 Construction, Height and Allowable Area 2.13.3 Location on Property 2.13.4 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.13.5 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.13.6 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.13.7 Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2.13.8 Explosion Control 2.13.9 Fire Alarm Systems 2.13.10 Special Hazards 2.14 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY M: MISCELLANEOUS BUILDINGS 2.14.1 General 2.14.2 Location on Property 2.14.3 Access and Exit Facilities and Emergency Escapes 2.14.4 Lighting, Ventilation and Sanitation 2.14.5 Shaft and Exit Enclosures 2.14.6 Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2.14.7 Fire Alarm Systems 2.14.8 Special Hazards 2.15 REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY T: TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION BUILDINGS Chapter 3 Classification of Building Construction Types Based on Fire Resistance 3.1 CLASSIFICATION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
  • 114 3.1.1 Classification by Type of Construction 3.1.2 Fire Zones 3.1.3 Permissible Types of Construction for Various Occupancies 3.1.4 Exterior Walls 3.1.5 Mixed Occupancy Separation 3.1.6 Basement Floor 3.1.7 Restricting Vertical Spread of Fire 3.1.8 Exceptions to Fire Resistance Requirements 3.1.9 Shaft Enclosures 3.1.10 Expansion and Contraction Joints 3.1.11 Weather protection 3.1.12 Members Carrying Walls 3.1.13 Parapets 3.1.14 Projections 3.1.15 Guardrails and Barriers 3.1.16 Insulation 3.1.17 Atria 3.1.18 Mezzanine Floors 3.2 REQUIREMENTS OF TYPE 1 FIRE-RESISTIVE BUILDINGS 3.2.1 General 3.2.2 Exterior Wall 3.2.3 Structural Frame 3.2.4 Floor Construction 3.2.5 Stairway Construction
  • 115 3.2.6 Roof Construction 3.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR TYPE 2 FIRE-RESISTIVE BUILDINGS 3.3.1 General 3.3.2 Exterior Wall and Openings 3.3.3 Structural Frame 3.3.4 Floor Construction 3.3.5 Stairway Construction 3.3.6 Roof Construction 3.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR TYPE 3 FIRE-RESISTIVE BUILDINGS 3.4.1 General 3.4.2 Exterior Wall 3.4.3 Structural Frame 3.4.4 Floor Construction 3.4.5 Stairway Construction 3.4.6 Roof Construction Chapter 4 Energy Efficiency and Passive Energy Design Features Appendices Appendix A Guidelines for the Development of Minimum Standard Housing (Occupancy A4) Appendix B Suggestive Typical Termite Proof Constructions and Preconstructional Measures Appendix C Civil Aviation Requirements for Construction
  • 116 in the Vicinity of an Aerodrome Appendix D Special Requirements for Low Income Housing in Urban Areas Appendix E Special Requiremnts for Cluster Planning for Housing Appendix F Special Requirements for Construction on Site Line Appendix G Special Requirements for Public Buildings Meant for Use of Physically Challenged Appendix H Special Requirements for Planning in Hilly Areas Appendix I Special Requirements for Planning in Coastal Areas Appendix J Calculations for Energy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Appendix K Considerations for Renewable Energy Use Appendix L Considerations for Rainwater Harvesting
  • 117 Part 4 FIRE PROTECTION Chapter 1 General Provisions Chapter 2 Precautionary Requirements Chapter 3 Means of Escape Chapter 4 Equipment and In-built Facilities Chapter 5 Specific Requirements for Various Occupancies Chapter 6 Specific Requirements for Congested Areas Chapter 7 Specific Requirements for Rural Areas and Remote Areas Appendices
  • 118 Chapter 1 General Provision 1.1 SCOPE 1.2 TERMINOLOGY 1.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1.3.1 Height and Area Limitation 1.3.2 Open Space Requirement 1.3.3 Access Facilities for Fire Service 1.4 FIRE DRILL 1.5 FIRE TESTS AND FIRE RESISTANCE RATING Chapter 2 Precautionary Requirements 2.1 OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION TYPES 2.3 FIRE ZONES 2.4 MIXED OCCUPANCY 2.5 OPENINGS IN SEPARATlNG WALL 2.6 SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 2.7 ELECTRICAL, GAS AND HV AC SERVICES 2.8 SURFACE FINISHES 2.9 GLAZING 2.10 SKYLIGHTS 2.11 FIRE UFTS 2.12 SPECIAL HAZARDS 2.12.1 Special Hazards in Occupancy A : Residential 2.12.2 Special Hazards in Occupancy B : Educational
  • 119 2.12.3 Special Hazards in Occupancy C : Institutional 2.12.4 Special Hazards in Occupancy D : Health Care 2.12.5 Special Hazards in Occupancy E : Assembly 2.12.6 Special Hazards in Occupancy F: Business and Mercantile 2.12.7 Special Hazards in Occupancy C: Industrial 2.12.8 Special Hazards in Occupancy H : Storage 2.12.9 Special Hazards in Occupancy J : Hazards Chapter 3 Means of Escape 3.1 SCOPE 3.2 COMPONENTS OF MEANS OF ESCAPE 3.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3.4 LOCATION AND ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS 3.5 OCCUPANT LOAD 3.5.1 Design Occupant Load 3.5.2 Fixed Seats 3.5.3 Maximum Occupant Load 3.5.4 Mezzanine Floors 3.5.5 Roofs 3.6 CAPACITY OF EXIT COMPONENTS 3.7 CORRIDORS AND PASSAGEWAYS 3.8 ASSEMBLY AISLES 3.9 DOORWAYS 3.10 STAIRWAYS 3.11 RAMPS
  • 120 3.12 HORIZONTAL EXITS 3.13 SMOKE PROOF ENCLOSURES 3.14 NUMBER OF EXITS 3.15 LENGTH OF TRAVEL 3.16 MEANS OF EXIT SIGNS AND ILLUMINATION 3.17 EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY A: RESIDENTIAL 3.17.1 Al Detached Single Family Dwelling 3.17.2 A2 Flats or Apartments 3.17.3 A3 Mess, Boarding Houses, Dormitories and Hostels 3.17.4 Minimum Standard Housing 3.17.5 AS Hotels and Lodging Houses 3.18 EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY B: EDUCATIONAL 3.19 EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY C: INSTITUTIO AL 3.20 EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY D: HEALTH CARE 3.21 EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY E: ASSEMBLY 3.22 EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY F : BUSINESS AND MERCANTILE 3.23 EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY G: INDUSTRIAL 3.24 EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY H: STORAGE 3.25 EXIT ~QUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCY J : HAZARDOUS Chapter 4 Equipment and In-built Facilities 4.1 SCOPE 4.2 FIRE PROTECTION PLUMBING 4.2.1 Water Requirement for Interior Fire protection
  • 121 4.2.2 Water Sources for Fire Protection 4.2.3 Design Consideration for Standpipe and Hose System 4.2.4 Design Consideration for Sprinkler System 4.2.5 Water Supply for Fire Protection in Tall Building 4.2.6 Fire Pump 4.2.7 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance 4.3 FIRE PROTECTIVE SIGNALLING OR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 4.4 AUTOMATIC FIRE AND SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM 4.5 FOAM EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 4.6 CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 4.7 HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 4.8 DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 4.9 WET CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 4.10 PORT ABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER Chapter 5 Specific Requirements for Various Occupancies 5.1 SCOPE 5.2 OCCUPANCY A: RESIDENTIAL 5.2.1 Occupancy Al : Detached Single Family Dwelling 5.2.2 Occupancy A2 : Flats and Apartments 5.2.3 Occupancy A3 : Mess, Boarding House and Hostels 5.2.4 Occupancy A4 : Minimum Standard Housing 5.2.5 Occupancy A5 : Hotels and Lodging Houses
