Medical ethics final ppt.


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  • Read the beginning slide. . .
  • Just read the definition
  • Read the title
  • In 1954 the first successful single live organ was transplanted. It was a kidney donated from a living relative and transplanted in Boston. In 1966 was first successful double organ transplantation, this time a kidney and a pancreas at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.In 1968 the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act establishes the Uniform donor card as the legal document for anyone 18 or older to donate organs in the event of their death.
  • In 1968 the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act establishes the Uniform donor card as the legal document for anyone 18 or older to donate organs in the event of their death.In 1983 the FDA approved a medication known as cyclosporine which became known as an anti-rejection medication. This medication now allowed recipients to live 5 years or longer.
  • In 1990 was the first successful living - related lung transplant. A lobe of one lung was removed from a young relative and transplanted in the patient. In 1998 a hand was transplanted in Lyon, France.
  • In 1998 a law was passed that stated that all hospitals must contact the local Organ Procurement organization when an individual died within their facility. And in 2010 the world’s first full face transplant took place in Spain.
  • Bullet 1- you are placed on the organ donation list. Each organ has its own list and its own waiting period. For many people the average waiting time for an organ is 1 year.Bullet 2- Once the hospital and patient have been notified that an organ is ready and they have accepted that organ, a team called the procurement teams will go to the other hospital and retrieve the organ.Bullet 3- The time of the surgery ranges based on the organ that is being transplanted. Post surgery the patient must remain in the hospital until they have healed enough to return home.
  • By becoming an organ donor you are able to save up to 8 lives. You can be placed on the organ donor list if you chose to donate once you have passed away and in the case of emergencies you can also place identification on your license stating that you wish to become a donor. Becoming an organ donor is a very personal decision and one that you want to discuss with family members so they understand your wishes once you have passed away.
  • -first bullet: people are waiting to receive some type of organ donation-second bullet: 1 organ donor can save up to 8 lives-third bullet: people will die each day waiting for an organ-fourth bullet: the estimated number of people who die each year and meet the criteria for donation, but only half of those people actually choose to donate
  • -First bullet left side: since 2008 there has been a rising number of people put on the waiting list for organ donation-Second bullet left side: However despite the rising number of those awaiting an organ donation, the number of actual donors has gone down.-First bullet right side: being a donor does not have to be exclusively organ donation, you can also donate tissue, marrow, and heart valves that can benefit over 50 people. -Second bullet right side: Even if you have a donor card, in the event of your death doctors will still ask your family if they wish for you to be an organ donor. So make sure to let your family know how important organ donation is to you.
  • Read: What to expect: Before and after a transplant
  • First Bullet- you will be informed by your care team the reason why you are getting the surgery, be it to receive or donate an organ, They will explain the surgical process, where the surgery will take place, including marking the surgical site.Second bullet- like all surgeries it comes with risk for both the donor and the recipient. They will explain these risk like the possible immediate rejection on the recipients part which will cause the surgery to be aborted.Third bullet- And finally they will obtain a form of informed consent. Which a patient will sign saying they understand the risks of surgery and does not hold the hospital accountable.
  • Read the slide
  • First bullet- as someone with a donated organ or even donated tissue, you will need to be on life long immunosuppressants that will keep your body from rejecting the donation.Second bullet- being on immuneosuppressants means that your own immune system will always be in a constant lowered state, therefore as a recipient you must be mindful about being around those who are sick or even large crowds. Third bullet- as a recipient of an organ you will be constantly monitored by a team of health care workers who will create specialized plans of care. they will also monitor for any signs of rejection of the donated organ or tissue.
  • Left side bullet- is when the organs being transplanted have come from someone who is already deceased. Right side bullet- comes from someone who is already living or is on life support and close to death.
  • First bullet- live donors are the preferred method of donation for people looking for a transplant, they have a better over all success rate for anti-rejectionSecond bullet- live donors are very limited, most living donors are relatives or close to the person who they are donating for. The number of organs available for donation are also very limited with live donors. The most common organs of live donations are livers and kidneys.
  • First bullet- Cadaver donation is the most common form of donation, it also provides the most opportunities for different types of donation, using as many viable organs as possible. Second bullet- unfortunately cadaver donations do have higher rejection outcomes, making this type of donation riskier for the recipient.
  • These figures show the difference between cadaveric organs and live donor organs and the general outcomesAlthough outcomes tend to favor live donation, despite demand and necessity both are a vital part of our healthcare system and crucial in saving lives
  • Read the slide. . .
  • Read the slide first, then the definition with all the myth slides. This is a myth because when you are admitted to the hospital the healthcare team works together to save your life, not someone elses regardless of whether you are an organ donor or not.
  • This is a myth. Most religions allow organ donation including Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam and most branches of Judaism.
  • This is not true because after the organs are removed from the donor, the donor is stitched up and there are no visible signs that the individual was an organ donor. Having an open casket funeral is never a problem.
  • This is a myth. There is no current cut off age for donating organs. Many individuals have donated as late as their 70’s-80’s.
  • This is simply not true. It sometimes appears this way because of all of the extra publicity that they receive, but they do not rise to the top of the list any faster than any other eligible candidate.
  • This is an idea that come from movies and other media, but that is not true in the real world. You will actually receive more testing to ensure that you are legally dead if you are an organ donor than if you are not an organ donor.
  • Ethical issues in organ donation
  • First bullet- Common ethical issues in organ donation include, when you can legally remove organs from a cadaver body, who should receive organs, how recipients should be placed on the list, and ways to increase the number of donors available. Second Bullet- many donor advocates call for a change to switch US law of having an Opt-in system to an Opt-out system where everyone automatically is put on the donor list and if you choose not to donate you can take yourself off.Third Bullet- Another major ethical issue is the legalization of organ sales, Since people have sole ownership of their organs, does that mean they should be able to sell their organs as property?
