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College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011
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College for More DL Moguel CCSSO 2011


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  • 1. Should We Be Promoting College for More?: The Past, Present and Future of College Enrollment and Completion in the U.S. California Council for the Social Studies annual conference Friday, March 4, 2011; Sacramento, CA Scholar Session, 9:45-10:45 p.m., Salon 1 David L. Moguel, Associate Professor of Secondary Education, CSU Northridge, Eisner College of Education [email_address]
  • 2. High School Graduation Rates
    • Source: U.S. Department of Education, at: http: //nces .ed. gov/programs/digest
    • Table 103 - historical rates, 1870-2010
    • In 1869-70, 2% of 17-year-olds in U.S. are HS graduates. In the 20 th century the graduation rate goes up every decade: 9% in 1910, 17% in 1920, 29% in 1930, 51% in 1940, 59% in 1950, 77% in 2009.
  • 3. The GI Bill
    • In 1943-44, President Roosevelt proposes and Congress passes the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act - the GI Bill of Rights.
    • Of 8.5 million men and women released from duty 5 months after end of WWII, and several million more in the following year:
    • 2.3 million attended college
    • 7 million received vocational or on-the-job training
    • By 1955, 4.3 million home loans granted through GI Bill
    • GI Bill also includes unemployment compensation, federal loans to start farms and businesses.
    • Source: History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals, Unit 10, WWII, Teachers’ Curriculum Institute.
  • 4. College Enrollment and Graduation Rates
        • The college enrollment rate of 18- to 24-year-olds goes from 26% in 1967 to 40% in 2008. (Table 204)
        • Of those who have completed high school, the college enrollment rate is always 6-8% higher.
        • In 2008, 69% of those who have ever completed high school (of all ages) are in college, with 41% in 4-year institutions, and 28% in 2-year institutions. (Table 388)
  • 5. How About California?
    • 1960 Master Plan (Donahoe Higher Education Act) did not include following percentages in the statute:
    • UC: admits top one-eight, or 12.5% of HS graduates
    • CSU: admits top one-third, or 33.3% of HS graduates
    • CC: “Open Door” to all HS graduates
    • California Postsecondary Education Commission website:
    • In 2008, the state average college attendance rate was 46%
    • 8% of public school graduates went to UC
    • 11% of public school graduates went to CSU
    • FIPSE Grant Training
    • 70-75% of CC students are not transferring to UC/CSU
    • 5% of Latino CC students transfer to UC, maybe 15% to CSU
  • 6. CSU Northridge Provost Harry Hellenbrand
    • The state has been de-funding higher education for the past several years.
    • I need more college graduates that can make higher salaries and pay more taxes, so that when I retire their contributions to Social Security and my pension benefits will ensure that I can continue to live in the lifestyle to which I would like to become accustomed to living in!
  • 7. College Completion Rates
        • Of the cohort that started college in 1996, 34% of those who went to 4-year institutions have graduated within 4 years after start: 38% of Asians, 36% of Whites, 20% of Blacks, and 23% of Hispanics. (Digest, Table 331)
        • Within 6 years, 55% have graduated, including 63% of Asians, 58% of Whites, 39% of Blacks, and 46% of Hispanics. (Digest, Table 331)
        • College completion graphic: Our economy has changed such that a college degree is what a high school degree was 50 years ago.
  • 8. The Latest in the National Debate
    • “ Ha rvard Report Questions Value of ‘College for All,’” in Education Week, published on-line February 2, 2011, appearing in February 28, 2011 issue
    • The finding of two professors at the Harvard Graduate School of Education:
    • By concentrating too much on classroom-based academics with four-year college as a goal, the nation’s education system has failed vast numbers of students who instead need solid preparation for careers requiring less than a bachelor’s degree.
  • 9. Critique of the Harvard Report
        • The result of such policies are that poor and minority students are tracked into non-college-bound tracks.
        • Most states have only begun to adopt course requirements so that more students can be prepared for college and good jobs, so it is too early to call a “Co llege for All ” goal a failure.
        • No one is saying Co llege for All – most are saying At Least Some College for More
  • 10. Is college just for an elite?
        • The wealthy send their children to elite private schools with a school-wide college-bound ethic.
        • College is and can be for everyone -- a liberal arts education is fundamentally about reading the same things in common with other people, discussing and writing about the reading, and engaging in a set of ideas larger than oneself.
        • Whether they are Harvard professors or school teachers, how can college-educated people declare that college is good for their own children, but not good for many other people’s children?
  • 11. A College-Bound Ethic in the Classroom
        • If a secondary school student is not college-bound, the person has little reason to pay attention in class, study at home, and work hard to get a good grade in your class.
        • If more students had the right information -- it is affordable, there are many different kinds of institutions, it is fun, it leads to higher incomes and less unemployment -- more would choose to go to college.
        • Going to college is based less on intelligence, intellectual capacity, race, or culture than on INFORMATION. College-educated parents know what information to give their children and to start talking about it from infancy.
  • 12. What Can Be Done?
        • The completion rate is a problem, but the solution is not to encourage fewer students to go to college.
        • Two Solutions:
        • Developing stronger school-wide college-bound ethics will improve classroom instruction, and thus student preparedness for college.
        • K-12 and Higher Ed need to better match students to colleges and universities that are right for them.