  • 122 5.3 OCCUPANCY B : EDUCATTONAL 5.4 OCCUPANCY C : I STITUTIONAL 5.4.1 Occupancy Cl : Institution for Care of Children 5.4.2 Occupancy C2 : Custodial Institution for the Physically Capable 5.4.3 Occupancy C3 : Custodial Institution for the Physically Incapable 5.5 OCCUPANCY D: HEALTH CAREFACTLITIES 5.5.1 Occupancy Dl : Normal Medical Facilities 5.5.2 Occupancy D2 : Emergency Medical Facilities 5.6 OCCUPANCY E : ASSEMBLY 5.6.1 Occupancy El : Large Assembly with Fixed Seats 5.6.2 Occupancy E2 : Small Assembly with Fixed Seats 5.6.3 Occupancy E3 : Large Assembly without Fixed Seats 5.6.4 Occupancy E4 : Small Assembly without Fixed Seats 5.6.5 Occupancy E5 : Sports Facilities 5.7 OCCUPANCY F : BUSINESS AND MERCANTILE 5.7.1 Occupancy Fl : Offices 5.7.2 Occupancy F2 : Small Shops and Market:; 5.7.3 Occupancy F3 : Large Shops and Markets 5.7.4 Occupancy F4 : Garages and Petrol Stations 5.7.5 Occupancy F5 : Essential Services 5.8 OCCUPANCY G : INDUSTRIAL 5.8.1 Occupancy G1 : Low Hazard Industries 5.8.2 Occupancy G2 : Moderate Hazard Industries
  • 123 5.9 OCCUPANCY H: STORAGE 5.9.1 Occupancy HI : Low Fire Risk Storage 5.9.2 Occupancy H2 : Moderate Fire Risk Storage 5.10 OCCUPANCY J: HAZARDOUS 5.11 OCCUPANCY K: MISCELLANEOUS Chapter 6 Specific Requirements for Congested Areas Chapter 5 Specific Requirements for Rural Areas and Remote Areas Appendices Appendix A Guidelines for Fire Drill and Evacuation Procedure for High Rise Buildings Appendix B Fire Protection Considerations for Venting in Industrial and Storage Buildings Appendix C Detailed Guidelines for Selection and Sitting of Fire Detection System Appendix D Special Requirements of Buildings More than 20 Meter High Appendix E Training and Qualification of Fire Management Officers and Staff
  • 124 Part 5 BUILDING MATERIALS Chapter 1 Scope and Definitions Chapter 2 Materials
  • 125 Chapter 1 Scope and Definitions 1.1 SCOPE 1.2 TERMINOLOGY Chapter 2 Materials 2.1 GENERAL 2.1.1 New or Alternative Materials 2.1.2 Used Materials 2.1.3 Storage of Materials 2.1.4 Methods of Test 2.2 MASONRY 2.2.1 Aggregates 2.2.2 Cement 2.2.3 Lime 2.2.4 Masonry Units 2.2.5 Mortar 2.2.6 Grout 2.2.7 Mortar for Ceramic Wall and Floor Tile 2.2.8 Metal Ties and Anchors 2.2.9 Reinforcement 2.2.10 Water 2.2.11 Applicable Standards for Masonry 2.3 CEMENT AND CONCRETE 2.3.1 GENERAL 2.3.2 CONSTITUENTS OF CONCRETE 2.3.3 STEEL REINFORCEMENT
  • 126 2.3.4 WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE 2.3.5 DURABILITY OF CONCRETE 2.3.6 CONCRETE MIX PROPORTION 2.3.7 PREP ARA TION OF EQUIPMENT AND PLACE OF DEPOSIT 2.3.8 MIXING 2.3.9 CONVEYING 2.3.10 DEPOSITING 2.3.11 CURING 2.3.12 EV ALUA TION AND ACCEPTANCE OF CONCRETE 2.3.13 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 2.3.14 CONCRETING IN ADVERSE WEATHER 2.3.15 SURFACE FINISH 2.3.16 FORMWORK 2.3.17 SHOTCRETE 2.4 Prestressed Concrete 2.5 BUILDING LIMES 2.5.1 Types of Limes 2.5.2 Slaking of Limes 2.5.3 Properties of Limes 2.6 GYPSUM BUILDI G MATERIALS AND PLASTER 2.7 FLOORING MATERIALS 2.7.1 General 2.7.2 Concrete/Terrazo Tiles 2.7.3 Asphalt Tiles / flooring 2.7.4 Mosaic Tiles
  • 127 2.7.5 Clay Tiles 2.7.6 Vinyl Tiles 2.7.7 Rubber Tiles 2.7.8 Cast in Situ Floor Coverings 2.7.9 Other Flooring Materials 2.8 STEEL 2.8.1 Reinforcing Steel 2.8.2 Structural Steel 2.8.3 Steel Plate, Sheet and Strips 2.8.4 Steel Pipe, Tube and Fittings 2.8.5 Steel Bars, Wire and Wire Rods 2.8.6 Steel Fasteners 2.8.7 Welding Electrodes and Wires 2.9 TIMBER & WOOD PRODUCTS 2.9.1 Timber Types and Properties 2.9.2 Plywood 2.9.3 Particle Boards and Fibre Boards 2.9.4 Wood based Products 2.9.5 Adhesives and Glue 2.10 DOORS AND WINDOWS 2.10.1 Wooden Doors and Window Frames, and Shutters 2.10.2 Metal Door and Window Frames and Shutters 2.11 ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 2.12 BUILDERS HARDWARE 2.13 ROOF COVERING
  • 128 2.13.1 Scope 213.2 Compatibility of Materials 2.13.3 Material Specifications and Physical Characteristics 2.13.4 Weather Protection 213.5 Wind Resistance 2.13.6 Structural and Construction Loads 2.13.7 Impact Resistance 2.13.8 Metal-sheet Roof Coverings 2.13.9 Asbestos Sheet Roof Covering 2.13.10 Interlocking Clay or Cement Tile 2.13.11 Non-interlocking Clay or Cement Tile 2.13.12 Roof Insulation 2.13.13 Recovering and Replacement of Roof Coverings 2.1314 Reuse of Materials 2.1315 Applicable Standards 2.14 PAINTS AND VARNISHES 2.141 Water Based Paints 2.14.2 Ready Mixed Paint and Enamels 2.14.3 Thinners and Solvents 2.14.4 Varnishes and Lacquers 2.15 SANITARY APPLIANCES AND FITTINGS 2.15.1 Sanitary Appliances 2.15.2 Pipes and Pipe Fittings for Water Supply and Sanitation 2.15.3 Joints and Connections between Pipes and Fittings
  • 129 2.15.4 Taps and Valves 2.16 BUILDING INSULATION 2.16.1 Thermal Insulation and Materials 2.16.2 Sound Insulation and Materials 2.17 ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY MATERIAL 2.18 FIRE PROTECTION MATERIAL 2.19 MECHANICAL MATERIALS 2.20 ELECTRICAL MATERIALS 2.21 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS 2.21.1 Ferrocement 2.21.2 Plastics 2.21.3 Bullahs and Wood Poles 2.21.4 Bamboos 2.21.5 Fillers, Stoppers and Putties 2.21.6 Wire Ropes and Wire Products 2.21.7 Water-proofing and Damp-proofing Materials 2.21.8 Glazed Tiles and Tile-setting Mortars 2.21.9 Refractories 2.21.10 Screw Threads and Rivets 2.21.11 Sealants 2.21.12 Joints and Jointing Products 2.21.13 Glass and Glazing 2.21.14 Asbestos 2.22 CI SHEET ROOFING AND WALLING 2.23 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL
  • 130 Part 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN Chapter 1 Definitions and General Requirements Chapter 2 Loads Chapter 3 Soils and Foundations Chapter 4 Bamboo Structures Chapter 5 Masonry Structures Chapter 6 Reinforced Concrete Structures: Strength Design Chapter 7 Reinforced Concrete Structures: Working Stress Design
  • 131 Part 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN (Continued) Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Chapter 9 Prestressed Concrete Structures Chapter 10 Steel Structures Chapter 11 Timber Structures Chapter 12 Ferrocement Structures Chapter 13 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Appendices
  • 132 Chapter 1 Definitions and General Requirements 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 Scope 1.1.2 Symbols and Notation 1.2 DEFINITIONS 1.2.1 Terminology 1.2.2 Basic Considerations 1.2.3 Buildings and Structures 1.2.4 Structural Importance Category 1.3 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 1.3.1 General 1.3.2 Basic Structural Systems 1.3.3 Combination of Structural Systems 1.3.4 Structural Configurations 1.4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1.4.1 Safety 1.4.2 Serviceability 1.4.3 Rationality 1.4.4 Proportioning of Structural Elements 1.4.5 Walls and Framing 1.4.6 Additions to Existing Structures 1.4.7 Phased Construction 1.4.8 Load Combinations and Stress Increase 1.4.9 Structural System Limitations 1.5 DESIGN FOR GRAVITY LOADS
  • 133 1.5.1 General 1.5.2 Floor Design 1.5.3 Roof Design 1.5.4 Reduction of Live Loads 1.5.5 Posting of Live Loads 1.5.6 Restrictions on Loading 1.5.7 Special Considerations 1.5.8 Deflection and Camber 1.6 DESIGN FOR LATERAL LOADS 1.6.1 General 1.6.2 Selection of Lateral Force for Design 1.6.3 Design for Wind Load 1.6.4 Design for Earthquake Forces 1.6.5 Overturning Requirements 1.6.6 Drift and Building Separation 1.6.7 P-Delta Effects 1.6.8 Uplift Effects 1.7 DESIGN FOR MISCELLANEOUS LOADS 1.7.1 General 1.7.2 Self-Straining Forces 1.7.3 Stress Reversal and Fatigue 1.7.4 Rain Loads 1.7.5 Loads Due to Flood, Tidal Surge, Tsunami 1.7.6 Temperature Effects 1.7.7 Soil and Hydrostatic Pressure
