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Research Presentation at the 2011 Association of Marketing and HealthCare Research Annual Conference.

Research Presentation at the 2011 Association of Marketing and HealthCare Research Annual Conference.

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AMHCR 2011 Presentation AMHCR 2011 Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Hand washing for disease prevention: Analysis of Public Facilities Beth Hogan, Ph.D., CHES, Associate Professor Dept. of Management, Fayetteville State University David L. Matthews, B.S. MBA Candidate, Pfeiffer University M. Lyon, M.A., Service Learning Program Manager, Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, NC Presented to The Association for Marketing & Healthcare Research Annual Conference, Steamboat Springs, Colorado February 25, 2011
  • Introduction/Need for the Study
    • Infectious diseases are a threat to public health.
      • Norovirus
      • Seasonal Influenza
      • The common cold
      • Others
    • Emerging infectious diseases have the potential to cause pandemics with subsequent high levels of mortality and morbidity.
    • In spite of advanced technology, the simplest preventive measures are among the most effective means of reducing morbidity and mortality.
  • .   Hand washing Proven effective in reducing the spread of disease
  • Hand washing
    • Proper hand washing technique is well described by public health sources.
    • Requirements for the process are minimal.
    • Hand washing practice is underutilized among the general public as well as among healthcare providers.
    • Many health education campaigns have focused on increasing hand washing to reduce current health threats. 
  • CDC: Wash your hands the right way When washing hands with soap and water: Wet your hands with clean running water and apply soap. Use warm water if it is available. Rub hands together to make a lather and scrub all surfaces. Continue rubbing hands for 15-20 seconds. Need a timer? Imagine singing "Happy Birthday" twice through to a friend. Rinse hands well under running water. Dry your hands using a paper towel or air dryer. If possible, use your paper towel to turn off the faucet. Always use soap and water if your hands are visibly dirty.
  • Handwashing
    • In addition to the knowledge of hand washing technique, access to the needed tools is crucial.
    • Many restroom facilities do not have the needed items for effective hand washing.
    • Structural configurations of restrooms often contribute to re-contamination of hands after hand washing.
    • Although most individuals often encounter such barriers, no research studies could be found that quantified this phenomenon.
    • This fact led to a pilot study of campus restroom facilities. Results of that study were used to develop a community study.
  • Methodology & Implementation
    • The subjects of the research were public access restrooms in Fayetteville, NC belonging to organizations both public and private, that allow open access to such facilities.
    • IRB approval was obtained for the project and a consent form was not needed to explore the individual restrooms.
    • The survey instrument was designed to assess the presence of needed hand washing items as well as structural barriers to effective hand washing.
    • Data was collected by students in Human Resource Management class, consistent with course content regarding provision of safe and healthy workplace environments.
  • Methodology & Implementation
    • The city was divided among 37 students (nine groups) to focus on major high volume geographic corridors of retail/service activity.
    • All reviewed the CDC section about disease prevention via hand washing and were required to complete the NIH on-line Human Subjects Training module: presented certificate (ID number) on completion.
    • Students were given survey materials with explanation regarding completion. They completed survey forms on-site as they inspected restrooms within their designated geographic area.
    • As a courtesy, managers of businesses were given a business card that included the researchers contact information and the subjective rating of the restroom. A website was developed to provide additional information to business owners
    • Students entered the data in a spreadsheet after brief training by the researchers.
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  • Business categories Retail : basically, businesses that sell merchandise or a service, including car dealerships, car repair or parts, clothing stores, pet stores, plant or farm supply stores, bowling alleys, hair stylists, tanning salons, hotels and motels, general merchandise store such as Dollar General, etc. Restaurants: Businesses that sell food; bars are included in this category Grocery stores : Businesses that sell only groceries (Food Lion, Harris Teeter, etc) Department stores : stores that sell merchandise and are departmentalized, such as Macy’s, Sears, Target, WalMart (a combination of retail, grocery, pharmacy or others). Government: Any business that is a government-owned/operated entity, such as a library, school, court house, City Hall, Health Department, Social Services, etc Gas Stations : Businesses that sell gas and/or have a convenience store with public restroom. Health care: Urgent care facilities, medical practices, hospitals, nursing homes, dental practices, pharmacies, etc
  • Results
    • 245 restrooms were evaluated by students.
    • Evaluation revealed mixed results in terms of having the needed items as well as structural configuration to support effective hand washing.
    • 87% of the restrooms were structured in such a way that recontamination on exit was likely.
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  • Conclusions
    • As a pedagogical tool, the field project motivated students to examine the role of facility issues in terms of disease prevention.
    • The role of managers in disease prevention was reinforced.
    • Simple changes in restroom facilities could result in a greater degree of disease prevention.