Final Oral Defense 2009

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Final Oral Defense 2009

  1. 1. “Peers Influencing Peers in Recovery Schools” Final Oral Defense May 11, 2009 Debbie Lloyd, M.Ed. Doctoral Candidate University of Minnesota Department of Educational Policy and Administration Number of miles in my Honda from school to school in three months during this study: about 7,235.6 Removed 2 tons of carbon dioxide to offset the carbons produced during this study. (Carbon Planet Certificate ID: 231923288592)
  2. 2. Schulman, 1985, p. 21 “No ethical clinician would treat an adult alcoholic and upon discharge recommend that the newly recovering person spend six hours a day in a bar. However, that is exactly what we do with the adolescent. School is the „bar.‟ That is where the alcohol is. That is where the drugs are. That is where the pressure to use is found.”
  3. 3. Spear & Skala, 1995, p. 350 “Virtually all post-treatment adolescents returning to their old school report being offered drugs on their first day back.”
  4. 4. The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery
  5. 5. The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery MN Stats 2007 - 11% Illicit drug use (last month)* - 37% (9th), 63% (12th), alcohol - 13% (9th), 29% (12th), binge drinking, >5/party - 15% (9th), 31% (12th), marijuana MN Stats 2007 - 8% (9th), 14% (12th) before/during school - 16% (9th), 19% (12th) offered, sold, or given - 4% (9th), 24% (12th), drink & drive - 19% (9th), 37% (12th), passenger w/drinking driver
  6. 6. The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery - @ 9% are medically classified as having • MN School Choices substance abuse or • Traditional school substance setting dependence • Homeschooling - 11% (ages12-17) • Alternative education program received treatment • Open Enrollment during the last school • Online learning year • Postsecondary - Relapse rate is high: Enrollment Options 35% to 80% • Charter Schools - Complicating mental • Recovery-based health issues for Schools youth (depression, compulsion, bipolar, anxiety, etc)
  7. 7. The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery - @ 9% are medically classified as having • MN School Choices substance abuse or • Traditional school substance setting dependence • Homeschooling - 11% (ages12-17) • Alternative education program received treatment • Open Enrollment during the last school • Online learning year • Postsecondary - Relapse rate is high: Enrollment Options 35% to 80% • Charter Schools - Complicating mental • Recovery-based health issues for Schools youth (depression, compulsion, bipolar, anxiety, etc)
  8. 8. Research Questions: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery Student in Recovery School Environment Substance Use
  9. 9. Research Questions: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery Social Student Learning Theories School Environment Substance Use School Role Models
  10. 10. Recovery Schools (15 schools; 358 students) Recovery Schools 1. Schools operate as state recognized schools. 2. Schools provide treatment support but do not act primarily as treatment centers. 3. All enrolled students must be sober and working a program of recovery. 4. Students completing required coursework receive high school credit. 5. Each school has a plan to deal with the therapeutic and crisis needs of its students.
  11. 11. Recovery Schools (15 schools; 358 students) Recovery Schools Participating Schools (50%) 1. Schools operate as state 1. Aatshing recognized schools. 2. Alliance Academy 2. Schools provide treatment 3. Arona Academy support but do not act 4. City West Academy primarily as treatment centers. 5. Gateway 3. All enrolled students must be 6. INSIGHT sober and working a program 7. Lakes Recovery School of recovery. 8. Libre Academy 4. Students completing required 9. North Summit Academy coursework receive high 10. Oak Land Sober School school credit. 5. Each school has a plan to 11. PEASE deal with the therapeutic and 12. RSSM crisis needs of its students. 13. Safe Harbor 14. West Campus 15. Solace Alliance
  12. 12. ALC School Programs (350 schools; 12,000 students) ALC • are performing substantially below grade level • are at least one year behind in credits for graduation • are pregnant or parents • have experienced physical or sexual abuse • are chemically dependent • have mental health problems • have been homeless recently • have withdrawn from school or been chronically truant • speak English as a second language or have limited English proficiency
  13. 13. ALC School Programs (350 schools; 12,000 students) ALC Participating Schools • are performing substantially (16% of 794) below grade level • are at least one year behind in 1. Carver-Scott Ed Coop credits for graduation 2. Cass-Lake Bena ALC • are pregnant or parents 3. Crossroads ALC • have experienced physical or 4. Detroit Lakes ALC sexual abuse 5. Harmony ALC • are chemically dependent 6. Lincoln Hills ALC • have mental health problems 7. Rose Street Center • have been homeless recently 8. Spring Lake Park ALC • have withdrawn from school or been chronically truant 9. White Bear Lake ALC • speak English as a second language or have limited English proficiency
