Children’s AIDS is more predominant now than ever because of lack of education and poor living conditions in Africa. Awareness should be brought up everywhere to help fight this epidemic.
When I first chose this topic I was unaware of what AIDS really was. I knew it was a deathly disease and there was no cure for it, but I wanted to further my knowledge and research the darker side of this disease and the affects it has on children and people in general.
Children AIDS in Africa is relevant to everyone because there is such a large number of children who are already infected. AS they grow older they can pass this disease on to anyone therefore widening the spread. People tend to think they are invincible and will never contract AIDS so they will have unprotected sex just once. That one time can last forever.
Once HIV was discovered and researched there was proof that it caused AIDS.HIV is a lentivirus which means the virus attacks the immune system.The word lentivirus literally means ‘slow virus’ because it takes a long period of time to show any symptoms or effects to the body.There are two types of HIV which are HIV-1 and HIV-2 and they descend from SIV ( Simian Immunodeficiency Virus)HIV-2 relates to SIVsm which is found in the white - collared monkey. These monkeys are indigenous to Western Africa.HIV-1 is the more dangerous one of the two and was harder to find where it came from. In 1999 HIV-1 was identified as SIVcpz which is found in chimpanzees but had major differences from HIV. http://www.avert.org/aids-impact-africa.htm
In February 1999 researchers declared that they had found a SIVcpz that was similar to HIV-1.This research proved that chimpanzees were the primary source that causes HIV-1 and at some point crossed from chimps to humans.The question people had was how could chimpanzees infect humans with this virus?It is known that viruses can cross through various species and that is exactly what happened with the chimpanzees and humans.When a virus is crossed between animals and humans it is called zoonosis. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/274/7/554 http://www.pnas.org/content/100/11/6588.full
There are numerous theories of how HIV transferred from animals to humans, but these are the most common ones. The Hunter Theory- This theory is the most accepted theory. SIVcpz was transferred from the chimpanzees to the humans when they would hunt and kill them for food. The Chimpanzee’s blood could have come in contact with cuts and wounds the hunter had. Usually the hunter would have fought off the SIV but there were a few cases where few adapted to the virus. Even today there are cases when primates transfer SIV to humans while butchering primate meat. This has been banned to eliminate this problem.http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713612628&db=all
The Contaminated Needle Theory- It states that in the 1950’s syringes were created and it was the new cheap way to inject medicines. African healthcare professionals were working on inoculation and other programs which required large orders of needles that they could not afford. In spite of this it is believed needles were used numerous times without any sterilization. Therefore a hunter that was infected with SIV who was treated with the same needle as others could have spread the disease to many other people.http://heb.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/27/5/539
The Colonialism Theory- Jim Moore who specialized in primate behavior published his discoveries in the journal AIDS research and human retroviruses. In the 19th and 20th century most of Africa was ruled in colonial forces. Since other colonies were in charge, Africans were forced into labor camps where sanitation was poor and had limited food. Since conditions there were terrible it weakened immune systems and any kind of sickness would affect them greatly. As to why he believes a stray chimpanzee could have been killed to eat and attacked their immune system quick. Prostitutes were also hired to keep the laborers working and some what content. This would have caused the spread of the virus to become an even more severe issue. The Conspiracy Theory- Some African Americans believe that HIV was man-made and the US Federal Special Cancer Virus Program and the CIA helped to eliminate blacks and homosexuals. They believe this was done when there was hepatitis B vaccine trials on Gay men.http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=HIV+theories&hl=en&btnG=Search&as_sdt=800000000001&as_sdtp=on
