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  • 1. Spanish Grammar Book!
    David Morrison
    Period: 3
    1
  • 2. 2
    Table of Contents
    El Pretérito…………………………………………………………………………………………….................................... 5
    Trigger Words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
    -Car -Gar -Zar……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
    Spock Verbs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
    Cucaracha Verbs……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
    Snake Verbs……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
    Snakey Verbs………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
    El Imperfecto………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
    Trigger words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
    Irregulars………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
    Preteritevs Imperfect……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
    Ser vsEstar……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
    Verbs like Gustar…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
    Comparative/Superlatives…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
    Transition Words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
    El Futuro ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
    Trigger Words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
    Irregulars…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
  • 3. 3
    Table of Contents
    Por………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
    Para………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
    The Conditional…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
    Irregulars…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
    Past Participle……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
    Present Perfect……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
    Past Perfect…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
    Present Perfect Subjunctive………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
    Tanto and Tan……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
    Impersonal ‘Se’……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
    Saber vsConocer………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
    Informal Commands……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
    Formal Commands……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 35
    Nosotros Commands (w/ mono verbs)…………………………………………………………………………………. 36
    Subjunctive…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
    Forming the Subjunctive………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 Irregulars……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39-40
    Impersonal Expressions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • 4. 4
    Table of Contents
    Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion……………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    Subjunctive: Conjunctions of Time………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
    Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns…………………………………………………………………………. 44-45
  • 5. El Pretérito
    -ar
    -er
    When using the preterite, take off the
    -er, -ir, or -ar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided.
    -ir
    5
  • 6. Tigger Words
    These words indicate that the preterite will be used.
    6
  • 7. -Car -gar -zar
    -gar
    -car
    When using
    -car -gar -zar verbs in the preterite, take of the
    -car, -gar, or
    -zar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided.
    -zar
    7
  • 8. Spock Verbs
    Hacer
    DAR
    SER
    IR
    VER
    Ir/Ser
    Dar/Ver
    HACER
    8
  • 9. Cucaracha Verbs
    root
    ending
    With these irregular verbs, in the preterite, change the root and add the appropriate ending.
    Note: When the verbs ‘conducir’, ‘producir’, ‘traducir’, ‘decir’, and ‘traer’ are used in the thrid-person plural, take off the i in ‘ieron’.
    9
  • 10. Snake Verbs
    If the first e in the verb in the present tense changes from e to i, then change the first e to i in the third person in the preterite.
    If the first e in the verb in the present tense changes from e to ie, then change the first e to i in the third person in the preterite.
    10
  • 11. Snakey Verbs
    For verbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, and -oer, the él/ella/usted forms use the ending "yó" (rather than ió) and the third person plural uses the ending "yeron" (rather than ieron). The remaining forms gain a written accent over the letter "i."
    Verbs that end in -uir change in the same way, but the written accent over the letter "i" only occurs in the yo form.
    Creer
    Huir
    Exceptions to the Rule:
    traeratraerdistraer
    Cucaracha
    Verbs!
    11
  • 12. El Imperfecto
    -er/-ir
    -ar
    When using the imperfect, take off the
    -er, -ir, or -ar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided.
    12
  • 13. Trigger Words
    These words indicate that the imperfect will be used.
    13
  • 14. Irregulars
    ir
    ser
    ver
    14
  • 15. Preteritev. Imperfect
    15
  • 16. Ser
    Estar
    V.
    Description
    -Es un lápiz
    Origin
    -Es de Argentina
    Characteristics
    -Es alto
    Time
    -Son las dos
    Occupation
    -Es Doctor
    Relationship
    -Es mi papá
    Possession
    -Es de mi madre
    Event
    -Es en el cine
    Dates
    -Es el lunes
    Physical Condition
    -It is a condition that can change, not a trait
    -Estoymuytristeporquesaquémalasnotas.
    Location (Not Events)
    -Es de Argentina, peroahoraesta en los EstadosUnidos.
    Present Progressive Tense (-ing verbs)
    -Estalloviendo.