  14. 14. RS and ALC Substance Use RS, ALC, MN ALC 2007 (Survey and Minnesota Department of Education) 100% 86% 87% 80% RS 60% 51% 43% ALC 40% 34% MN ALC 22% 20% 22% 20% 4% 0% No use in last month binge drinkers/use treatment RS and ALC MN ALC 2007 (Survey) (Minnesota Department of Education) 90% 85% 77% 100% 80% 90% 68% 70% 80% 60% 70% 50% 60% 50% RS 45% 50% MN ALC 40% 30% ALC 40% 30% 30% 30% 30% 23% 19% 16% 20% 20% 11% 10% 10% 0% 0% Offered, sold drugs Drank/Used Before Drank/Used During Drank/Used After relapse relapse many times support meetings drug-free life on school property School School School
  15. 15. Approach to Substance Use Recovery Schools ALC Accountability: Meetings & Accountability: Random drug sober days are tracked. tests (survey: 29%), drug Sponsors are encouraged. dogs (lockdown) Random drug tests (survey: RS 65%). Support: Someone at school can talk to (survey: friends Support: Licensed drug 65%; school counselor counselors; Someone at 60%; teachers 36%, other school can talk to (survey: school adult 27%) friends 100%; school counselor 98%; teachers Consequences: Suspension 86%; other school adult 73%). Many staff are in recovery. “Group” at school. Consequences: Restorative justice approach
  16. 16. Demographics of Population (15 RS, 9 ALC; 306 students) - Geography - Ethnicity - Gender @50% - Length of School Enrollment - Age (16, 17, 18) - Grade level (11th, 12th) Length of School Enrollment 50.00% 46.40% 45.00% 40.00% 35.30% 35.00% 30.40% 30.00% 27.60% 22% RS 25.00% 20.00% ALC 15.00% 9.60% 11.60% 10.40% 10.00% 3.30% 3.20% 5.00% 0.00% < 1 month 1 to 3 months 3 to 6 months 6 months to 1 1 year or more year
  17. 17. Methodology: Comparative Case Study- Survey • 306 students: 181 R.S. & 125 ALC • Survey items (national & state surveys, research, administrators, students, pilot study) • 54 items • @ 20 minutes • Confidentiality and anonymity • Link to survey http://www.zoomerang.com/recipient/survey- intro.zgi?p=WEB225ULSUKY98
  18. 18. Methodology: Comparative Case Study - Interview • 90 interviews (RS 54; ALC 26) • Interviewees (>3 months sobriety) • 30 hours @ 20 min/student • Recorded interview & took notes • 600 typed pages Confidentiality and anonymity • Incentive ($5.00, thank you card)
  19. 19. Methodology: Comparative Case Study - Interview • 90 interviews (RS 54; ALC 1. Describe your school. 26) 2. Describe your previous school. Compare your • Interviewees attendance, grades, and (>3 months sobriety) classroom engagement at both schools. Future • 30 hours @ 20 plans? min/student 3. Describe friends. Influence • Recorded interview & took your decision to use or not notes use? • 600 typed pages 4. Role models at school? Confidentiality and 5. Relapse? If so, why? anonymity 6. What keeps you sober today? • Incentive ($5.00, thank 7. What can schools do to you card) help kids stay sober?
  20. 20. Data Analysis: Constant Comparative Method - 1 G10001 transcript It‟s just that we have similar pasts, and I mean I haven‟t really gotten to know a lot of people on a deeper level. Me and Themes Katie were in treatment for six months of our treatment. So I got to hear a lot of the things • Shared past that she went through, and I • Similar pasts could relate to a lot of the stuff. She really helped me to first • Helps her to understand understand that I don‟t know herself everything about staying sober and that kind of stuff from prior experience being sober. And that hurting myself and that kind of stuff was not going to get me anywhere but locked up or dead.
  21. 21. Data Analysis: Constant Comparative Method - 2 Themes G10001 Common Themes • Shared past (G10001, NS10016) • Similar pasts • Shared past • Helps her to understand • Similar pasts herself • Helps her to understand herself Themes NS10016 • Smart • Really smart • Gets work done • Gets work done • Long time sobriety • Long time sobriety
  22. 22. Data Analysis: Constant Comparative Method - 3 Themes NS10017 Common Themes (G10001, NS10016, NS10017) • Seniors • Substance use: shared • Working a good program past, similar pasts, long • Strong personalities time sobriety, working a good program • There for you • Academically: gets work • Good academically done, smart, upper • Gets work done classmen • Personality: strong personality, helps her to understand herself, relates, available
  23. 23. Results: Definition of role model Definition “A person whose • Webster behavior in a • Admired person and particular role is role model; 93% RS, imitated by others.” 86% ALC (survey) • Attitude differences (interview)
  24. 24. Results: Concept of positive role model Examples (survey) Behaviors (survey) • Family members • Abstains from drugs • Sober friends • Encourages sobriety • Teachers • Responsible for • Celebrities actions • Community members • Cares for others
  25. 25. Results: Concept of negative role model Examples (survey) Behaviors (survey) • Family members • User • Using friends • Pressure to use • Celebrities • Problem with alcohol or drug • Didn’t care about the student
  26. 26. Results: Who are the role models in recovery schools? Existence at school? • 67.4% RS and 41.6% ALC identified admired person (survey) • 93.4% RS and 65.2% identified school role model (interview)
  27. 27. Results: Who are the role models? Existence at school? Who? • 67.4% RS and 41.6% • Good friend, ALC identified boy/girlfriend, admired person acquaintance, (survey) unknown (survey) • 93.4% RS and 65.2% • School friend, school identified school role staff, “self” (interview) model (interview)