  • 134 1.7.8 Impacts and Collisions 1.7.9 Explosions 1.7.10 Fire 1.7.11 Vertical Forces on Air Raid Shelters 1.7.12 Loads on Helicopter Landing Areas 1.7.13 Erection and Construction Loads 1.7.14 Moving Loads for Crane Movement 1.7.15 Fatigue 1.7.16 Creep and Shrinkage 1.7.17 Dynamic Loads due to vibrations 1.7.18 Construction Load 1.8 DETAILED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 1.8.1 General 1.8.2 Structural Framing Systems 1.9 FOUNDATION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 1.9.1 General 1.9.2 Soil Capacities 1.9.3 Superstructure-to-foundation Connection 1.9.4 Foundation-soil Interface 1.9.5 Special Requirements for Footings, Piles and Caissons in seismic Zones 2 and 3 1.9.6 Retaining Wall Design 1.10 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REVIEW 1.10.1 Design Document 1.10.2 Design Review
  • 135 1.10.3 Construction Observation Chapter 2 Loads 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1.1 Scope 2.1.2 Limitations 2.2 DEAD LOADS 2.2.1 General 2.2.2 Definition 2.2.3 Assessment of Dead Load 2.2.4 Weight of Materials and Constructions 2.2.5 Weight of Permanent Partitions 2.2.6 Weight of Fixed Service Equipments 2.2.7 Additional Loads 2.3 LIVE LOADS 2.3.1 General 2.3.2 Definition 2.3.3 Minimum Floor Live Loads 2.3.4 Minimum Roof Live Loads 2.3.5 Loads Not Specified 2.3.6 Partial Loading and Other Loading Arrangements 2.3.7 Other Live Loads 2.3.8 Impact and Dynamic Loads 2.3.9 Reduction of Live Loads * 2.4 WIND LOADS *
  • 136 2.4.1 General 2.4.2 Definitions 2.4.3 Symbols and Notation 2.4.4 Terrain Exposure 2.4.5 Basic Wind Speed * 2.4.6 Determination of Design Wind Loads * 2.5 EARTHQUAKE LOADS 2.5.1 General 2.5.2 Definitions 2.5.3 Symbols and Notation 2.5.4 Seismotectonics, Seismicity and Seismic Zoning of Bangladesh 2.5.5 Seismic Design Category (SDC), Performance Level Requirements 2.5.6 Design Earthquake Forces for Primary Framing Systems* 2.5.7 Equivalent Static Force Method * 2.5.8 Dynamic Response Method * 2.5.9 Nonlinear Static (Pushover) Analysis method 2.5.10 Seismic Lateral Forces on Components and Equipments Supported by Structures 2.5.11 Seismic Lateral Forces on Non-Building Structures 2.5.12 Base-Isolated Buildings 2.6 MISCELLANEOUS LOADS 2.6.1 General 2.6.2 Definitions 2.6.3 Rain Loads
  • 137 2.6.4 Loads Due to Flood, Tidal Surge, Tsunami 2.6.5 Temperature Effects 2.6.6 Soil and Hydrostatic Pressure 2.6.7 Impacts and Collisions 2.6.8 Explosions 2.6.9 Fire 2.6.10 Vertical Forces on Air Raid Shelters 2.6.11 Loads on Helicopter Landing Areas 2.6.12 Erection and Construction Loads 2.6.13 Moving Loads for Crane Movement 2.6.14 Fatigue 2.6.15 Creep and Shrinkage 2.6.16 Dynamic Loads due to vibrations 2.6.17 Construction Load 2.7 COMBINATIONS OF LOADS 2.7.1 General 2.7.2 Definitions 2.7.3 Symbols and Notation 2.7.4 Combinations of Loads and Stress Increase for Allowable Stress Design * 2.7.5 Combinations of Loads for Strength Design* 2.7.6 Special Combinations for Buildings with Soft Story Chapter 3 Soils and Foundations 3.1 SCOPE
  • 138 3.2 TERMINOLOGY 3.3 SITE INVESTIGATION 3.3.1 Purpose 3.3.2 Methods of Exploration 3.3.3 Number and Disposition of Trial Pits and Borings 3.3.4 Depth of Exploration 3.4 CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS 3.5 MATERIALS 3.5.1 Concrete 3.5.2 Timber 3.6 TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS 3.6.1 Footings 3.6.2 Raft Foundation 3.6.3 Pier Foundation 3.6.4 Pile Foundations 3.7 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 3.7.1 Design Load and Load Combinations 3.7.2 Bearing Pressure 3.7.3 Settlement 3.8 FOOTINGS 3.8.1 Dimension of Footings 3.8.2 Thickness of Footing 3.8.3 Footings on Filled up Ground 3.9 RAFT FOUNDATIONS 3.9.1 Types of Raft Foundations
  • 139 3.9.2 Design Considerations 3.10 PILE AND PIER FOUNDATIONS 3.10.1 Design Considerations 3.10.2 Design of Pile Caps 3.10.3 Installation Procedure 3.10.4 Pile Concreting 3.10.5 Load Test Arrangement and Instrumentation 3.11 EXCAVATION AND FILLS 3.11.1 Support to Adjoining Buildings and Structures 3.11.2 Safety Regulations 3.11.3 Slope Stability and Protection 3.11.4 Dewatering and Ground Water Control 3.11.5 Quality of Fill 3.12 WATERPROOFING AND DAMP-PROOFING 3.12.1 Waterproofing where Hydrostatic Pressure Occurs 3.12.2 Damp-proofing with no Hydrostatic Pressure 3.12.3 Other Damp-proofing and Waterproofing Requirements 3.13 GROUND IMPROVEMENT 3.14 GEOTEXTILES 3.15 SOIL REINFORCEMENT 3.16 SLOPE STABILITY 3.17 FOUNDATION ON PROBLEMETIC SOILS 3.18 FOUNDATION ON SANITARY LANDFILLS 3.19 DEWATERING 3.20 RETAINING WALLS
  • 140 3.21 EMBANKMENT 3.22 HYDRAULIC FILL 3.23 LIQUIFACTION POTENTIAL OF A SITE 3.24 SUPERVISION OF CONSTRUCTION, MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE Chapter 4 Bamboo Structures 4.1 SCOPE 4.2 TERMINOLOGY 4.3 SYMBOLS 4.4 MATERIALS 4.5 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES 4.6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 4.7 DESIGN AND TECHNIQUES OF JOINTS 4.8 STORAGE OF BAMBOO Chapter 5 Masonry Structures 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.1.1 Scope 5.1.2 Symbols and Notation 5.1.3 Definitions 5.2 MATERIALS 5.2.1 General 5.2.2 Masonry Units 5.2.3 Mortar and Grout 5.2.4 Plain Concrete
  • 141 5.3 ALLOWABLE STRESSES 5.3.1 General 5.3.2 Specified Compressive Strength of Masonry, f’m 5.3.3 Compliance with f’m 5.3.4 Quality Control 5.3.5 Allowable Stresses in Masonry 5.3.6 Allowable Stresses in Reinforcement 5.3.7 Combined Compressive Stress 5.3.8 Modulus of Elasticity 5.3.9 Shear and Tension on Embedded Anchor Bolts 5.3.10 Load Test 5.3.11 Reuse of Masonry Units 5.4 BASIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 5.4.1 General 5.4.2 Design Considerations 5.4.3 Supports 5.4.4 Stability 5.4.5 Structural Continuity 5.4.6 Joint Reinforcement and Protection of Ties 5.4.7 Pipes and Conduits 5.4.8 Loads and Load Combination 5.4.9 Minimum Design Dimensions 5.5 DESIGN OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY 5.5.1 General 5.5.2 Design of Members Subjected to Axial Compression
  • 142 5.5.3 Design of Members Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Compression 5.5.4 Design of Members Subjected to Flexure 5.5.5 Design of Members Subjected to Shear 5.5.6 Design of Arches 5.5.7 Footings and Corbels 5.5.8 Design for concentrated loads 5.5.9 Design of non-load bearing wall 5.6 DESIGN OF REINFORCED MASONRY 5.6.1 General 5.6.2 Design of members Subjected to Axial Compression 5.6.3 Design of Members Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Compression 5.6.4 Design of Members Subjected to Shear Force 5.6.5 Design of Members Subjected to Flexural Stress 5.6.6 Reinforcement Requirements and Details 5.6.7 Design for concentrated loads 5.7 STRENGTH DESIGN OF SLENDER WALLS AND SHEAR WALLS 5.7.1 Design of Slender Walls 5.7.2 Design of Shear Walls 5.8 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN * 5.8.1 General 5.8.2 Loads 5.8.3 Materials 5.8.4 Provisions for Seismic Zone 2 5.8.5 Provision for Seismic Zone 3
  • 143 5.8.6 Additional Requirements 5.9 PROVISIONS FOR HIGH WIND REGIONS * 5.9.1 General 5.9.2 Materials 5.9.3 Construction Requirements 5.9.4 Foundation 5.9.5 Drainage 5.9.6 Wall Construction 5.9.7 Floor and Roof Systems 5.9.8 Lateral Force Resistance 5.10 CONSTRUCTION 5.10.1 General 5.10.2 Storage and Preparation of Construction Materials 5.10.3 Placing Masonry Units 5.10.4 Verticality and Alignment 5.10.5 Reinforcement Placing 5.10.6 Grouted Masonry 5.10.7 Chases, Recesses and Holes Chapter 6 Reinforced Concrete Structures: Strength Design 6.1 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 6.1.1 Convention and Notation 6.1.2 General 6.1.3 Loading 6.1.4 Design Strength