    16
  • 17. Verbs Like Gustar
    Faltar
    Quedar
    Encantar
    Caer (bien/mal)
    Molestar
    Fascinar
    Aburrir
    Apetecer
    Doler
    Soprender
    Disgustar
    Interesar
    Preocupar
    Importar
    • When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used
    • 18. Gustar is often used in the conditional (me gustaría) to soften a request.
    • 19. A Adela le encanta la música de Shakira.
    • 20. A mi me intresa la músic de otrospaíses.
    • 21. A mis amigos les encantanlascanciones de Maná.
    17
  • 22. Comparatives/Superlatives
    Comparatives
    Superlatives
    They are formed with:
    the definite article + noun + más
    or
    menos + adjective
    Ex: Carlos es la persona más inteligente que trabaja aquí.
    Ex: Es la ciuEquality
    dad menos interesante del mundo.
    Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs while tanto is used with nouns and verbs.
    Irregulars
    18
  • 23. Transition Words
    19
  • 24. El Futuro
    20
  • 25. Trigger Words
    21
  • 26. Irregulars
    root
    ending
    With these irregular verbs, in the future tense, change the root and add the appropriate ending.
    22
  • 27. Por
    • Passing through
    • 28. Caminópor la calle.
    • 29. General rather than specific location
    • 30. Se encuentraporahí.
    • 31. How long something lasts
    • 32. Estuvoenfermoporsietedías.
    • 33. The cause of something
    • 34. Porsu culpa, no fuimos al cine.
    • 35. An exchange
    • 36. Cambiósu auto porunonuevo.
    • 37. Doing something in place of or instead of someone else
    • 38. Hoy portí, mañanapormí.
    • 39. A means of Transportation
    • 40. Viajaronporbarcohasta Tierra del Fuego.
    23
  • 41. Para
    • For whom something is done
    • 42. Compraremos un regalopara Sara.
    • 43. Destination
    • 44. Francisco tomó el aviónpara San Juan.
    • 45. The purpose for which something is done
    • 46. Compréanteojosparavermejor.
    • 47. To express an opinion
    • 48. Para mi, los ejercicios son fantásticos.
    • 49. To contrast or compare
    • 50. Para la maestra de español, no sabe mucho de los matematicas.
    • 51. To express idea of a deadline
    • 52. Hay queterminar la tare paramañana.
    24
  • 53. THE CONDITIONAL
    The conditional is used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or probably.
    To express speculation about the past
    Aquéldíacorreríanmás de veinticincokilómetros.
    To express the future from the perspective of the past
    Yosabíaqueabrirían la tienda a lassiete.
    To express hypothetical actions or events which may or may not occur
    Seríainteresanteestudiar chino.
    To indicate what would happen were it not for some certain specific circumstance
    Yoviajaríapero no tengodinero.
    For polite use to soften requests
    Por favor, ¿podríadecirme a quéhoraabre la gasolinera?
    To ask for advice
    ¿CuálcompraríaUd.?
    For reported speech:
    Juan dijoqueterminaría el trabajo.
    To express what would be done in a particular situation
    ¿Hablaríasinglés en España?No. Hablaríaespañol.
    Uses of the Conditional
    25
  • 54. Irregulars
    With these irregular verbs, in the future tense, change the root and add the appropriate ending.
    *Note that these irregulars are the same as the future tense
    26
  • 55. Past Participle
    Irregulars
    Most past participles can be used as adjectives. Like other adjectives, they agree in gender and number with the nouns that they modify.
    Note that for -er and -ir verbs, if the stem ends in a vowel, a written accent will be required.
    creer - creídooír - oído
    Note: this rule does not apply, and no written accent is required for verbs ending in -uir. (construir, seguir, influir, distinguir, etc.)
    The past participle can be combined with the verb "ser" to express the passive voice. Use this construction when an action is being described, and introduce the doer of the action with the word "por.“
    La casa fue construida por los carpinteros.
    27
  • 56. Present Perfect
    Irregular Past Participles
    + Past Participle
    Expresses actions that have happened recently and/or actions that still hold true in the present
    28
  • 57. Past Perfect
    Irregular Past Participles
    + Past Participle
    Expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
    29
  • 58. Present Perfect Subjunctive
    The present perfect subjunctive is formed by using the present subjunctive of the helping verb haber with the past participle
    The present perfect subjunctive is used in the same types of clauses as the present subjunctive, and normally is used to indicate the action as completed with governing verbs in the present or future tense or command forms.