  28. 28. Who are the role models? (I10013 recovery student)
  29. 29. Results: What behaviors do role models exhibit? Substance Use & 100% Substance Use of Admired Person Attitudes of Admired 90% 80% 70% 93% 66% Person 60% 50% 40% 52% RS ALC • current, last year, 30% 28% 26% 20% 10% 0% 1% lifetime (survey) Monthly Last Year Lifetime • Condone use (survey) Condone Drinking or Use • Long time sobriety & (Times per Month) 100% 90% shared past 90% 80% 70% 60% (interview) 50% 40% 30% 32% 40% RS ALC 20% 8% 8% 10% 1% 0% 4% 1% 1% 2% 1% 4% 3% 0% 0 1 to 2 3 to 5 6 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 30 over 40
  30. 30. Results: What behaviors do role models exhibit? Personality traits & Behaviors • Traits of admired persons (survey) • Open-ended item (survey)
  31. 31. Results: What behaviors do role models exhibit? Personality traits & Themes (interviews) Behaviors 1. Enjoys life • Traits of admired 2. Motivated persons (survey) 3. Honest & trustworthy • Open-ended item 4. Available & (survey) dependable 5. Open & sharing 6. Respectful
  32. 32. Behaviors - Summary “The most popular kids tend to be the kids who work the best programs and have the most clean time.” -W10004, RS student long time sobriety, shared past, continued recovery work, happy & successful
  33. 33. Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Conversations about Drugs or Alcohol Time and 100.00% 90.00% Conversations 80.00% 70.00% 68.20% 63% 66.90% 60.40% 60.00% RS • Talked about 50.00% ALC 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% substance use with 10.00% 0.00% AP talks to You You talk to AP one another (survey) • After school activities Time with Admired Person (Often or All of the time) vs school-sponsored 80.00% 70.00% 74.40% 70.10% 60.00% 52.90% activities (survey) 50.50% 50.00% 43.90% 36.70% RS 40.00% 31.00% 25.00% ALC 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% At School Outside of School Phone or Computer School-sponsored
  34. 34. Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Identifying Influencing Non-users Influences 100% Factors 90% 80% 70% “If you do not use alcohol, 60% 54% 50% RS 50% 40% ALC marijuana, or other 30% 20% 10% 11% 10% drugs…” 0% Student does not drink/use Student encourages me to be clean and sober “If you do use alcohol, Users Influences marijuana, or other 3% drugs…” 2% 2% • Non-using student 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% RS ALC • Non-using student’s 1% 0% encouragement Student does not drink/use Student encourages me to be clean and sober
  35. 35. Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Amount of Influence 100% Adult Role Model “How much influence do 90% 80% 70% 60% the following have 45% RS 50% 44% 35% ALC 40% 28% 30% 18% on keeping you 20% 10% 0% 8% 12% 9% clean and sober?” None Not Much Some Most School Peer Role Model 100% 1. Adult role model 90% 80% 70% 60% RS 2. Peer role model 50% 40% 30% 50% 32% 33% ALC 20% 20% 19% 22% 15% 10% 10% 0% None Not Much Some Most
  36. 36. Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Admired Student Has the Most Influence over Drug and Alcohol Use 100% 90% 80% 71% 70% 60% RS 50% 44% ALC 40% 34% 30% 17% 15% 20% 9% 6% 5% 10% 0% None Some Great Deal Don't Know Most Influence “Who has the most influence over your alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use?” - A student at my school who I admire and look up to at school (34%)
  37. 37. Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Admired Person’s Influence “How much influence do you think this person (identified admired person) has over your drinking, marijuana use, or the use of other drugs?” Admired Person's Influence 100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.80% RS 50.00% 34.80% 34.80% ALC 40.00% 27.40% 30.40% 30.00% 21.80% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% None Some Great Deal
  38. 38. Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Interview Statement of Influence Statements RS ALC Total # % # % # % Positive 17 94% 4 80% 21 91% Statements No Influence 1 6% 1* 20% 2 9% Statement 18 5* 23
  39. 39. Summary Research Questions • Who are the role models 1. 67-93% RS had role in recovery schools? model at school 2. Staff, students, self • What behaviors do they 3. Long time sobriety, exhibit? history of use, working a program of recovery, happy and successful • To what extent do 4. Testimonials of influence recovering students 5. Survey items emulate those role models?
  40. 40. Summary Research Questions • Who are the role models 1. 67-93% RS had role in recovery schools? model at school 2. Staff, students, self • What behaviors do they 3. Long time sobriety, exhibit? history of use, working a program of recovery, happy and successful • To what extent do 4. Testimonials of influence recovering students 5. Survey items emulate those role models?
  41. 41. Summary Research Questions • Who are the role models 1. 67-93% RS had role in recovery schools? model at school 2. Staff, students, self • What behaviors do they 3. Long time sobriety, exhibit? history of use, working a program of recovery, happy and successful • To what extent do 4. Testimonials of influence recovering students 5. Survey items emulate those role models?