The first case of AIDS was identified in the year 1981 from gay men in the United States. Scientist researched and found out that AIDS had existed prior to this case. A man from Belgian Congo had died in 1959 from HIV which made him the first confirmed case of AIDS. The following year fourteen nations reported cases of AIDS and the first one was a hemophiliac due to a blood transfusion and babies being born from Mothers with AIDS.Now there are tests to detect antibodies in blood transfusions. After they were to test all blood being transfused in 1985 they only had 41 cases of AIDS from transfusions that tested negative.1982- The FDA received first IND submission for treatment of AIDS1984- Indentified as being caused by a human retrovirus (HIV)http://www.fohn.net/history-of-aids/
AIDS are all over the world but it is most commonly found in Africa, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. About 22.4 million people are living with HIV/AIDS which is about 2/3 of the global total. In 2008 roughly 1.4 million individuals died from being infected with HIV/AIDS. The high number of death rates is supposed to sky rocket in the next ten years. This is holding back the country even more now than ever. Africa suffers because they do not provide healthcare or antiretroviral treatment. Africa does not have the money to treat AIDS so it hard for the country to control the outbreaks that are occurring there. Many countries in Africa such as; Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Swailzland have the highest percentage of AIDS cases. AIDS are so predominant there because there is no proper medicines and treatments available to the people.http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KBvphLYVbDMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=AIDS+in+Africa&ots=IAkXkdNuW8&sig=Ry11H25zWEGLPVJATMahlJetOeg#v=onepage&q&f=false
1985-FDA approved first enzyme linked immunosorbant assay test kit to screen for antibodies to HIVOn March 19, 1987 FDA approved AZT - the first drug approved for the treatment of AIDS.On April 29, FDA approved the first Western blot blood test kit - a more specific test.On August 18, FDA sanctioned the first human testing of a candidate vaccine against HIV.FDA Published regulations which require screening all blood and plasma collected in the U.S. for HIV antibodies.FDA completed studies demonstrating the safety of immune globulin products. The efficacy of viral inactivation and partitioning during manufacturing procedures was confirmed.FDA revised its strategy for the regulation of condoms by strengthening its inspection of condom manufacturers and re-packers, strengthening its sampling and testing of domestic and imported condoms in commercial distribution, and providing guidance on labeling of condoms for the prevention of AIDS.The FDA regulated blood donors and facilities to ensure the blood given was safe.http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=rqc9LDJPAAYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA37&dq=AIDS+in+Africa&ots=qoEz-0t6kx&sig=6hZLeYY2XukjphkNVoXqJ6nX8gc#v=onepage&q=AIDS%20in%20Africa&f=false
AIDS is contracted through semen, breast milk, vaginal fluids, and blood then transmitted from someone who is infected to an uninfected person. This is usually from practicing unsafe sex. You can also become infected from sharing needles with someone who has HIV/AIDS because their blood on the needle would come in tact with the other person’s bloodstream. Women who are infected with AIDS and are pregnant can pass it to their child when giving birth as well as when they breast feed. People who have had blood transfusions between the years 1978 and 1985 are or could have been infected with AIDS due to the lack of checking blood for diseases. Individuals cannot contract AIDS from having normal contact with someone who does. People can still hug, share toilet seats, casual kiss, and eat the same food. A person cannot transfer AIDS through saliva, tears, or sweat, although french kissing is not advised.http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/sanlr23&div=41&id=&page= http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://batonrougeaidssociety.org/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/
When people become infected with AIDS they usually do not know becauseit is a slow virus, which means it takes a while to notice. When infected with HIV/AIDS they have very similar flu-like symptoms. People will start out with a fever, chills, swollen glands, and feeling weak. These symptoms will go away causing people to think they only had the flu. The majority of individuals will have no clue they are infected with AIDS until they have a blood sample, opportunistic infection, or unusual cancer. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/148/11/1558