    + Past Participle
    Me alegro de   I'm glad she (has) arrived.
    DudoI doubt she (has) arrived.
    NiegoI deny she (has) arrived.
    queellahayallegado.
    Es posibleIt's possible she (has) arrived.
    Lo harédespuésI'll do it after she has arrived.
    No lo hagas a menosDon't do it unless she has arrived.
    30
  • 59. Tanto and Tan
    Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs while tanto is used with nouns and verbs.
    Tanto can also be feminine and plural. (Tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas)
    31
  • 60. Impersonal ‘Se’
    Use ‘se’ to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.
    Se vendefruta en la frutería.
    When using ‘se’, the verb is always in the third person
    Aquí se hablaespañol.
    ‘Se’ can be used in all tenses
    Se hizo mucho
    Se hará mucho
    Se habiahecho
    32
  • 61. Saber vsConocer
    33
  • 62. Informal commands
    Informal commands are formed differently depending on whether the command is positive or negative.
    Negative
    Positive
    Forming the Command
    Forming the Command
    The negative informal (tú) commands are formed the same way as the present subjunctive tú form. Add the word no before it.
    The affirmative informal (tú) commands are formed the same way as the present indicative Ud. form.
    Irregulars
    Irregulars
    Irregulars are the same as the irregulars of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40)
    Irregulars
    DOP + IOP Placement
    DOP + IOP Placement
    Add DOP and IOPs between no and the command. Ex: No la compres
    Add DOP and IOPs to the end of the command. Ex: comprala
    34
  • 63. Formal commands
    All formal commands are formed the same way as the Ud. form of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40)
    Irregulars
    Negative
    To make the command negative, simply add the word no right before the command. (duh) Ex: Nocompre
    Irregulars are the same as those in the subjunctive.
    (see pages 39-40)
    DOP + IOP Placement
    For affirmative commands DOPs and IOPs are attached to the end of affirmative commands. In negative commands, they are added between the no and the command.
    35
  • 64. Nosotros Commands
    All nosotros commands are formed the same way as the nosotros form of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40)
    Irregulars
    Negative
    To make the command negative, simply add the word no right before the command. Ex: Nocompremos
    Irregulars are the same as those in the subjunctive.
    (see pages 39-40)
    DOP + IOP Placement
    Negative
    Affirmative
    Reflexive, object and indirect object pronouns are added to the end of the command
    An accent mark must be added to preserve pronunciation
    Ex: Comer + lo -> Comámoslo
    'Mono' verbs:
    When adding nos to an affirmative nosotros command, you must take off the last -s in the verb (command).
    Ex: Olvidar + nos -> Olvidémonos (Not: Olvidémosnos)
    Adding "se":
    When adding the pronoun se, the last -s must be removed from the verb (command).
    Ex: Prestar + se + la -> Prestémosela. (Not: Prestémossela)
    Reflexive, object and indirect object pronouns are added between the no and the command.
    Ex: Comer + lo (Negative) -> No locomamos
    Since the pronouns are not attached to the command, there is no need for dropping and letters or adding any accent marks.
    Mono Verbs
    36
  • 65. The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. Tense refers to when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action.
    The subjunctive mood is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity, etc.
    Because there must be some uncertainty or subjectivity to warrant the use of the subjunctive, you will usually see it in sentences that contain a main clause which introduces a quality of uncertainty or subjectivity.
    If you encounter a sentence with a main clause followed by a second clause, and the main clause introduces a quality of certainty or objectivity, the sentence will use the indicative mood in the second clause, since the sentence will be reporting something certain.
    If you encounter a sentence with a main clause followed by a second clause, and the main clause does not introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity, the sentence will usually use the subjunctive mood in the second clause, since the sentence will not be reporting something certain.