  42. 42. Summary • Sober Students and Recovery Schools • Sober role models and their influence • Transforming into role models • Sober role models and self-empowerment
  43. 43. Summary • Sober Students and 1. RS students 89% (38%) Recovery Schools sober last month 2. RS role model 27% • Sober role models and (9%) sober over a year their influence 3. 93% had role models 4. Role model sober > yr • Transforming into role 5. Influence of recovery models school environment and role models on • Sober role models and transformation self-empowerment
  44. 44. Recommendations (What can schools do?) Recovery Schools Traditional Schools • Mentoring Programs • Placement decisions • Program evaluation
  45. 45. SS Influences to Drink/Use - Results 1 - Top 9 reasons "to use" in the past 1. High or buzz (96%) 2. Deal with stress (87%) 3. Forget problems (87%) 4. Easy to get (79%) 5. Became addicted (78%) 6. Important friends drank/used (73%) 7. Thrill to be bad or break the law (57%) 8. Family drinks/uses (43%) 9. To make friends (42%)
  46. 46. SS Influences to Drink/Use - Results 1 - Top 10 reasons "to currently Use“ 1. Enjoy the high (12%) 2. Physical feeling (10%) 3. Have more fun (9%) 4. Deal with stress (9%) 5. Something to do (8%) 6. Helps me sleep (7%) 7. Non-school friends drink/use (7%) 8. I'm more creative (6%) 9. I'm more fun (6%) 10. To celebrate with the community (6%)
  47. 47. SS Influences to Not to Use - Results 2 - Top 10 reasons "not to use“ 1. School friends encourage sobriety (78%) 2. I feel better about myself when sober (77%) 3. I have better friends when sober (73%) 4. Afraid of school dismissal (68%) 5. Disappoint parents (67%) 6. Higher Power (65%) 7. Have more fun when sober (63%) 8. Non-school friends encourage sobriety (63%) 9. Police trouble (61%) and Drug Treatment program (61%) 10. Non-drinking school friends (60%)
  48. 48. SS Influences to Not to Use - Results 2 - Top 7 “Most” Influential (scale 1 – 4) 1. Support group (65%) 2. Effects on family and friends (52%) 3. Higher Power (51%) 4. Sponsor (49%) 5. Hurting others (43%) 6. School community (42%) 7. Parents (40%) Least Influential 1. Community organizations (86%) 2. TV Shows (74%) 3. TV (72%) 4. Religious organizations (65%)
  49. 49. “Peers Influencing Peers in Recovery Schools” Final Oral Doctoral Defense May 11, 2009 Debbie Lloyd, M.Ed. Doctoral Candidate University of Minnesota Department of Educational Policy and Administration Number of miles in my Honda from school to school in three months during this study: about 7,235.6 Removed 2 tons of carbon dioxide to offset the carbons produced during this study. (Carbon Planet Certificate ID: 231923288592)
  50. 50. Influences 1. Past reasons to drink/use 2. Current reasons to drink/use 3. Influences “not” to drink/use - Self - Family -School - Treatment -Community -Friends -Role Models Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  51. 51. Interview: “Influences and Reasons to Use and Not to Use” “to use is to “drugs die!” “peace drug” “the kill fear” “friends future” and “my son, higher “daughter” power, will to “escape family” live, school” “to lose weight” reality” “to fit in” “I‟m pregnant” “clean „till I leave parent‟s “I‟m tired of “divorce and house” fuckin‟ up” breakup with “divorce” girlfriend” “It‟s fun” “life style” “school” “sponsor” “meetings” “to impress “i‟m addicted” a boy… how “loved getting fucked up” stupid” “felt important” “nothing better to do”
  52. 52. SS Influences to Drink/Use - Results 1 - Top 9 reasons "to use" in the past 1. High or buzz (96%) 2. Deal with stress (87%) 3. Forget problems (87%) 4. Easy to get (79%) 5. Became addicted (78%) 6. Important friends drank/used (73%) 7. Thrill to be bad or break the law (57%) 8. Family drinks/uses (43%) 9. To make friends (42%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  53. 53. SS Influences to Drink/Use - Results 1 - Top 10 reasons "to currently Use“ 1. Enjoy the high (12%) 2. Physical feeling (10%) 3. Have more fun (9%) 4. Deal with stress (9%) 5. Something to do (8%) 6. Helps me sleep (7%) 7. Non-school friends drink/use (7%) 8. I'm more creative (6%) 9. I'm more fun (6%) 10. To celebrate with the community (6%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  54. 54. SS Influences to Not to Use - Results 2 - Top 10 reasons "not to use“ 1. School friends encourage sobriety (78%) 2. I feel better about myself when sober (77%) 3. I have better friends when sober (73%) 4. Afraid of school dismissal (68%) 5. Disappoint parents (67%) 6. Higher Power (65%) 7. Have more fun when sober (63%) 8. Non-school friends encourage sobriety (63%) 9. Police trouble (61%) and Drug Treatment program (61%) 10. Non-drinking school friends (60%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  55. 55. SS Influences to Not to Use - Results 2 - Top 7 “Most” Influential (scale 1 – 4) 1. Support group (65%) 2. Effects on family and friends (52%) 3. Higher Power (51%) 4. Sponsor (49%) 5. Hurting others (43%) 6. School community (42%) 7. Parents (40%) Least Influential 1. Community organizations (86%) 2. TV Shows (74%) 3. TV (72%) 4. Religious organizations (65%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  56. 56. Friends - Sober School Results - 1. Majority of sober school students have school friends who do not drink or use, encourage sobriety, and have a great deal of influence over his or her decision to use or not use. 2. Over half of sober school students have non- school friends who drink or use, encourage sobriety, and have a great deal of influence over his or her decision to use or not use. 3. A large percentage (41%) have non-school friends who do NOT drink or use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  57. 