The most common cancer associated with AIDS is called Kaposi's sarcoma. Many other infections (such as Herpes, HPV,pneumonia, and Salmonella) occur in people with AIDS. Coughing, shortness of breath, seizures, mental symptoms such as confusion and forgetfulness,vision loss, severe headaches, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, lack of coordination, abdominal cramps, swollen lymph glands, mouth andgenital ulcers, sweats, persistent or frequent yeast infections, skin rashes, andpelvic inflammatory disease. Children as well get the same symptoms but also experience harsh bacterial infections such as; pink eye, ear infections, tonsillitis, and delayed development or failure to prosper. If you notice symptoms like this and they last for a while or does not seem right to you go to the doctors to get checked out. Do not be afraid!http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/153/11/1430 http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/94/7/1133
There is no cure for AIDS but it can be treated with drugs that have to be taken every single day for the rest of a person’s life. The main goal is to keep the HIV at low concentrated level. When HIV is kept at low levels it stops weakening in the immune system and allows it to restore or mend any damage that has occurred. Combination therapy is when two or more retroviral drugs are taken at a time and is called highly active Antiretroviral therapy. If there was only one drug that was prescribed the HIV would become resistant and stop working. When an individual takes two or more antiretroviral at the same time it rapidly decreases the rate making the treatment more efficient in the long run. Combination Therapy consist of more than one drug. Instead of taking two to three different pills a day there are pills that have everything combined into one. Determining what pills are best all depends on the price, side effects, and the amount of pills. There is also first and second line treatment. First line treatment is at the beginning of treatment and with the first few combinations of drugs. If the body becomes resistant to it then they will do the second line treatment. The second line treatment is when a person receives a minimal of three new drugs and a booster.http://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/articles/health_tools/AIDS_retrospective_slideshow/aprmphoto_of_AIDS_patient_sorting_medicine.jpghttp://scholar.google.com/scholar?as_q=expenses+for+the+treatment+of+AIDS&num=10&as_epq=expenses&as_oq=AIDS&as_eq=&as_occt=any&as_sauthors=&as_publication=&as_ylo=&as_yhi=&as_sdt=1.&as_sdtp=on&as_sdts=39&btnG=Search+Scholar&hl=en&safe=active
1988-On February12th the first drug for AIDS (Trimetrexate) was granted and used forpneumonia in patients infected who could not handle standard forms of treatment.On November 21st, The FDA licensed Intron A and Roferon A which is human interferon alpha injection that helps treat Kaposi’s Sarcoma which is a cancer caused by HIV.On November 28th,treatment IND protocol for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients.FDA made new regulations to have promising therapy available to treat those who had life threatening and severe diseases.http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=dazBueIX9L8C&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=individual+cost+to+treat+AIDS&ots=BOq5XdoHVn&sig=ul8eoFXLzTPF59LmB1uphojixTs&safe=active#v=onepage&q&f=false
Using condoms is one way to prevent HIV/AIDS, other diseases, and even pregnancy. There are different condoms that people can use but the most common one is the male condom. The way a male condom works is it slides over the entire penis. There is as well a female condom which is basically a tube that is placed inside the vagina that also helps prevent HIV/AIDS. People can purchase condoms just about anywhere for instance; grocery stores, drug stores, pharmacies, even gas stations. They are usually not very expensive and are well worth the money. If someone is to embarrassed or does not have enough money to invest in them there are local clinics that give them out for free.http://scienceonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/292/5514/69 http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102216825.html
For every way someone can transmit HIV/AIDS there is also a way to prevent it. Anyone can become infected with HIV/AIDS therefore everyone should know what precautions to take before sharing needles or having unprotected sex. The most possible way to make sure someone never contracts AIDS is to be abstinent. This is not everyone's choice but it is safe and reliable. Saving yourself is smart and a good idea to prevent AIDS and other STD’s. Waiting for that special someone is worth the wait. People who do not have HIV/AIDS need to be aware and should know how to protect themselves from becoming infected. People that already have HIV/AIDS need help and support from loved ones. They need to be reassured to take care of the own health and to be honest so they do not transmit the disease to other people.http://scienceonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/292/5514/69 http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pro/19/4/403/ http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/279/19/1529