  • 144 6.2 Strength and Serviceability Requirements 6.3 Flexure and Axial Loads 6.4 Shear and Torsion 6.5 Development and Splices of Reinforcement 6.6 BEAMS AND ONE-WAY SLABS 6.6.1 Notation 6.6.2 Definitions 6.6.3 Design Assumptions 6.6.4 General Principles and Requirement 6.6.5 Continuous Beams 6.6.6 Design for Flexure 6.6.7 Shear and Torsion 6.6.8 Reinforcement 6.6.9 Deflection and Crack Control 6.7 COLUMNS 6.7.1 Notation 6.7.2 Definitions 6.7.3 Design Assumptions 6.7.4 General Principles and Requirements 6.7.5 Design 6.7.6 Reinforcement 6.7.7 Slenderness Effects 6.7.8 Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects 6.7.9 Columns subjected to bi-axial bending 6.7.10 Transmission of Column Loads through Floor System
  • 145 6.7.11 Composite Column * 6.8 FLAT PLATES, FLAT SLABS AND EDGE-SUPPORTED SLABS 6.8.1 Scope 6.8.2 Notation and Definitions 6.8.3 Proportioning 6.8.4 Design Procedures 6.8.5 Direct Design Method 6.8.6 Equivalent Frame Method 6.8.7 Analysis for lateral load 6.8.8 Shear 6.8.9 Reinforcement 6.8.10 Openings 6.8.11 Deflection and Crack Control 6.9 ALTERNATIVE DESIGN OF TWO-WAY EDGE-SUPPORTED SLABS 6.9.1 Notation 6.9.2 Scope and Limitations 6.9.3 Analysis by the Coefficient Method 6.9.4 Shear on Supporting Beam 6.9.5 Deflection and Crack Control 6.9.6 Reinforcement 6.10 RIBBED AND HOLLOW SLABS 6.10.1 General 6.10.2 Analysis and Design 6.10.3 Shear
  • 146 6.10.4 Deflection 6.10.5 Size and Position of Ribs 6.10.6 Reinforcement 6.11 FRAMED STRUCTURES 6.11.1 Scope 6.11.2 Continuity 6.11.3 Placement of Loads 6.11.4 Idealization 6.11.5 Method of Analysis 6.11.6 Design 6.11.7 Deflection 6.12 DEEP BEAMS 6.12.1 Notation 6.12.2 General 6.12.3 Flexure 6.12.4 Shear 6.12.5 Crack Control 6.13 REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS 6.13.1 Notation 6.13.2 General 6.13.3 Empirical Design Method 6.13.4 Walls Designed as Compression Members 6.13.5 Walls as Grade Beams 6.13.6 Moment 6.13.7 Shear
  • 147 6.13.8 Minimum Reinforcement 6.13.9 Crack Control 6.14 FOOTINGS 6.14.1 Notation 6.14.2 General 6.14.3 Moment 6.14.4 Shear 6.14.5 Development of Reinforcement 6.14.6 Transfer of Force at Base 6.14.7 Sloped or Stepped Footings 6.14.8 Combined Footings and Mats 6.14.9 Precast Pile 6.14.10 Cast-in-situ Pile 6.14.11 Pile Cap 6.14.12 Crack Control 6.15 STAIRS 6.15.1 Definitions and Notations 6.15.2 Dog Legged and Open Well Stair 6.15.3 Free Standing Stair 6.15.4 Helicoidal Stair 6.15.5 Sawtooth Stair 5.15.6 Spiral Stairs 6.15.7 Deflection 6.16 SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATES 6.16.1 Notation
  • 148 6.16.2 Scope 6.16.3 Definitions 6.16.4 Design 6.16.5 Strength of Material 6.16.6 Shell Reinforcement 6.16.7 Construction 6.16.8 Crack Control 6.17 PRECAST CONSTRUCTION 6.17.1 Notation 6.17.2 General 6.17.3 Design 6.17.4 Detailing 6.17.5 Identification and Marking 6.17.6 Transportation, Storage and Erection 6.17.7 Composite Construction 6.18 Structural Design for Fire Protection 6.18.1 General 6.18.2 Basis of design 6.18.3 Material properties 6.18.4 Design procedures 6.18.5 Design Solutions 6.18.6 High strength concrete (HSC) Chapter 7 Reinforced Concrete Structures: Working Stress Design 7.1 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN - GENERAL CONSIDERATION
  • 149 7.1.1 Notation 7.1.2 Design Methods 7.1.3 Design Assumptions 7.1.4 Loading 7.1.5 Stiffness 7.1.6 Span Length 7.1.7 Arrangement of Live Loads 7.1.8 Floor Finish 7.1.9 Allowable Stresses in Concrete 7.1.10 Allowable Stresses in Reinforcement 7.1.11 Allowable Stresses for Wind and Earthquake Forces 7.1.12 Development and Splices of Reinforcement 7.2 Serviceability Requirements 7.3 Flexure and Axial Loads 7.4 Shear and Torsion 7.5 Development and Splices of Reinforcement 7.6 BEAMS AND ONE- WAY SLABS 7.6.1 Notation 7.6.2 Span Length 7.6.3 Design Assumptions 7.6.4 General Principles and Requirements 7.6.5 Continuous Beams 7.6.6 Design for Flexure 7.6.7 Shear and Torsion 7.6.8 Reinforcement
  • 150 7.6.9 Crack Control 7.6.10 Deflection 7.8 COLUMNS 7.8.1 Definitions and Notation 7.8.2 Design Assumptions 7.8.3 General Principles and Requirements 7.8.4 Slenderness Effects 7.8.5 Reinforcement 7.8.6 Columns subjected to bi-axial bending 7.9 FLAT PLATES, FLAT SLABS AND EDGE-SUPPORTED SLABS 7.10 ALTERNATIVE DESIGN OF TWO-WAY EDGE-SUPPORTED SLABS 7.11 RIBBED AND HOLLOW SLABS 7.12 FRAMED STRUCTURES 7.13 DEEP BEAMS 7.13.1 Notation 7.13.2 General 7.13.3 Flexure 7.13.4 Shear 7.13.5 Crack Control 7.14 REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS 7.15 FOOTINGS 7.16 STAIRS 7.17 SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATES 7.18 PRECAST CONSTRUCTION *
  • 151 Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures 8.1 DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT 8.1.1 Notation 8.1.2 Standard Hooks 8.1.3 Minimum Bend Diameters 8.1.4 Bending 8.1.5 Surface Conditions of Reinforcement 8.1.6 Placing of Reinforcement 8.1.7 Spacing of Reinforcement 8.1.8 Exposure Condition and Cover to Reinforcement 8.1.9 Reinforcement Details for Columns 8.1.10 Lateral Reinforcement for Columns 8.1.11 Lateral Reinforcement for Beams 8.1.12 Joints 8.1.13 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement 8.1.14 Requirements for Structural Integrity 8.2 DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT 8.2.1 Notation 8.2.2 Development of Reinforcement - General 8.2.3 Development of Deformed Bars in Tension 8.2.4 Development of Deformed Bars in Compression 8.2.5 Development of Bundled Bars 8.2.6 Development of Standard Hooks in Tension 8.2.7 Development of Flexural Reinforcement - General 8.2.8 Development of Positive Moment Reinforcement
  • 152 8.2.9 Development of Negative Moment Reinforcement 8.2.10 Development of Shear Reinforcement 8.2.11 Development of Plain Bars 8.2.12 Splices of Reinforcement - General 8.2.13 Splices of Deformed Bars in Tension 8.2.14 Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression 8.2.15 Special Splice Requirements for Columns 8.2.16 Splices of Plain Bars 8.2.17 Mechanical Anchorage 8.3 SPECIAL PROVISION FOR SEISMIC DESIGN 8.3.1 Notation 8.3.2 Definitions 8.3.3 General requirements 8.3.4 Flexural members of special moment frames 8.3.5 Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load 8.3.6 Joints of special moment frames 8.3.7 Special moment frames constructed using precast concrete 8.3.8 Special reinforced concrete structural walls and coupling beams 8.3.9 Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete 8.3.10 Special diaphragms and trusses 8.3.11 Foundations 8.3.12 Frame members not proportioned to resist forces induced by earthquake motions 8.3.13 Requirements for intermediate moment frames 8.3.14 Intermediate precast structural walls
  • 153 Chapter 9 Prestressed Concrete Structures 9.1 NOTATION 9.2 SCOPE 9.3 DEFINITIONS 9.4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 9.5 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS 9.6 SHAPE SELECTION 9.7 CONTROL OF DEFLECTIONS 9.8 CLASSIFICATION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE MEMBERS 9.9 ALLOWABLE TENSILE STRESSES IN CONCRETE FOR FLEXURAL MEMBERS 9.10 ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES IN CONCRETE FOR FLEXURAL MEMBERS 9.11 STEEL 9.12 ALLOW ABLE STRESSES IN PRESTRESSING STEEL 9.13 LOSSES OF PRESTRESS 9.14 FLEXURAL STRENGTH 9.15 LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS 9.16 MINIMUM BONDED REINFORCEMENT 9.17 MINIMUM TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE REINFORCEMENT 9.18 TRANSMISSION LENGTHS IN PRETENSIONED MEMBERS 9.19 SPACING LIMITS OF PRESTRESSING STEEL AND DUCTS 9.20 CONCRETE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCEMENT 9.21 SHEAR STRENGTH 9.22 COMPRESSION MEMBERS - COMBINED FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS 9.23 FRAMES AND CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES 9.24 SLAB SYSTEM