57. Friends - Sober School Results - 4. Non-drinking/non-using friends have more influence than drinking/using friends. 5. They feel that they have better friends and more friends when clean and sober. 6. The majority of students (83%) indicated that they drank/used in the past because friends important to them also drank/used. 7. Students appear to be tolerant of others who do drink/use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  58. 58. Friends - Sober School Results - 8. Forty-five percent indicated they spend most of their time with school friends and 22% spend their time with both school and non-school friends. 9. Sober school students feel that their friends from their school and outside of their school care about them. 10. Majority of time spent with school friends. 11. Adult sober friends (64%) and adult sober role models (80%) have some or most influence over decision to use or not use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  59. 59. Past Reasons “To” Drink/Use Sober Schools ALC’s 75%-100% -High or buzz (96%) -Deal with stress (87%) -Forget problems (87%) -Easy to get (79%) -Became addicted (78%) 50%- 75% -Important friends drank/used (73%) -High or buzz (66%) -Thrill to be bad or break the law (57%) -Deal with stress (62%) -Easy to get (54%) 25%- 50% -Family drinks/uses (43%) -Forget problems (48%) -To make friends (42%) -Important friends drank/used (38%) -Thrill to be bad or break the law (27%) -Family drinks/uses (26%) -Became addicted (26%) Under 25% -Community celebrations (25%) - Community celebrations (20%) - Drank/used to make friends (14%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  60. 60. Influences decision “to” use: S.S (+80% of SS stated they do “not” use; top 10 Influences) Self Family School Community -enjoy the high -rebel against family -school friends -something to do (8%) (12%) rules (3%) drink/use (3%) -non-school friends -physical feeling (10%) -My brothers or sisters -school friends drink/use (7%) -Have more fun (9%) drink/use (3%) encourage me to -community drinks/uses to -One or both of my drink/use (3%) celebrate (6%) -deal with stress (9%) parents encourages me -I perform better in -have more friends when -helps sleep (7%) to drink/use (1%) school (2%) drinking/using (5%) -I’m more creative (6%) -Alcohol and other -Drinking/using makes me -I’m more fun (6%) drugs are available at feel part of the community -better concentration my school (2%) (2%) (3%) -school role model -Have better friends when -feel better about self encourages me to drinking/using (2%) (3%) drink/use (1%) -Believe it’s OK to -School role model drink/use (3%) drinks/uses (1%) -Believe drinking/use not dangerous to my health (2%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  61. 61. Influences decision “not” to use: S.S (3% use) % Self Family School Tx Community 70%- I feel better about School friends encourage I have better friends 100% self when sober sobriety (78%) when sober (73%) (77%) 50%- -Have more fun -Disappoi -School dismissal (68%) -Higher -Non-school friends 69% (63%) nt parents - Non-drinking school power encourage sobriety - Bad for health (67%) friends (60%) (65%) (63%) (50%) - Parents -Against school rules -Drug - Police trouble would (57%) Treatment (61%) object -Negative school (61%) (56%) performance (59%) - Sponsor -Student role model (50%) encourages sobriety (53%) - Nondrinking student (50%) 25%- -Worried about -brothers -alcohol and drugs not -Random -have more friends 49% body in the future and available at my school drug tests (48%) (30%) sisters do (40%) (48%) -non-school friends -Don’t want to look not -school alcohol/drug do not drink/use stupid (26%) drink/use education (30%) (41%) (23%) -not lose job (34%) Under -Drinking/using against my principles or religious beliefs (20%) -Community 25% - Makes me physically sick (14%) disapproval (20%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  62. 62. Self Influences “not” to use (S.S.) #1 70% 63% 60% 50% 50% None 41% Not Much 40% 30% 32% 31% Some 29% 28% 30% 26% 24% 26% 22% 20% Most 20% 18% 20% 14% 16% 15% "An" 10% 10% 7% 0% Health Future Body Makes sick Medication Appear to My Looking others appearance Stupid No Influence Not much Some Influence Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC Health 10% 14% 29% 18% 41% 40% 20% 28% 50% 27% Medication 63% 87% 15% 10% 16% 1% 7% 3% NA NA Future Body NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 30% 14% Makes me sick NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 14% 6% Appear to 22% 33% 26% 18% 32% 31% 20% 19% NA NA others My appearance 18% 28% 24% 18% 31% 24% 28% 29% NA NA Looking Stupid NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 26% 14% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  63. 63. Self Influences “not” to use (S.S.) #2 90% 77% 80% 70% 63% None 60% Not Much 50% 43% Some 40% 33% 33% 34% 33% 30% Most 25% 27% 30% 22% 22% 20% 20% 20% 20% "An" 20% 12% 16% 11% 10% 0% My Mood I decide Feel Better Hurt Self Hurt My Beliefs More Fun Others No Not much Some Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC My mood 12% 33% 22% 24% 33% 23% 33% 20% NA NA I decide 20% 18% 21% 14% 25% 19% 34% 49% NA NA Feel Better about self NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 77% 27% Hurting self 20% 40% 20% 18% 33% 20% 27% 21% NA NA Hurting others 11% 39% 16% 13% 30% 22% 43% 14% NA NA My beliefs NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 20% 27% Have more fun NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 63% 16% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  64. 