Should We Be Promoting College for More?:  The Past, Present and Future of College Enrollment and Completion in the U.S. C...
High School Graduation Rates <ul><li>Source:  U.S. Department of Education, at:  http: //nces .ed. gov/programs/digest   <...
The GI Bill <ul><li>In 1943-44, President Roosevelt proposes and Congress passes the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act - the G...
College Enrollment and Graduation Rates <ul><ul><ul><li>The college enrollment rate of 18- to 24-year-olds goes from 26% i...
How About California? <ul><li>1960 Master Plan (Donahoe Higher Education Act) did not include following percentages in the...
CSU Northridge  Provost Harry Hellenbrand <ul><li>The state has been de-funding higher education for the past several year...
College Completion Rates <ul><ul><ul><li>Of the cohort that started college in 1996, 34% of those who went to 4-year insti...
The Latest in the National Debate <ul><li>“ Ha rvard Report Questions Value of ‘College for All,’” in Education Week, publ...
Critique of the Harvard Report <ul><ul><ul><li>The result of such policies are that poor and minority students are tracked...
Is college just for an elite? <ul><ul><ul><li>The wealthy send their children to elite private schools with a school-wide ...
A College-Bound Ethic in the Classroom <ul><ul><ul><li>If a secondary school student is not college-bound, the person has ...
What Can Be Done? <ul><ul><ul><li>The completion rate is a problem, but the solution is not to encourage fewer students to...
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College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011

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College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011

  1. 1. Should We Be Promoting College for More?: The Past, Present and Future of College Enrollment and Completion in the U.S. California Council for the Social Studies annual conference Friday, March 4, 2011; Sacramento, CA Scholar Session, 9:45-10:45 p.m., Salon 1 David L. Moguel, Associate Professor of Secondary Education, CSU Northridge, Eisner College of Education [email_address]
  2. 2. High School Graduation Rates <ul><li>Source: U.S. Department of Education, at: http: //nces .ed. gov/programs/digest </li></ul><ul><li>Table 103 - historical rates, 1870-2010 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1869-70, 2% of 17-year-olds in U.S. are HS graduates. In the 20 th century the graduation rate goes up every decade: 9% in 1910, 17% in 1920, 29% in 1930, 51% in 1940, 59% in 1950, 77% in 2009. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The GI Bill <ul><li>In 1943-44, President Roosevelt proposes and Congress passes the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act - the GI Bill of Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Of 8.5 million men and women released from duty 5 months after end of WWII, and several million more in the following year: </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 million attended college </li></ul><ul><li>7 million received vocational or on-the-job training </li></ul><ul><li>By 1955, 4.3 million home loans granted through GI Bill </li></ul><ul><li>GI Bill also includes unemployment compensation, federal loans to start farms and businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals, Unit 10, WWII, Teachers’ Curriculum Institute. </li></ul>
  4. 4. College Enrollment and Graduation Rates <ul><ul><ul><li>The college enrollment rate of 18- to 24-year-olds goes from 26% in 1967 to 40% in 2008. (Table 204) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of those who have completed high school, the college enrollment rate is always 6-8% higher. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2008, 69% of those who have ever completed high school (of all ages) are in college, with 41% in 4-year institutions, and 28% in 2-year institutions. (Table 388) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How About California? <ul><li>1960 Master Plan (Donahoe Higher Education Act) did not include following percentages in the statute: </li></ul><ul><li>UC: admits top one-eight, or 12.5% of HS graduates </li></ul><ul><li>CSU: admits top one-third, or 33.3% of HS graduates </li></ul><ul><li>CC: “Open Door” to all HS graduates </li></ul><ul><li>California Postsecondary Education Commission website: </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, the state average college attendance rate was 46% </li></ul><ul><li>8% of public school graduates went to UC </li></ul><ul><li>11% of public school graduates went to CSU </li></ul><ul><li>FIPSE Grant Training </li></ul><ul><li>70-75% of CC students are not transferring to UC/CSU </li></ul><ul><li>5% of Latino CC students transfer to UC, maybe 15% to CSU </li></ul>
  6. 6. CSU Northridge Provost Harry Hellenbrand <ul><li>The state has been de-funding higher education for the past several years. </li></ul><ul><li>I need more college graduates that can make higher salaries and pay more taxes, so that when I retire their contributions to Social Security and my pension benefits will ensure that I can continue to live in the lifestyle to which I would like to become accustomed to living in! </li></ul>
  7. 7. College Completion Rates <ul><ul><ul><li>Of the cohort that started college in 1996, 34% of those who went to 4-year institutions have graduated within 4 years after start: 38% of Asians, 36% of Whites, 20% of Blacks, and 23% of Hispanics. (Digest, Table 331) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within 6 years, 55% have graduated, including 63% of Asians, 58% of Whites, 39% of Blacks, and 46% of Hispanics. (Digest, Table 331) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College completion graphic: Our economy has changed such that a college degree is what a high school degree was 50 years ago. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Latest in the National Debate <ul><li>“ Ha rvard Report Questions Value of ‘College for All,’” in Education Week, published on-line February 2, 2011, appearing in February 28, 2011 issue </li></ul><ul><li>The finding of two professors at the Harvard Graduate School of Education: </li></ul><ul><li>By concentrating too much on classroom-based academics with four-year college as a goal, the nation’s education system has failed vast numbers of students who instead need solid preparation for careers requiring less than a bachelor’s degree. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Critique of the Harvard Report <ul><ul><ul><li>The result of such policies are that poor and minority students are tracked into non-college-bound tracks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states have only begun to adopt course requirements so that more students can be prepared for college and good jobs, so it is too early to call a “Co llege for All ” goal a failure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one is saying Co llege for All – most are saying At Least Some College for More </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Is college just for an elite? <ul><ul><ul><li>The wealthy send their children to elite private schools with a school-wide college-bound ethic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College is and can be for everyone -- a liberal arts education is fundamentally about reading the same things in common with other people, discussing and writing about the reading, and engaging in a set of ideas larger than oneself. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether they are Harvard professors or school teachers, how can college-educated people declare that college is good for their own children, but not good for many other people’s children? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A College-Bound Ethic in the Classroom <ul><ul><ul><li>If a secondary school student is not college-bound, the person has little reason to pay attention in class, study at home, and work hard to get a good grade in your class. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If more students had the right information -- it is affordable, there are many different kinds of institutions, it is fun, it leads to higher incomes and less unemployment -- more would choose to go to college. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going to college is based less on intelligence, intellectual capacity, race, or culture than on INFORMATION. College-educated parents know what information to give their children and to start talking about it from infancy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What Can Be Done? <ul><ul><ul><li>The completion rate is a problem, but the solution is not to encourage fewer students to go to college. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two Solutions: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing stronger school-wide college-bound ethics will improve classroom instruction, and thus student preparedness for college. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>K-12 and Higher Ed need to better match students to colleges and universities that are right for them. </li></ul></ul></ul>

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