  • 154 9.25 TENDON ANCHORAGE ZONES 9.26 CORROSION PROTECTION FOR UNBONDED PRESTRESSING TENDONS 9.27 POST-TENSIONING DUCTS 9.28 GROUT FOR BONDED PRESTRESSING TENDONS 9.29 PROTECTION OF PRESTRESSING TENDONS 9.30 APPLICATION AND MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRESSING FORCE 9.31 POST-TENSIONING ANCHORAGE AND COUPLERS 9.32 DEMOUNTABLE PRECAST PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION 9.33 COLD DRAWN LOW CARBON WIRE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE (CWPC) 9.34 PARTIAL PRESTRESSING 9.35 CRACK CONTROL Chapter 10 Steel Structures 10.1 SCOPE 10.2 DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION 10.2.1 Definitions 10.2.2 Notation 10.3 MATERIAL 10.3.1 Structural Steel 10.3.2 Rivets, Bolts, Washers and Nuts 10.3.3 Anchor Bolts and Threaded Rods 10.3.4 Welds 10.3.5 Stud Shear Connectors 10.4 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 10.5 FRAMES AND OTHER STRUCTURES
  • 155 10.5.1 General 10.5.2 Frame Stability 10.6 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 10.6.1 Gross Area 10.6.2 Net Area 10.6.3 Effective Net Area 10.6.4 Rotational Resistance at Points of Support 10.6.5 Limiting Slenderness Ratios 10.6.6 Simple Spans 10.6.7 End Restraint 10.7 ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN METHOD 10.7.1 General 10.7.2 Basis of Design 10.7.3 Local Buckling 10.7.4 Design of Tension Members 10.7.5 Design of Columns and Other Compression Members 10.7.6 Design of Beams and Other Flexural Members 10.7.7 Design of Plate Girders 10.7.8 Combined Stresses 10.7.9 Design of Trusses 10.7.10 Composite Construction 10.7.11 Special Design Considerations 10.8 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN METHOD 10.8.1 General
  • 156 10.8.2 Basis of Design 10.8.3 Local Buckling 10.8.4 Design of Tension Members 10.8.5 Design of Columns and Other Compression Members 10.8.6 Design of Beams and Other Flexural Members 10.8.7 Design of Plate Girders 10.8.8 Members under Torsion and Combined Forces 10.8.9 Design of Trusses 10.8.10 Design of Composite Members 10.8.11 Special Design Considerations 10.8.12 Seismic Design Provisions 10.9 CONNECTIONS, JOINTS AND FASTENERS 10.9.1 Design Provisions 10.9.2 Welds 10.9.3 Bolts, Rivets and Threaded Parts 10.9.4 Shear Rupture 10.9.5 Connecting Elements 10.9.6 Fillers 10.9.7 Splices 10.9.8 Bearings 10.9.9 Column Bases and Bearing on Supports 10.9.10 Anchor Bolts 10.10 CONSIDERATIONS FOR FATIGUE 10.11 SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS 10.11.1 Camber
  • 157 10.11.2 Expansion and Contraction 10.11.3 Deflection and Vibration 10.11.4 Corrosion 10.12 DETAILING OF STEEL STRUCTURES 10.13 FABRICATION, ERECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL 10.13.1 Shop Drawings 10.13.2 Fabrication 10.13.3 Erection 10.13.4 Quality Control 10.14 SURFACE TREATMENT 10.14.1 General 10.14.2 Weather Condition 10.14.3 Cleaning of Surfaces 10.14.4 Application 10.14.5 Protection against Damage 10.14.6 Painting Galvanized Surfaces 10.15 DESIGN DOCUMENTS 10.15.1 General 10.15.2 Drawings 10.15.3 Standard Symbols and Nomenclature 10.15.4 Notation for Welding Chapter 11 Timber Structures 11.1 SCOPE 11.2 NOTATION
  • 158 11.3 TERMINOLOGY 11.3.1 Structural Purpose Definitions 11.3.2 Definitions of Defects in Timber 11.4 MATERIALS 11.5 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES 11.5.1 Basic Permissible Stress 11.5.2 Modification Factors for Permissible Stresses 11.6 BEAMS 11.6.1 Design Consideration 11.6.2 Loads 11.6.3 Solid Beams 11.6.4 Nail Laminated Beams 11.7 COLUMNS 11.7.1 Design Consideration 11.7.2 Solid Columns 11.7.3 Built-up Columns - Box Column 11.7.4 Built-up Columns - Spaced Columns 11.7.5 Structural Member Subjected to Bending and Axial Stress 11.8 JOINTS 11.8.1 Common Steel Wire Nail Joints 11.8.2 Bolted Joints 11.9 DESIGN OF NAIL LAMINATED TIMBER BEAMS 11.10 DESIGN OF BOLTED CONSTRUCTION JOINTS 11.11 DESIGN OF TIMBER CONNECTOR JOINTS 11.12 GLUED LAMINATED CONSTRUCTION AND FINGER JOINTS
  • 159 11.13 LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER 11.14 DESIGN OF GLUED LAMINATED BEAMS 11.15 STRUCTURAL USE OF PLYWOOD 11.16 TRUSSED RAFTER 11.17 STRUCTURAL SANDWICHES 11.18 LAMELLA ROOFING 11.19 NAIL AND SCREW HOLDING POWER OF TIMBER 11.20 PROTECTION AGAINST TERMITE ATTACK IN BUILDINGS Chapter 12 Ferrocement Structures 12.1 SCOPE 12.2 TERMINOLOGY 12.2.1 Reinforcement Parameters 12.2.2 Notation 12.2.3 Definitions 12.3 MATERIALS 12.3.1 Cement 12.3.2 Aggregates 12.3.3 Water 12.3.4 Admixtures 12.3.5 Mix Proportioning 12.3.6 Reinforcement 12.4 DESIGN 12.4.1 General Principles and Requirements 12.4.2 Strength Requirements
  • 160 12.4.3 Service Load Design 12.4.4 Serviceability Requirements 12.4.5 Particular Design Parameters 12.4.6 Design Aids 12.5 FABRICATION 12.5.1 General Requirements 12.5.2 Construction Methods 12.6 MAINTENANCE 12.6.1 General 12.6.2 Blemish and Stain Removal 12.6.3 Protective Surface Treatments 12.7 DAMAGE REPAIR 12.7.1 Common Types of Damage 12.7.2 Evaluation of Damage 12.7.3 Surface Preparation for Repair of Damage 12.7.4 Repair Materials 12.7.5 Repair Procedure 12.8 TESTING 12.8.1 Test Requirement 12.8.2 Test Methods Chapter 13 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures 13.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS 13.1.1 Nominal Strength of Composite Sections 13.1.2 Material Limitations
  • 161 13.1.3 Shear Connectors 13.2 AXIAL MEMBERS 13.2.1 Encased Composite Columns 13.2.2 Filled Composite Columns 13.3 FLEXURAL MEMBERS 13.3.1 General 13.3.2 Strength of Composite Beams with Shear Connectors 13.3.3 Flexural Strength of Concrete-Encased and Filled Members 13.4 COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND FLEXURE 13.5 SPECIAL CASES Appendices Appendix A Conversion of Expressions from SI to FPS Units Appendix B Methods of Soil Exploration and Sampling Appendix C Determination of Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio Appendix D Modulus of Sub-Grade Reaction Appendix E Calculation of Pressure Distribution by Conventional Method Appendix F Load Carrying Capacity: Static Formula Appendix G Determination of Depth of Fixity, Lateral Deflection and Maximum Moment Appendix H Load Carrying Capacity of Under-Reamed Piles from Soil Properties Appendix I Source and Local/ Names of Some of the Species Appendix J Guidelines for Computing the Column Interaction Diagrams Appendix E Calculation of Volume Fraction of Reinforcement Appendix F Common Types and Sizes of Steel Meshes used in Ferrocement
  • 162 Part 7 CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES AND SAFETY Chapter 1 Constructional Responsibilities and Practices Chapter 2 Storage, Stacking and Handling Practices Chapter 3 Safety in Construction Work Chapter 4 Safety in Demolition Work Chapter 5 Maintenance, Management, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Buildings
  • 163 Chapter 1 Constructional Responsibilities and Practices 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 General 1.1.2 Scope 1.1.3 Terminology 1.2 PLANNING 1.2.1 Responsibilities 1.2.2 Temporary Construction 1.2.3 Site Preparation 1.2.4 First Aid Attendant . 1.3 CONSTRUCTION CONTROL 1.3.1 General 1.3.2 Permits 1.3.3 Tests and Inspections 1.4 PROTECTION OF PUBLIC AND WORKERS 1.4.1 General 1.4.2 Protective Fences and Railings 1.4.3 Canopies, Overhangs and Platforms 1.4.4 Protective Devices 1.4.5 Notices and Signs 1.4.6 Watchman and Auditory Signal 1.4.7 Safe Load 1.5 PROTECTION OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PROPERTY 1.5.1 General 1.5.2 Adjoining Property