64. Community Influences “not” to use (S.S.) 100% 90% 86% 80% 74% 72% 70% 65% None 61% 60% Not Much 50% 45% Some 37% 35% 40% Most 28% 30% 20% 22% 22% 21% 24% 20% 20% "An" 15% 15% 17% 18% 20% 13% 14% 10% 8% 10% 4% 5% 3%2% 4% 1% 0% Organizations Religious Orgs TV Shows TV My Music Job Prison/Police Community Disapproval No Influence Not much Some Most “An” Influence SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC Organizations 86% 87& 10% 5% 4% 1% 1% 7% NA NA Religious Orgs 65% 75% 15% 7% 15% 8% 5% 10% NA NA Social NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 20% 11% Disapproval TV Shows 74% 64% 20% 21% 3% 9% 2% 6% NA NA TV 72% 60% 17% 19% 8% 13% 4% 8% NA NA My Music 37% 43% 22% 20% 28% 28% 13% 9% NA NA Job 45% 46% 14% 9% 22% 26% 18% 30% 34% 14% Prison/police 21% 41% 20% 7% 24% 23% 35% 29% 61% 29% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  65. 65. School Influences “not” to use (S.S.) (not include school friends/role models) 45% 42% SS 40% 38% 80% 35% 33% 32% 32% 68% 31% 70% 30% None 59% 60% 25% Not Much 50% 21% 40% 20% 17% 18% 17% Some 40% SS 30% Most 15% 12% 30% 10% 8% 20% 5% 10% 0% 0% Availability Drug School Sch Community Staff Rules Education Dismissal Pfmce No Influence Not much Some Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC School Community 8% 52% 17% 24% 33% 17% 42% 8% NA NA Staff 12% 47% 18% 21% 38% 21% 32% 12% NA NA School Rules 17% 55% 21% 22% 32% 16% 31% 7% 57% 14% Drug Availability NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 40% 6% Drug Education NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 30% 6% School dismissal NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 68% 18% Neg School pfmc NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 59% 26% effect Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  66. 66. Family Influences “not” to use (S.S.) 60% SS 52% 50% 45% 80% 67% 40% 70% 40% 35% No 56% 60% 30% Not Much 50% 30% 25% 40% SS 22% Some 23% 30% 18% Most 20% 20% 11% 10% 10% 10% 6% 6% 0% drink/use Disappoint Parents Object Siblings Parents not 0% Effects on Parents Siblings Family No Influence Not much Some Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC Parents 6% 19% 10% 15% 45% 35% 40% 31% NA NA disappoint parents NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 67% 22% Parents would object NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 56% 20% Siblings 18% 24% 22% 23% 35% 29% 25% 24% NA NA Siblings not NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 23% 14% drink/use Effects on family & 6% 38% 11% 14% 30% 26% 52% 22% NA NA friends Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  67. 67. Treatment Influences “not” to use (S.S.) 70% 65% 65% SS 60% 70% 65% 49% 61% 50% 60% None 50% 48% 36% 50% 40% Not Much 30% 40% 30% 25% 26% 26% 26% 26% Some SS 23% 22% 30% 17% 17% Most 20% 14% 20% 7% 7%8% 9% 10% 10% 6% 0% 0% Drug Sponsor Higher Random Treatment Drug Support Sponsor Higher Treatment Power Drug Strategies Knowledge Group Power Tests No Influence Not much Some Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC Treatment Strategies 17% 53% 17% 14% 36% 24% 30% 9% NA NA Drug Knowledge 25% 35% 26% 14% 26% 20% 23% 23% NA NA Treatment Info NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 61% 9% Support Group 7% 67% 6% 11% 22% 13% 65% 9% NA NA Sponsor 26% 78% 8% 7% 25% 8% 49% 7% 50% 5% Higher Power 14% 50% 9% 8% 26% 20% 51% 22% 65% 16% Random Drug Tests NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 48% 10% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  68. 68. Influences 1. Past reasons to drink/use 2. Current reasons to drink/use 3. Influences “not” to drink/use - Self - Family -School - Treatment -Community -Friends -Role Models Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  69. 69. Interview: “Influences and Reasons to Use and Not to Use” “to use is to “drugs die!” “peace drug” “the kill fear” “friends future” and “my son, higher “daughter” power, will to “escape family” live, school” “to lose weight” reality” “to fit in” “I‟m pregnant” “clean „till I leave parent‟s “I‟m tired of “divorce and house” fuckin‟ up” breakup with “divorce” girlfriend” “It‟s fun” “life style” “school” “sponsor” “meetings” “to impress “i‟m addicted” a boy… how “loved getting fucked up” stupid” “felt important” “nothing better to do”
  70. 70. Friends 1. School friends 2. Non-school friends 3. Sober friends 4. Drinking/using friends 5. Friends care about me 6. Time spent with friends 7. Adult friends Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  71. 71. Interview: “Friends (using and non-using)” “normies; not “true friend “using friends respects addicts” don‟t drink your around me” decision” “they don‟t “choosing “all sober” drink to get friends” drunk” “two friends “using friends are not your died” friends; they just want someone to use with” “It’s their decision; now its “ditched “I‟m my own person” not for me” using friends” Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  72. 72. Friends - Sober School Results - 1. Majority of sober school students have school friends who do not drink or use, encourage sobriety, and have a great deal of influence over his or her decision to use or not use. 2. Over half of sober school students have non- school friends who drink or use, encourage sobriety, and have a great deal of influence over his or her decision to use or not use. 3. A large percentage (41%) have non-school friends who do NOT drink or use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  73. 