  • First bullet- one possible solution to the organ shortage is viewing organs as a national resource would this be considered constitutional?Second bullet- many ask the question of who should get organs first, should it be the young versus the old, or wealthy versus the poor? If you have a criminal record or a past history of substance abuse should you be excluded from the donation list.Third bullet- Other ethical issues include family members having to deal witht the sudden loss of a loved one while making the quick decision whether to donate their family members organs or not.
  • There are a variety of sites to visit that allow you to sign up to become an organ donor. The National Network of Organ Donation is a wonderful site that includes directions for registering to become a donor. You can also register by state by searching for your states organ donor site.There are so many people in critical need for organs that explaining to all patients about organ donation is a necessity while in the hospital.
  • -First bullet left side: The Organ procurement and transplantation network is the national list that coordinates all organ donors and finds matches with waiting organ recipients-Second Bullet left side: They coordinate between all organ/ tissue banks nation wide collecting data on organs available, donor and recipient matches, and making sure that; regionally all organs are allocated evenly. -First bullet right side: The UNOS manages the OPTN making sure that the organ sharing system set in place maximizes the use of donated organs. -Second Bullet right side: They established the system which collects, stores, analyze and publishes data pertaining to the patient waiting list, organ matching and transplants.
  • First bullet: the amount of organ centers in each state varies, they all are affiliated with the Organ Procurement and Transplantation NetworkSecond Bullet: The United Network for Organ Sharing is the only private, non-profit organization contracted by the government to manage the Organ procurement and Transplantation Network
  • First bullet: The center for Donation and transplant has several location throughout the state of Vermont in Addison, Bennington, Crittenden, Franklin Grand Isle, Lamoille and Rutland counties.Second bullet: Vermont is also affiliated with the New England Organ bank. This way the sates within the New England area can share and help each other procure organs for recipients in need
  • Medical ethics final ppt.

    1. 1. ORGAN DONATIONMedical Ethics class project 2011By Megan Lewis, Charity Lloyd, Andrea Lishen, Daniel Lockwood and IanMarquis
    2. 2. DEFINITION Organ donation is the process of removal and transplantation of viable organs from donor to recipient. (“What is organ,” 2004)
    4. 4. HISTORY OF ORGAN DONATION 1954 1966
    5. 5. CONTINUED HISTORY… 1968 1983
    6. 6. HISTORY . . . 1990 1998
    7. 7. HISTORY . . . 1998 2010
    9. 9. HOW ORGAN DONATION WORKS The List Notification Surgery
    10. 10. THE DONOR
    12. 12. THE DEMAND 112,541 1:8 18 12,000
    13. 13. MEETING THE DEMAND Increased  Tissue Donation Decreased  Family/next of kin
    14. 14. Before and after a transplant WHAT TO EXPECT
    15. 15. WHAT TO EXPECT BEFORE A TRANSPLANT-  Prior to Surgery you will be informed  The risks  Informed Consent
    16. 16. WHAT TO EXPECT BEFORE ANDAFTER A TRANSPLANT-Afterthe surgery there will be a period of time of recuperationand recovery that will be needed, how much time that you willneed will depend on the surgery that was performed.-Also most likely your recovery period will be followed byphysical therapy so that you can gradually return to full strengthand functionality.
    17. 17. WHAT TO EXPECT BEFORE AND AFTER ATRANSPLANT Life long commitment Immunosuppressants Constant Care
    19. 19. LIVE VS. CADAVER DONATION Cadaver Donation  Live Donation
    21. 21. LIVE DONATION Preferred method of donation  Higher success rate Limited number of donors  Limited number of organs available
    22. 22. CADAVER DONATION Most common form of donation  Provides the most opportunities for donation Higher rejection outcomes
    23. 23. · LIVE VS. CADAVER Organ Patient Graft Survival Rate Survival Rate Kidney (cadaveric) 94.4% 89.0% Kidney (live donor) 97.9% 95.1% Liver 90.1% 82.0%
    26. 26. “Organdonation isagainst myreligion.”
    28. 28. “I’M TOO OLD TO DONATE.”
    29. 29. “I don’t agreewith organdonationbecause therich andfamous get tothe top of thelist first.”
    31. 31. Organ DonationETHICAL ISSUES
    32. 32. ETHICAL ISSUES Common ethical issues in organ donation Opt- in VS. Opt-out Legalizing organ sales
    33. 33. ETHICAL ISSUES CONT. Viewing organs as a national resource? Who should get organs first? Other ethical issues
    34. 34. U.S. ORGAN DONATION STATISTICS: -The number of patients awaiting an organ transplant exceeded 75,000 in 2001; while the available supply of organs was fewer than 25,000. -Currently more than 100,000 people are awaiting life-saving organ transplants. -Every 10 minutes another name is added to the national organ transplant waiting list. -From 1995 to 2005, the number of patients placed on the waiting list for organ transplants grew at an annualized rate of 4 percent per year. -More than 10 percent of those awaiting transplants die each year due to the shortage of human organs available.
    35. 35. BECOMING A DONOR
    37. 37. OPTN VS. UNOS Organ Procurement  United Network for and Transplantation Organ Sharing (UNOS) Network (OPTN) Organ/ Tissue banks  Managing the data
    38. 38. DONATION CENTERS 58 organ procurement organizations in the US United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)
    39. 39. DONATION CENTERS IN VERMONT Center for Donation and Transplant New England Organ Bank