  • 164 1.5.3 Use of Road and Footpath 1.5.4 Adjoining Structure and Retaining Wall 1.5.5 Protection of Utilities Chapter 2 Storage, Stacking and Handling Practices 2.1 GENERAL PRACTICES 2.1.1 General 2.1.2 Protection against Fire 2.1.3 Housekeeping 2.2 STORAGE, STACKING AND HANDLING OF MATERIALS 2.2.1 Cement 2.2.2 Steel Bars and Sections 2.2.3 Bricks and Masonry Blocks 2.2.4 Aggregate 2.2.5 Water 2.2.6 Timber 2.2.7 Pipes and Tubing 2.2.8 Timber Piles and Poles 2.2.9 Sanitary Appliances 2.2.10 Doors, Windows, Ventilators and Grilles 2.2.11 Tiles 2.2.12 Sheets and Boards 2.2.13 Plastic and Rubber Sheets 2.2.14 Glass Sheets 2.2.15 Lime
  • 165 2.2.16 Paints, Varnishes, Thinners, Bitumen and Road Tar 2.2.17 Flammable Materials 2.2.18 Explosives 2.2.19 Asbestos-based Materials 2.2.20 Miscellaneous 2.3 LOADING AND UNLOADING OF MATERIALS 2.3.1 Loading and Unloading Rail Road Wagons and Motor Vehicles 2.3.2 Manual Handling Chapter 3 Safety in Construction Work 3.1 GENERAL 3.1.1 Scope 3.1.2 Safety of Workmen 3.1.3 Site Precautions 3.1.4 Site Amenities 3.2 EXCAVATION AND FOUNDATION WORK 3.2.1 General 3.2.2 Excavating Machinery and Tools 3.2.3 Excavated Materials and Surcharges 3.2.4 Groundwater 3.2.5 Ground Condition 3.2.6 Overhang, Slopes and Cavities 3.2.7 Blasting and Vibration 3.2.8 Health Hazards during Excavation
  • 166 3.2.9 Piling and Deep Foundation 3.2.10 Working in Compressed Air 3.2.11 Fencing, Warning Signs and Watchman 3.2.12 Adjoining Properties and Service Lines 3.3 PILE RIG 3.3.1 Erection of Pile Rig 3.3.2 Operation of Pile Rig 3.3.3 Piles 3.3.4 Inspection and Tests 3.4 CONSTRUCTION OF WALLS 3.4.1 General 3.4.2 Ladders 3.4.3 Opening in Walls 3.4.4 Projection from Walls 3.5 CONSTRUCTION OF FLOORS 3.5.1 General 3.5.2 Use of Sheets 3.5.3 Platforms 3.5.4 Flat Roof 3.5.5 Openings and Holes 3.5.6 Skeleton Construction 3.6 CONCRETE WORK 3.6.1 General 3.6.2 Prestressed Concrete 3.6.3 Concrete Mixers
  • 167 3.6.4 Concrete Truck and Bucket 3.7 FORMWORK AND SCAFFOLD 3.7.1 Scaffold and Centering Materials 3.7.2 Formwork for Concrete 3.7.3 Load Capacity 3.7.4 Bamboos 3.7.5 Timber Posts 3.7.6 Steel Centering 3.8 ERECTION OPERATIONS 3.8.1 Erection and Hoisting 3.8.2 Small Articles 3.8.3 Hoist Protection 3.8.4 Lifting Gear 3.8.5 Cranes 3.8.6 Slings 3.8.7 Inspection 3.9 ELECTRIFICATION, EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONS 3.9.1 Wiring System 3.9.2 Guarding of Cables 3.9.3 Lifts 3.9.4 Construction Machinery 3.9.5 Heating of Bitumen and Tar 3.9.6 Flame Cutting and Welding 3.9.7 Riveting Operation
  • 168 3.10 CONSTRUCTION HAZARDS 3.10.1 General 3.10.2 Fire Hazards 3.10.3 Health Hazards 3.10.4 Skin Hazard 3.10.5 Noise Hazard 3.11 MISCELLANEOUS 3.11.1 Stair, Ramp and Gangway 3.11.2 Fragile Fixture 3.11.3 Hand Tools 3.11.4 Steel 'Structure 3.11.5 Finish Works Chapter 4 Safety in Demolition Work 4.1 PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE 4.1.1 General 4.1.2 Planning 4.1.3 Protection of Adjoining Property 4.1.4 Precautions Prior to Demolition 4.1.5 Protection of Public 4.1.6 Sidewalk Shed and Canopies 4.2 PRECAUTIONS DURING DEMOLITION 4.2.1 General 4.2.2 Sequence of Demolition Operation 4.2.3 Wall
  • 169 4.2.4 Floor 4.2.5 Special Elements 4.2.6 Mechanical Demolition 4.2.7 Miscellaneous 4.3 BLASTING OPERATION AND USE OF EXPLOSIVES 4.3.1 General 4.3.2 Code of Signal 4.3.3 Supervision and Responsibility 4.3.4 Protection of Site Personnel and Installation 4.3.5 Safety of Third Parties 4.3.6 Use of Explosives 4.3.7 Blasting Accessories 4.4 LOWERING, REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS 4.4.1 General 4.4.2 Use of Chutes 4.4.3 Removal of Debris 4.4.4 Disposal of Materials 4.4.5 Regularization of Plots Chapter 5 Maintenance Management, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Buildings 5.1 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT 5.2 TERMINOLOGY 5.3 BUILDING MAINTENANCE 5.3.1 General 5.3.2 Factors Affecting Maintenance
  • 170 5.3.3 Maintenance Policy 5.3.4 Maintenance Work Programmes 5.3.5 Maintenance Guides 5.3.6 Planning of Maintenance Work 5.3.7 Feed Back 5.3.8 Means of Effecting Maintenance 5.4 ACCESS 5.4.1 General 5.4.2 Access Facilities 5.4.3 Access to Confined Spaces 5.5 RECORDS 5.5.1 General 5.5.2 Use of Building Records 5.5.3 Mechanical Records 5.5.4 Electrical Records 5.6 INSPECTIONS 5.6.1 General 5.6.2 Frequency of Inspection 5.6.3 Inspection of Engineering Services 5.7 MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES 5.7.1 Planning of Maintenance Work 5.7.2 Guidelines for the Maintenance of Electrical Appliances 5.8 OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS 5.9 PREVENTION OF CRACKS 5.10 REPAIRS AND SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF BUILDINGS 5.10.1 Assessment of Strength of Existing Structures 5.10.2 General Concrete Repair 5.10.3 Repair with Ferrocement 5.10.4 Repair with Fiber Reinforced Polymer 5.10.5 Retrofitting
  • 171 Part 8 BUILDING SERVICES Chapter 1 Lighting Chapter 2 Electrical Installation Chapter 3 Air-conditioning, Heating and Ventilation Chapter 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control Chapter 5 Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks Chapter 6 Water Supply Chapter 7 Drainage and Sanitation
  • 172 Part 8 BUILDING SERVICES (Continued) Chapter 8 Rainwater Management Chapter 9 Fuel Gas Supply Chapter 10 Computer Networking Appendices
  • 173 Chapter 1 Lighting 1.1 SCOPE 1.2 TERMINOLOGY 1.3 ILLUMINATION 1.3.1 Principle of Lighting 1.3.2 Planning the Brightness Pattern 1.3.3 Lighting Calculations 1.3.4 Recommended Illumination Values 1.3.5 Artificial Lighting to Supplement Daylight 1.4 LIGHT FITTINGS 14.1 Classification of Lamp Fittings 14.2 Energy Saving by using Compact Fluorescent Lamps 14.3 Choice of Lamps for Different Applications 14.4 Choice of Light Fittings for Different Applications 14.5 Indirect Lighting for Various Applications 1.5 ILLUMINATION OF EXIT SIGNS AND EMERGENCY EXITS 1.5.1 Exit Signs and Emergency Exits 1.5.2 Means of Egress Lighting Chapter 2 Electrical Installation 2.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS 2.1.1 Purpose 2.1.2 Scope 2.1.3 Voltage Ratings 2.1.4 Exclusion from Scope 2.1.5 Organization of the Chapter
  • 174 2.2 TERMIINOLOGY 2.2.1 Definitions 2.2.2 List of Symbols 2.3 FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 2.3.1 Ceiling Roses and Similar Attachments 2.3.2 Socket Outlets and Plugs 2.3.3 Lighting Fittings 2.3.4 Fittings-wire 2.3.5 Fans 2.3.6 Fittings in Mines 2.3.7 Fittings in Industrial Premise and other Hazardous Places 2.3.8 Fittings in Hazardous Places 2.4 LOAD ESTIMATION 2.4.1 Maximum Demand and Diversity 2.4.2 Estimation 2.4.3 Minimum Load Densities 2.5 CIRCUIT WIRING IN A BUILDING 2.5.1 General 2.5.2 Methods of Wiring 2.5.3 Layout and Installation Drawings 2.5.4 Cables and Conductors 2.5.5 Various Accessories 2.5.6 Sub-Distribution Boards 2.5.7 Distribution Board 2.5.8 Floor Distribution Board