73. Friends - Sober School Results - 4. Non-drinking/non-using friends have more influence than drinking/using friends. 5. They feel that they have better friends and more friends when clean and sober. 6. The majority of students (83%) indicated that they drank/used in the past because friends important to them also drank/used. 7. Students appear to be tolerant of others who do drink/use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  74. 74. Friends - Sober School Results - 8. Forty-five percent indicated they spend most of their time with school friends and 22% spend their time with both school and non-school friends. 9. Sober school students feel that their friends from their school and outside of their school care about them. 10. Majority of time spent with school friends. 11. Adult sober friends (64%) and adult sober role models (80%) have some or most influence over decision to use or not use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  75. 75. School & Non-School Friends School Friends Non School Friends S.S ALC S.S. ALC No friends 3% 5% 10% 3% Not drink/use 60% 11% 41% 16% Not drink/use 84% 6% 19% 12% Drinks/uses 3% 33% 7% 37% Some drink/use 12% 79% 58% 62% All drink/use 1% 10% 14% 22% Encourages sobriety 78% 18% 63% 24% Encourages drink/use 3% 8% 3% 7% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  76. 76. Sober Schools: Friends 90% 84% 78% 80% 70% 60% 63% 58% 60% Sch Friend 50% 41% Non-Sch Friend 40% 30% 19% 20% 10% 14% 12% 10% 3% 3% 7% 1% 3% 3% 0% Q36/Q38: No Q22: Does NOT Q36/Q38: Does Q22: Q23: Drinks or Q36/Q38: All Q36/Q38: Some Q23: Encourage friends drink or use. not drink or use Encourages me uses. Use Use me to drink or to stay clean and use. sober. School Non School School Non School Friends Friends Friends Friends No friends 3% 10% Drinks/uses 3% 7% Not drink/use 60% 41% All drink/use 1% 14% Not drink/use 84% 19% Some drink/use 12% 58% Encourages 78% 63% Encourages 3% 3% sobriety drink/use Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  77. 77. Influence of Friends: To Use Influences Sober School ALCs Most influence #43: Friends who do NOT attend my None 31% None 46% over your school Some 37% Some 30% alcohol, Great Deal 32% Great Deal 24% marijuana, and #43: Friends who DO attend my school None 22% None 58% other drug Some 38% Some 30% use? Great Deal 40% Great Deal 13% Past Reasons Drank/Used to make friends 42% 14% to Use Friends, important to me, drink or use 83% 38% drugs To use Q23:I have more friends when I’m 5% 5% drinking or using drugs Q23:I have better friends when I’m 3% 2% drinking or using drugs Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  78. 78. “Who has the most influence over your alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use?” 45% 40% 40% 37% 38% 35% 31% 31% 30% 25% 22% School Friends Sober School Students 20% Non-School Friends 15% 10% 5% 0% No Influence Some Great Deal of Influence Influence Influences Sober School ALCs #43: Friends who do NOT attend my None 31% None 46% school Some 37% Some 30% Great Deal 32% Great Deal 24% #43: Friends who DO attend my school None 22% None 58% Some 38% Some 30% Great Deal 40% Great Deal 13% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  79. 79. Influence of Friends “Not to Use…” Influences Sober Schools ALC’s 24: Your friends who DO drink/use have on None: 55% None: 48% keeping you clean and sober. Some/Most: 24% Some/Most: 26% 24: Your friends who do NOT drink/use have on None: 5% None: 31% keeping you clean and sober. Some/Most: 85% Some/Most: 56% 26: People my age who live clean and sober lives None: 8% None: 33% Some/Most: 83% Some/Most: 43% 24. Non-school friends None: 25% None: 38% Some/Most: 52% Some/Most: 39% 26: School friends None: 8% None:22% Some/Most: 81% Some/Most: 34% 24. Boyfriend None: 62% None: 58% Some/Most: 29% Some/Most: 34% 22: I have more friends when I'm clean and 48% 13% sober. 22: I have better friends when I'm clean and 73% 19% sober Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  80. 80. Sober School Students 80% 73% 65% 68% 70% 60% 55% 47% 46% 48% 50% 44% 38% 39% 35% 35% None 40% 30% 21% 25% 23% Not much 17% 17% 16% 15% 18% 20% 7% 10% 5% 9% 8% 11% 8% 7% 11% Some 10% 2% 0% Most g s d s s rs nd s s Yes in en nd nd nd nd se ee rie us f ri rie ie rie /U rie rP yf k/ Fr irl ks rF hF hF Bo in G be e rin dr t te Sc Sc or So on D Be M on N N Influences “not to use” None Not Much Some Most Yes 24: Drink/use 55% 21% 17% 7% NA 24: Do NOT drink/use 5% 10% 38% 47% NA 26: Sober Peers 8% 9% 44% 39% NA 24. Non-school friends 25% 23% 35% 17% NA 26: School friends 8% 11% 35% 46% NA 24. Boyfriend 65% 7% 15% 16% NA 24. Girlfriend 68% 2% 11% 18% NA 22. More friends NA NA NA NA 48% 22. Better friends NA NA NA NA 73% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  81. 81. Other Friend information Sober School ALC Peers OK for friends but SA 23%; A 30%; T 53% SA 11%; A 30%; T 41% not for me D 22%; SD 26%; T 48% D 38%; SD 21%; T 59% Friends talk to at Yes! 87% 63% school about drugs Adult Sober adult friends None 15% 38% Friends Not Much 21% 21% Some 42% 26% Most 22% 14% Sober adult friends None 8% 45% Role Models Not Much 12% 9% Some 35% 28% Most 45% 17% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  82. 82. “Who do you spend the most time with after school?” Influences Sober ALCs Sober School Students School School 45% 26% School Friends Friends Non-School 26% 56% 22% Friends Nonschool Friends No one., I 7% 4% 45% don’t have 7% No one. I don't any friends have any School and 22% 14% friends Non-School 26% School and Friends NonSchool Friends Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  83. 83. “Friends care about me?” School or Non-School Friends Sober School ALCs Sober School Students Friends Not at all: 1% Not at all: 8% 60% 52% who Some or little bit: Some or little bit: 50% 46% “DO” 16% 32% 40% School Friends 34% attend 29% Cares about me: Cares about me: 30% my 34% 44% Non-School Friends 20% 16% school 8% 10% Very much: 46% Very much:15% 10% 1% 0% Friends Not at all: 8% Not at all: 4% Not at Some Care Very all about much who do Some or little bit: Some or little bit: me “NOT” 10% 19% attend Cares about me: Cares about me: my 29% 26% school Very much: 52% Very much: 50% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  84. 84. Influence of Role Models (I10011, NS10017, L10003)