    Subjunctive
    37
  • 66. Forming the Subjunctive
    -ar Verbs
    -er -ir Verbs
    38
  • 67. The formula also works for verbs that have irregular "yo" forms in the present indicative.
    conocer (yo conozco)conozco - o = conozc
    conozc + a = conozcaconozc + as = conozcasconozc + a = conozcaconozc + amos = conozcamosconozc + áis = conozcáisconozc + an = conozcan
    For -ar and -er stem-changing verbs, the formula applies except that there is no stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms.
    pensar (yo pienso)pienso - o = piens
    piens + e = piensepiens + es = piensespiens + e = piensepens + emos = pensemospens + éis = penséispiens + en = piensen
    For -ir stem-changing verbs, the formula applies except that the stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms follows these patterns: o:ue verbs change o to u; e:ie verbs change e to i; e:i verbs change e to i.
    dormir (yo duermo)duermo - o = duerm
    duerm + a = duermaduerm + as = duermasduerm + a = duermadurm + amos = durmamosdurm + áis = durmáisduerm + an = duerman
    Zar -Car -Gar Verbs
    • For verbs that end in -zar, the z changes to c
    when it comes before the e.
    • For verbs that end in -car, the c changes to qu
    when it comes before the e.
    • For verbs that end in -gar, the c changes to gu
    when it comes before the e.
    pagar
    paguepaguespaguepaguemospaguéispaguen
    Forming the Subjunctive- Irregulars
    39
  • 68. For verbs that end in -ger or -gir, the g changes to j when it comes before the letter a.
    escoger
    escojaescojasescojaescojamosescojáisescojan
    For verbs that end in -guir, the gu changes to g when it comes before the letter a.
    seguir (e:i)
    sigasigassigasigamossigáissigan
    For verbs that end in uir, add the letter y before the letter a.
    huir
    huyahuyashuyahuyamoshuyáishuyan
    Forming the Subjunctive- Irregulars
    40
  • 69. 41
    Here is a list of common impersonal expressions that introduce an aspect of uncertainty or subjectivity, and therefore trigger the use of the subjunctive.
    Impersonal Expressions
  • 70. Subjunctive With Verbs of Emotion
    The subjunctive is made of a main clause and a subordinate clause. The main clause may contain a verb of emotion such as hope, joy, surprise, fear,and pity. The subordinate clause contains the subjunctive.
    When there is no change in the subject, use an infinitive.
    Trigger words ->
    When there is a change in the subject, use the subjunctive.
    42
  • 71. 43
    Subjunctive: Conjunctions of Time
    The following adverbial conjunctions deal with time, and are followed by the subjunctive when the main clause is a command or in the (potential) future. If they introduce one which is viewed as completed or habitual, they are followed by the indicative instead.
  • 72. 44
    Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns
    In English, we say "this" or "that" depending upon whether the object is close to us or not. In Spanish, we also say "this" and "that," but there is another, separate word used to mean "that one over there." This form is used when the object is more than just a short distance away, for example, on the other side of the room. Here are the three forms for "this" "that" and "that one over there."
    Spanish has three demonstrative words
    Juan reads this book. (adjective)Juan lee estelibro.
    Juan reads this. (pronoun)Juan lee este.
    Thatstatue is Greek.Esaestatuaesgriega.
    That(one) is American.Esaesamericana.
    These words can function ad adjectives or pronouns depending on how they are used.
  • 73. 45
    Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns
    The demonstrative adjectives also have four forms:
    estelibro (this book)estoslibros (these books)estapluma (this pen)estasplumas (these pens)
    eselibro (that book)esoslibros (those books)esapluma (that pen)esasplumas (those pens)
    aquellibro (that book over there)aquelloslibros (those books over there)aquellapluma (that pen over there)aquellasplumas (those pens over there)
    Here are the corresponding demonstrative pronouns:
    este (this one - masculine)estos (these ones - masculine)esta (this one - feminine)estas (these ones - feminine)
    ese(that one - masculine)esos (those ones - masculine)esa (that one - feminine)esas (those ones - feminine)
    aquel(that one over there - masc.)aquellos (those ones over there - masc.)aquella (that one over there - fem.)aquellas (those ones over there - fem.)
    Each demonstrative pronoun also has a neuter form. They do not change for number or gender, and they are used to refer to abstract ideas, or to an unknown object.
    esto (this matter, this thing)eso (that matter, that thing)aquello (that matter/thing over there)