  • 175 2.5.9 Main Distribution Board 2.5.10 Emergency Distribution Board 2.5.11 Installation of IPS and its connection 2.5.12 Shaft Vertical Electrical Riser Cables 2.5.13 Ducts for Vertical Electrical Busbar Trunking 2.5.14 Types of House wiring 2.5.15 Conduits and Conduit Fittings 2.5.16 Service Entry 2.5.17 Electrical Distribution of an Industry 2.5.18 Installation of Cables and Wiring Accessories in an Industry 2.6 SUBSTATION IN BUILDINGS 2.6.1 General 2.6.2 Location 2.6.3 Layout 2.6.4 Provision for Standby Supply 2.7 DISTRIBUTION OF SUPPLY AND CABLING 2.7.1 General 2.7.2 System of Supply 2.7.3 Equipment and Accessories 2.7.4 Cables 2.7.5 Main Switch and Switch Boards 2.7.6 Protection of Circuits 2.7.7 Selection of Cables for ECC 2.8 EARTHING 2.8.1 General
  • 176 2.8.2 Circuit and System Earthing 2.8.3 Methods of Earthing 2.9 LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS 2.9.1 General 2.9.2 Risk Assessment 2.9.3 Number of Arresters Required and Installation 2.9.4 Surge Arrester Selection 2.10 TELECOMMUNICATION AND MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES 2.10.1 General 2.10.2 Telecommunication Circuits 2.10.3 Television Antennas 2.10.4 Public Address System 2.10.5 Audio-Video Conferencing 2.10.6 Building Management System including Car Parking 2.10.7 Security System 2.11 INSPECTION AND TESTING 2.11.1 General 2.11.2 Insulation Tests 2.11.3 Earth Resistance Tests 2.11.4 Operating Tests 2.11.5 Inspection of the Installation 2.12 SAFETY FEATURES OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS AND SHOPPING MALLS 2.13 PROVISIONS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
  • 177 AS ALTERNATE/BACK UP SOURCES Chapter 3 Air-conditioning, Heating and Ventilation 3.1 GENERAL 3.1.1 Purpose 3.1.2 Scope 3.1.3 Application 3.1.4 Terminology 3.1.5 General Provisions 3.2 BUILDING PLANNING AND DESIGN 3.2.1 General 3.2.2 Building Planning and Architectural Aspects 3.2.3 Building Structural Design Requirements 3.2.4 Noise and Vibration 3.2.5 Design for Energy Conservation 3.3 HVAC SYSTEM DESIGN DATA 3.3.1 General 3.3.2 Methodology of Design 3.3.3 Design Data for Cooling/Heating Load 3.3.4 Ventilation Data 3.3.5 Air Distribution System Data 3.3.6 Hydronic System Data 3.3.7 Ducting System Design Data 3.3.8 Noise and Vibration Data
  • 178 3.3.9 Energy Conservation System Design 3.3.10 Control System Design 3.4 HVAC EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY 3.4.1 General 3.4.2 Cooling by Refrigeration 3.4.3 Evaporative Cooling 3.4.4 Heating Equipment 3.4.5 Air Handling Unit 3.4.6 Fan Coil Equipment 3.4.7 Standard Packaged Air-conditioners 3.4.8 Variable Refrigerant Flow Air-Conditioners 3.4.9 Window Air-Coolers 3.4.10 Heat Pumps 3.4.11 Accessory Equipment/Machinery 3.4.12 Hydronic System Equipment 3.5 REFRIGERATION MACHINES 3.5.1 General 3.5.2 Electricity Driven Refrigeration Machines 3.5.3 Absorption Refrigeration Machines 3.5.4 Cooling Tower 3.5.5 Evaporative Condesers 3.6 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 3.6.1 General 3.6.2 Natural Ventilation 3.6.3 Mechanical Ventilation
  • 179 3.6.4 Kitchen Exhaust 3.6.5 Laboratory Exhaust 3.6.6 Special Exhaust Systems 3.7 ENERGY CONSERVATION 3.7.1 General 3.7.2 Design Parameters 3.7.3 System Design and Equipment 3.7.4 Control System 3.8 INSPECTION, TESTING AND COMMISSIONING 3.8.1 General 3.8.2 Inspection and Testing 3.8.3 Commissioning 3.9 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 3.9.1 General 3.9.2 Operation 3.9.3 Maintenance Chapter 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control 4.1 PURPOSE 4.2 SCOPE 4.3 TERMINOLOGY 4.4 GENERAL NOISE LEVELS: OUTDOOR 4.4.1 Adequacy in Planning and Design 4.4.2 Sources and Levels of Outdoor Noise
  • 180 4.4.3 Planning and Design Considerations 4.5 GENERAL NOISE LEVELS: INDOOR 4.5.1 Acceptable Indoor Noise Levels in Buildings 4.5.2 Planning and Design Considerations 4.6 OCCUPANCY A : RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 4.6.1 Sources of Noise 4.6.2 Planning and Design Requirements 4.7 OCCUPANCY B: EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS 4.7.1 Sources of Noise 4.7.2 Planning and Design Requirements 4.8 OCCUPANCY D : HEALTH CARE BUILDINGS 4.8.1 Sources of Disturbing Noise 4.8.2 Planning and Design Requirements 4.9 OCCUPANCY E : ASSEMBLY 4.9.1 General 4.9.2 Sources of Noise 4.9.3 Planning and Design Requirements 4.10 OCCUPANCY F : BUSINESS AND MERCANTILE BUILDINGS 4.10.1 General 4.10.2 Sources of Disturbing Noise 4.10.3 Planning and Design Requirements 4.11 OCCUPANCY G : INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 4.11.1 General Noise Levels 4.11.2 Hearing Damage Risk Criteria 4.11.3 Interference with Communication
  • 181 4.11.4 Requirements for Noise Reduction 4.12 ACOUSTICAL REQUIREMENTS OF SPECIAL OCCUP ANCIE6 4.12.1 Susceptible Buildings 4.12.2 Public Address System Chapter 5 Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks 5.1 GENERAL 5.1.1 Purpose 5.1.2 Scope 5.1.3 Terminology 5.1.4 General Particulars 5.2 BUILDING PLANNING AND DESIGN 5.2.1 General 5.2.2 Building Planning and Architectural Aspects 5.2.3 Building Structural Design Requirements 5.2.4 Noise and Vibration 5.2.5 Shape and Size of Lifts 5.2.6 Number, Location and Arrangement of Lifts 5.2.7 Location of Machine Room 5.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 5.3.1 General 5.3.2 Speed of Lifts 5.3.3 Number of Lifts and Capacity of Lifts 5.3.4 Door Arrangements 5.3.5 Other Special Features
  • 182 5.4 ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF LIFTS 5.4.1 General 5.4.2 Safety Considerations and Components of Lifts 5.4.3 Lift Car 5.4.4 Lift Well and Lift Well Enclosures 5.4.5 Lift Door and Landing Doors 5.4.6 Guide Rails 5.4.7 Lift Pits 5.4.8 Counter Weights 5.4.9 Hoisting Machine 5.4.10 Drive System 5.4.11 Buffers 5.4.12 Control Panels 5.4.13 Machine Room 5.4.14 Overhead Structures 5.4.15 Car Buttons, Hall Buttons, Hall Lanterns and Special Signs 5.4.16 Electrical Wiring and Apparatus 5.5 ESCALATORS 5.5.1 General 5.5.2 Essential Requirements 5.5.3 Balustrades 5.5.4 Hand Rails 5.5.5 Tread Way 5.5.6 Landings 5.5.7 Comb Plates
  • 183 5.6 MOVING WALKS 5.6.1 General 5.6.2 Essential Requirements 5.6.3 Balustrades 5.6.4 Hand Rails 5.6.5 Tread Way 5.6.6 Landings 5.6.7 Comb Plates 5.7 INSPECTION, TESTING AND CERTIFICATION 5.7.1 General 5.7.2 Inspection and Testing 5.7.3 Certification 5.8 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 5.8.1 General 5.8.2 Essential Requirements 5.8.3 Operation 5.8.4 Maintenance Chapter 6 Water Supply 6.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 6.2 TERMINOLOGY 6.3 PERMIT FOR WATER CONNECTION 6.3.1 Requirement of Permit 6.3.2 Application for Permit 6.3.3 Permits and Approval
  • 184 6.4 LICENSING OF PLUMBERS 6.4.1 License Requirement 6.4.2 Examination and Certification of Plumber 6.4.3 Annulment of License 6.5 WATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS 6.5.1 General 6.5.2 Water Requirement for Domestic Use (Different Types of Occupancy) 6.5.3 Water Requirement for Fire Fighting 6.5.4 Water Requirement for Special Equipment 6.6 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 6.6.1 Direct Connection to Water Main 6.6.2 System Incorporating Balancing Roof Tank 6.6.3 System Incorporating Ground Tank 6.6.4 Individual Water Sources 6.7 STORAGE OF WATER 6.7.1 Capacity of Storage Tanks (Roof, Underground & Over ground) 6.7.2 Construction of Storage Tank 6.8 WATER SUPPLY: DISTRIBUTION AND DESIGN SYSTEM 6.9 HOT WATER SUPPLY: Distribution and Design System 6.9.1 Hot Water Requirements 6.9.2 Storage Temperature 6.9.3 Storage Capacity 6.9.4 Hot Water Heater 6.9.5 Cold Water Supply Connection to Water Heaters 6.9.6 Hot Water Distribution Piping
