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ICT paradigms frameworks


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  • 1. Paradigms & Frameworks Teaching and Learning with ICT
  • 2. Teaching Styles (ORACLE)
    • A teaching strategy is how aims are translated into practice (organization, learning activities, balance of SoW); teaching tactics are how the strategy is implemented in interaction with learners. It is these tactics that make up the concept of a style.
    • For example: 
      • Individual monitors - high level of indivdiual one-one interaction
      • Class enquirers - maximize use of whole-class teaching
      • Group instructors - interaction with groups
      • Style changers - a mixture of these
  • 3. Learning Styles (ORACLE)
    • The way an individual typically approaches a learning situation and is a mix of cognitive processes and personality.
    • ORACLE:
      • Attention seekers - seek individual attention teacher
      • Intermittent workers - lowest levels of interaction, but high levels of distractive behaviour
      • Solitary workers - low interaction all round; stay on task more.
      • Quiet collaborators - work consistent;y as part of group or class. Second highest on task rate.
  • 4. Kolb
    • Experiential Leaerning: Experience as the source of learning and development (1984)
      • Converger - abstractors and active experimentation
      • Diverger - concrete experience and reflective observation
      • Assimilator - abstractors and reflective observation
      • Accommodator - concrete experience and active experimentation
  • 5. Honey & Mumford
    • The Manual of Learning Styles (1982)
    • Using Your Learning Styles (1983)
      • Having an experience - Activist
      • Reviewing the experience - Reflector
      • Concluding from the experience - Theorist
      • Planning the next steps - Pragmatist
  • 6. hmmm ...
    • Coffield et al (2004) : 71 different theories of learning styles!. Mostly flawed and based on poorly validated claims.
  • 7. Tutor, Tool, Tutee
    • Taylor describes three modes of using computers in education, which he labels tutor, tool and tutee.
      • When being used as a tutor "The computer presents some subject material, the student responds, the computer evaluates the response, and, from the results of the evaluation, determines what to present next." (p.3)
      • Example: SuccessMaker : Computer Curriculum Corporation (founded 1967 based on work done between IBM and Stanford University 1960-1967 ( See also similar PLATO )
  • 8. Tutor, Tool, Tutee (Taylor 1980)
      • When being used as a tool the computer has some functionality that saves the learner time and allows her to focus her intellectual energy on higher order tasks.
      •   Example: Spreadsheet 1979 . See " Was Visicalc the first spreadsheet? " Wordprocessor Circa 1970
  • 9. Tutor, Tool, Tutee
      • When being used as a tutee the computer is 'taught' something by being programmed by the learner. 
      •   Example: Logo. Developed 1967 by Bolt Beranek & Newman and MIT
  • 10. ICT Frameworks
    • For more frameworks and a discussion see: Index of Frameworks (Twining 2001)
  • 11. Access, Collaborate, Communicate, Experience
    • Reflections on the Computer in School (Taylor 2003)
      • Change in teachers role
      • Alternatives to text
      • Alternatives to sequential information presentation and access
    • but ...
      • rate of change
      • information overload
      • dilution and uncertainy of identity