HIV and AIDS has had a huge impact on Africa and African society. The life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa is at an average of 47 years old when it could 62 without AIDS. Since AIDS is a major problem there it makes people’s lives even harder than it has to be be. Various families are loosing their main income earners because they are becoming ill and are unable perform the tasks they used to do. Those who are infected with AIDS most likely have a partner that is as well and in need of care. Parents will eventually die leaving their children struggling to survive and will ultimately become orphans. There is strain on healthcare because as the pandemic spreads it requires more care for those living with the disease and affects the health care workers. http://www.avert.org/aids-impact-africa.htm
Schools are deeply affected by AIDS and has become a main concern because schools can play a crucial position in diminishing the epidemic of AIDS through a good education and support. This widespread has significantly affected labor which leisurely slows down economic and political statuses. The majority of the population living with AIDS are between the ages of 15-49 which is the peak of their working lives. Employers, schools, factories, and hospitals have to train other staff members to replace the previous staff who are now too sick to work. The HIV and AIDS epidemic has already significantly affected Africa's economic development and Africa's ability to cope with the epidemic.http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=URjeb8mwEt4C&oi=fnd&pg=PP8&dq=Impact+of+AIDS+in+Africa&ots=KeAkIOwuRU&sig=1_eHBazQ8Qwuay9ic5A3J6VyUgk#v=onepage&q&f=false http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118907185/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Children are affected greatly when it comes to AIDS because either they are infected or their parents are infected with AIDS. If a child’s parent has AIDS then the child does not just loose their parents they also loose their childhood. Children are supposed to have fun and act like a child when they are young. The parents are there to take most of the responsibility for their children. When they loose them to AIDS they most likely will have to fend for themselves. They have to mature and step up to take care of themselves and possibly siblings. When parents become ill the children take control and begin to earn an income to provide food and other necessities in order to survive. Usually when one parent is infected the other one is as well making it even more difficult to provide and care for them. After this occurs it is complicated to go back to school to earn an education. Because the income is probably low and has to last for a while it is most likely that they will not be able to afford to go back to school. The AIDS epidemic in Africa is leading to less children receiving an education weather it is them who is infected or a family member. The ironic part is if the children did not have to worry about these situations they could go to school to become educated about AIDS so less cases would be reported.http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/28/2/65 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1580221/
There are so many young people who are between the ages 15 and 24 who are at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS because they are not aware and do not understand the best possible way to keep themselves and their partners safe. This occurs more with young people who live in low and middle income countries and is said that only 24 percent has the proper knowledge about HIV. Condom use during higher risk sex is increasing, but remains low. These people cannot afford to attend school and therefore do not know much about practicing safe sex. They need higher education to become more aware of the risks they are putting themselves at. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=800000000000&q=Impact+on+education+because+of+AIDS+in+Africa
This graph shows the estimated impact of AIDS on under five child mortality rates. These were chosen from six different countries in Africa. This shows how large amounts of children are dying from AIDS. Every 1,000 children who are born in Malawi 200 die from AIDS by the time they are the age of five. AIDS are becoming a huge deal and is killing many children.