  • 185 6.9.7 Vent Pipe 6.9.8 Capacity of Cold Water Storage Tank 6.9.9 Safety Devices 6.9.10 Wastes from Relief Valve 6.9.11 Drain Cock 6.10 Water Supply IN TALL BUILDINGS 6.11 MATERIALS AND FITTINGS 6.11.1 Water Supply Service and Distribution Pipes 6.11.2 Pipe Fittings 6.11.3 Concrete, Prestressed or Ferrocement Structures 6.12 HANGERS AND SUPPORT 6.13 WORK ON SITE 6.13.1 Excavation Of Trenches 6.13.2 Laying of Pipe 6.13.3 Laying of Pipe Through Ducts, Chases, Notches or Holes 6.13.4 Lagged Piping 6.13.5 Jointing of Pipes 6.13.6 Special Care for Rat Proofing 6.14 INSPECTION, TESTING AND COMPLETION CERTIFICATE 6.14.1 Inspection 6.14.2 Testing 6.14.3 Completion Certificate 6.15 PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 6.16 CLEANING AND DISINFECTING THE SYSTEM
  • 186 6.16.1 General 6.16.2 Disinfection Procedure 6.17 HEALTH CARE WATER SUPPLY 6.17.1 General Requirement 6.17.2 Hot Water Supply 6.17.3 Water Supply Protection 6.18 GUIDE TO MAINTENANCE 6.18.1 Gerneral 6.18.2 Storage 6.19 INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 6.19.1 General 6.19.2 Water Requirements 6.19.3 Quality of Water 6.19.4 Chlorination 6.19.5 Location of Water Source 6.19.6 Well Construction 6.19.7 Pumping Equipment Chapter 7 Drainage and Sanitation 7.1 PURPOSE 7.2 SCOPE 7.3 TERMINOLOGY 7.4 DRAINAGE AND SANITATION PLANS 7.5 LICENSING OF PLUMBER 7.5.1 Licence Requirement 7.5.2 Examination and Certification
  • 187 7.5.3 Annulment of Licence 7.6 DRAINAGE AND SANITAION. REQUIREMENT 7.6.1 General 7.6.2 Minimum Number of Fixtures 7.6.3 Accessibility 7.7 MATERIAIS AND APPLIANCES 7.8 DESIGN CONSIDERAIONS 7.8.1 Objective 7.8.2 General 7.8.3 Different Plumbing Systems 7.8.4 Water Closet Compartment for Physically Handicapped 7.8.5 Installation of Drainage System 7.8.6 Installation of Venting System 7.8.7 Clearance of Blockages 7.8.8 Protection Against Rodent 7.8.9 Bedding and Backfilling 7.8.10 Grease Separator 7.8.11 Septic Tank 7.8.12 Imhoff Tank 7.8.13 Disposal Field and Seepage Pit 7.9 DESIGN OF DRAINAGE AND SANITATION SYSTEM 7.9.1 Estimation of Maximum Load Weight of Waste Water 7.9.2 Gradient and Size of Pipe 7.9.3 Size of Rainwater Piping 7.9.4 Size of Vent Piping
  • 188 7.9.5 Conveyance of Rainwater 7.9.6 Conveyance of Sanitary Wastes 7.10 Basement Drainage 7.11 Installation of Drainage Piping 7.12 HANGERS AND SUPPORT AND PIPE JOINTING 7.12.1 Hangers and Support 7.12.2 Pipe Joints Chapter 8 Rainwater Management 8.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 8.2 TERMINOLOGIES 8.3 RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM 8.4 CATCHMENT AREA 8.5 COLLECTION OF RAINWATER 8.6 STORAGE OF RAINWATER 8.7 CONDITIONING OF RAINWATER 8.8 DISTRIBUTION OF RAINWATER 8.9 GROUND RECHARGING METHODOLOGIES 8.10 STORM WATER DRAINAGE AND DISPOSAL 8.11 INSTALLATION OF DRAINAGE PIPING Chapter 9 Fuel Gas Supply 9.1 GENERAL 9.1.1 Scope 9.1.2 Terminology 9.2 GAS PIPING INSTALLATION
  • 189 9.2.1 Piping Plan and Approval 9.2.2 Size of Piping to Gas Appliances 9.2.3 Piping Materials 9.2.4 Installation of Gas Pipes 9.2.5 Pressure Regulators 9.2.6 Rules for Turning Gas On 9.2.7 Rules for Shutting Off the Gas 9.2.8 Inspection of Services 9.2.9 Check of Leakage 9.2.10 Meter Location 9.3 USE OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) 9.4 INSTALLATION OF SPECIFIC APPLIANCES 9.4.1 Cookers/Burners 9.4.2 Illuminating Appliances 9.4.3 Water Heaters Chapter 10 Information Technology 9.1 DATA CABLING CODE 9.2 BUILDING SURVEILLANCES AND HAZARD ALARM CODE 9.3 BUILDING ACCESS CONTROL CODE Appendices Appendix A Maximum Demand and Diversity Appendix B Useful Tables Relating to Conductor Sizes Appendix C Completion Certificate Form (Electrical Works)
  • 190 Appendix D Relationship of Weighting Curves for Sound Levels Appendix E Recommended Optimum Reverberation Time for Assembly Buildings Appendix F STC Ratings of Walls and Floors Appendix G Air Traffic Noise Levels Appendix H Frequency Values and Noise Levels of Some Common Sources Appendix I Typical Noise Levels in Free-Flowing Road Traffic Appendix J Average Airborne Sound Insulation of Common Constructions Appendix K Recommended Background Noise Criteria and NC Curves Appendix L Particulars of Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks Appendix M Format for Particulars of Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks Appendix N Application for Permit to Construct Water Supply and Distribution System Appendix P Sizing of Cold Water Supply and Distribution Piping Appendix Q Completion Certificate (Water Supply Works) Appendix R Application for Permit to Construct Drainage and Sanitation System Appendix S One-hour Rainfall Appendix T Design Guideline of a Septic Tank Appendix U Completion Certificate (Drainage and Sanitation Works)
  • 191 Appendix V List of Applicable Standards and Rules Appendix W Work on the Gas Supply System Appendix X Documentation for the Piping Installation
  • 192 Part 9 ALTERATION, ADDITION TO AND CHANGE OF USE OF EXISTING BUILDINGS Chapter 1 Applicability and Implementation Chapter 2 Evaluation and Compliance
  • 193 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 9 ALTERAION, ADDITION TO AND CHANGE OF USE OF EXISTING BUILDINGS Chapter 1 Applicability and Implementation 1.1 GENERAL 1.2 APPLICABILITY 1.2.1 General 1.2.2 Change in Use 1.2.3 Part Change in Use 1.2.4 Additions 1.2.5 Alterations 1.3 IMPLEMENTATION 1.3.1 Investigation and Evaluation 1.3.2 Structural Analysis 1.3.3 Submittal 1.3.4 Determination of Compliance Chapter 2 Evaluation and Compliance 2.1 EVALUATION 2.1.1 Planning Requirements 2.1.2 Safety Requirements 2.1.3 Egress Requirements 2.2 COMPLIANCE
  • 194 Part 10 SIGNS AND OUTDOOR DISPLAY Chapter 1 Scope and General Chapter 2 General Requirements Chapter 3 Specific Requirements for Various Types of Sign Appendices
  • 195 Chapter 1 Scope and General 1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 1.2 TERMINOLOGY 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNS 1.4 APPLICATION AND PERMIT 1.4.1 Requirement of Permit 1.4.2 Exemptions 1.4.3 Application for Permit 1.4.4 Condition for Grant of Permit 1.4.5 Sanction or Refusal of Permit 1.4.6 Application for Alteration of Sign 1.4.7 Existing Signs 1.5 UNSAFE AND UNLAWFUL SIGNS 1.5.1 Responsibility of the Owner 1.5.2 Notice of the Authority 1.5.3 Prohibited Signs 1.6 RESTRICTIONS 1.6.1 Restricted Sign Zone 1.6.2 Prohibition of Advertisement 1.6.3 Signs on Highways and Roads 1.6.4 Illuminated Displays 1.7 MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTIONS 1.7.1 Maintenance 1.7.2 Inspection 1.8 LOCATION RESTRICTIONS
  • 196 1.9 PROJECTION OVER PUBLIC PROPERTY 1.10 CLEARANCE FROM POWER LINES Chapter 2 General Requirements 2.1 DESIGN 2.1.1 Loads 2.1.2 Design Consideration 2.2 CONSTRUCTION 2.2.1 Use of Materials 2.2.2 Use of Combustible Materials 2.2.3 Anchorage 2.2.4 Display Surfaces 2.2.5 Approved Plastics 2.2.6 Draining Arrangements 2.3 USE OF GLASS IN SIGNS 2.4 SERVICING DEVICES 2.5 INTERFERENCE BY SIGNS Chapter 3 Specific Requirements for Various Types of Sign 3.1 ELECTIUC SIGN 3.1.1 Materials 3.1.2 Location 3.1.3 Installation 3.1.4 Illumination 3.2 GROUND SIGN
  • 197 3.2.1 Material 3.2.2 Height 3.2.3 Design 3.2.4 Clearance 3.3 ROOF SIGN 3.3.1 Material 3.3.2 Design 3.3.3 Clearance 3.3.4 Projection 3.4 PROJECTING SIGN 3.4.1 Material 3.4.2 Design 3.4.3 Height and Clearance 3.4.4 Projection 3.4.5 Attachment 3.5 FIN SIGN 3.5.1 Material 3.5.2 Design 3.5.3 Clearance 3.6 BALCONY SIGN 3.6.1 Materials 3.6.2 Location 3.6.3 Size 3.6.4 Projection 3.7 MARQUEE SIGN
  • 198 3.7.1 Materials 3.7.2 Size 3.7.3 Clearance 3.8 COMBINATION SIGN 3.9 TEMPORARY SIGN 3.9.1 Size 3.9.2 Duration 3.9.3 Support 3.9.4 Location 3.9.5 Projection Appendices Appendix A Application for Permit to Erect or Alter Outdoor Signs Appendix B Additional Guidelines for Signs in Urban and Rural Areas