  85. 85. Limitations ALC Traditional Schools • Sample size • Drug-free zones • Possible hidden • Role model behavior bias and trait differences in • Substance use traditional school attitude differences setting • Variety of “issues” • Continuum of care
  86. 86. Many, many issues in the field… • Effectiveness of random UAs • Responsible drinking vs abstinence • Cycle of adolescent recovery (addict, recovery, relapse, recovery, etc.) • Drug-free lifestyle for adolescents (in our world), sober fun • 12 step program in public schools? Charter? • Role of Non-using and using friends • Adolescent diagnosis as an addict • Will power vs physical dependence (moral weakness, disease model) • Social acceptance • New brain research (pharmocogenetic therapy) • Influences?? • School safety • Best practices (restorative justice, school communities, small schools) • Recovery-based schools for non-addicts • Effectiveness of AA, NA, CMA, etc. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  87. 87. Behavior of Role Models (G10001, NS10016, NS10017)
  88. 88. Behavior of Role Models (G10001, NS10016, NS10017) • Similar past
  89. 89. Behavior of Role Models (G10001, NS10016, NS10017) • Similar past • Long time sobriety
  90. 90. Behavior of Role Models (G10001, NS10016, NS10017) • Similar past • Working a good, strong • Long time sobriety program • Seniors • Strong personalities • There for you • Doing well academically
  91. 91.  This study focuses on peer role models and his or her possible influence upon an individual‟s sobriety.  As part of the study we conducted a web-based survey and interviewed students.  The purpose of this presentation is to share the preliminary results from the survey and interviews.  Thanks to the many participating schools that belong to ARS. Number of miles in my Honda from school to school in three months during this study: about 7,235.6 Removed 2 tons of carbon dioxide to offset the carbons produced during this study. (Carbon Planet Certificate ID: 231923288592) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  92. 92. Shared Recovery-based High School Philosophy 1. Recovery Schools operate as State-recognized high schools designed specifically for students recovering from chemical dependency. 2. Recovery Schools provide academic services and recovery assistance, post-treatment support, or continuing care, but they do not operate primarily as treatment centers or mental health agencies. 3. Recovery Schools require all recovering students to be sober and working a program of recovery (as determined by the student and the school) while enrolled. In high school programs, all enrolled students are recovering students. (Association of Recovery Schools (ARS), 2007, http://recoveryschools.org) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  93. 93. Shared Recovery-based High School Philosophy 4. Recovery Schools offer academic courses for which students receive credit towards a high school or college diploma and provide services which assist the student in making the transition into a college, a career, or another high school. 5. Recovery Schools have a plan in place to handle the therapeutic and crisis needs of students. These plans can include full or part-time licensed counselors on staff, out-sourced counseling contracts, or a written referral plan. Any identified counselors (preferably chemical dependency counselors) must meet their State’s requirements for licensure or certification. (Association of Recovery Schools (ARS), 2007, http://recoveryschools.org) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  94. 94. Minnesota Alternative Education • Alternative programs allow students who are at risk of not graduating to attend nontraditional schools, both public and private, and earn a diploma. Minnesota has more than 150 alternative programs at more than 600 sites throughout the state. Although most are focused on helping high school and adult students, alternative programs also serve students in grades K-8 whose education might otherwise be at risk. Many programs combine academics with a strong vocational emphasis. Minnesota Department of Education, 2007 http://education.state.mn.us/mde/Academic_Excellence/School_Choice/P ublic_School_Choice/Alternative_Education/index.html Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
  95. 95. Minnesota Alternative Education Eligible students under age 21 are those who meet any of the following criteria: (1) performing substantially below grade level (2) one year behind in credits (3) pregnant or parents (4) physical or sexual abuse (5) chemically dependent (6) mental health problems (7) homeless (8) truant (9) limited English proficiency. Minnesota Department of Education, 2007 http://education.state.mn.us/mde/Academic_Excellence/School_Choice/P ublic_School_Choice/Alternative_Education/index.html Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007

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