This quote is said from Harry Belafonte who is a singer, actor, and social activist. He is very much dedicated to Africa and the AIDS epidemic there. In this quote he feels very strongly about how children who have lost their parents to AIDS deserve an education. They need it more to eventually gain the knowledge of HIV/AIDS. School will help them in the future and allow them to eliminate shame associated with AIDS.http://www.betterworld.net/quotes/aids-quotes.htm
There have been other epidemics such as malaria and tuberculosis that we have found medicines for to cure. The AIDS epidemic has become worse especially in sub Saharan Africa and is the most devastating health disaster in human history. This disease is spreading fast and is destroying families and communities. 25 million people have died from AIDS in 2005 and there are about 40 million people living with just HIV. Since this disease remains growing in certain regions of the world, those countries are suffering economically and politically. The number one illness in Sub Saharan Africa is AIDS and is killing the most amount of people. AIDS is quickly spreading throughout Eastern Europe because of the increasing injection drug use occurring there and the health care system has crumbled. AIDS has not had a dramatic decrease is AIDS in Western Europe or North America which is where the epidemic has spread from gay male population, minorities, and poor locations. The AIDS epidemic shows no indication of this deadly disease slowing down any time soon. http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/elibweb/elib/do/document/set=search&dictionaryClick=&secondaryNav=&groupid=1&requested=2&resultid=2&edition=&ts=AAFO927FB946852D9EA92CBE2D299A0_1270573155962&start=1&publicationld=&urn=urn%3Abigchalk&3AUS%3BBCLib%3document%3B120971581
Itis very difficult for children and anyone who is infected with HIV/AIDS to deal with such a strong and powerful disease. It becomes challenging and not only affects that person but the entire family and even friends. Social support groups are often recommended and could potentially help that individual, but is not always the case for everyone. The final result could end positively or negatively depending on the person since everyone is different and copes with situations differently. The caregiver of the infected person can also go through problems and can lead them to having stress as well. It is a lot to take on when caring for someone with HIV/AIDS and can be physically and emotionally draining just as much as the infected person. There were many tests done with families and it was found that it is mostly African Americans and Latinos that have the biggest struggle because of low socioeconomic status backgrounds. Everyday families will struggle because they do not have health insurance or their insurance will not cover it. Some families do have that advantage though allowing them to to go through health care services that will help them as well.http://journals.lww.com/jrnldbp/Abstract/1994/06001/Families_Affected_by_Pediactric_Aquired.10.aspx http://journals.lww.com/nursingresearchonline/Abstract/1998/03000/The_Effect_of_a_Social_Support_Boosting.6.aspx
There are many organizations that help children that are infected with HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa. There is an non governmental organization for people who are infected with HIV/AIDS called TASO located in Uganda. This organization offers support groups, counseling, and medical or nursing opportunities in affiliated hospitals. There are foundations all over to help fight AIDS and make a difference. To Keep A Child Alive is the organization I am working with and will be donating the money I raise. This organization is great because there are several different activities people can get involved with. They host events and allow members to do so as well. They hold discussion forums and members can also blog on the website. Interning somewhere helps too because an individual can learn so much criteria and pass their knowledge to others bringing awareness. How to spread Awareness-Organize a team with at least five members-Find a mentor to help guide and support you-Register to an organization and in school so you have an abundance of resources-Create weekly or biweekly meetings-Plan and think of ways to spread awareness-Create attention and get more people involved-Distribute flyers and posters -Work with KCA near youhttp://community.keepachildalive.org/page/get-involved http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&asssdt=800000000000&q=making+a+difference+for+Children%27s+AIDS+in+Africa
For my application I held an AIDS walk at the High School track, it was $5.00 for a mile. I advertised my AIDS walk by hanging flyers around the school. I raised $126.00 and will be donating the money to Keep A Child Alive.
Over the past several months I have kept in contact with a foundation called Keep a Child Alive. Basically this organization helps children all over the world, mainly in Africa who are infected or affected by AIDS. Anyone can join the KCA community and get involved to help the world wide epidemic of AIDS.
This is a picture of the page I created on the Keep a Child Alive website to set goals for myself.
For my class activity everyone will decorate a cut out of an AIDS ribbon to bring awareness. I will provide the colored pencils and Scissors to do so. When everyone is finished I will hang the ribbons around the school to let the other students become aware of AIDS.
In conclusion I have learned how much this disease can harm children physically and emotionally. I feel as though I have reached my goal and have brought the awareness of Children AIDS to each and every one of you!
SGP Children's AIDS in Africa Dominique Lopez
Children’s AIDS In Africa<br />By: Dominique Lopez<br />
Children’s AIDS is more predominant now than ever because of lack of education and poor living conditions in Africa. Awareness should be brought up everywhere to help fight this epidemic.<br />
“Children who have lost parents to HIV/AIDS are not only just as deserving of an education as any other children, but they may need that education even more. Being part of a school environment will prepare them for the future, while helping to remove the stigma and discrimination unfortunately associated with AIDS.”<br />-- Harry Belafonte<br />