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Final Oral Defense 2009
 

Final Oral Defense 2009

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    Final Oral Defense 2009 Final Oral Defense 2009 Presentation Transcript

    • “Peers Influencing Peers in Recovery Schools” Final Oral Defense May 11, 2009 Debbie Lloyd, M.Ed. Doctoral Candidate University of Minnesota Department of Educational Policy and Administration Number of miles in my Honda from school to school in three months during this study: about 7,235.6 Removed 2 tons of carbon dioxide to offset the carbons produced during this study. (Carbon Planet Certificate ID: 231923288592)
    • Schulman, 1985, p. 21 “No ethical clinician would treat an adult alcoholic and upon discharge recommend that the newly recovering person spend six hours a day in a bar. However, that is exactly what we do with the adolescent. School is the „bar.‟ That is where the alcohol is. That is where the drugs are. That is where the pressure to use is found.”
    • Spear & Skala, 1995, p. 350 “Virtually all post-treatment adolescents returning to their old school report being offered drugs on their first day back.”
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery MN Stats 2007 - 11% Illicit drug use (last month)* - 37% (9th), 63% (12th), alcohol - 13% (9th), 29% (12th), binge drinking, >5/party - 15% (9th), 31% (12th), marijuana MN Stats 2007 - 8% (9th), 14% (12th) before/during school - 16% (9th), 19% (12th) offered, sold, or given - 4% (9th), 24% (12th), drink & drive - 19% (9th), 37% (12th), passenger w/drinking driver
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery - @ 9% are medically classified as having • MN School Choices substance abuse or • Traditional school substance setting dependence • Homeschooling - 11% (ages12-17) • Alternative education program received treatment • Open Enrollment during the last school • Online learning year • Postsecondary - Relapse rate is high: Enrollment Options 35% to 80% • Charter Schools - Complicating mental • Recovery-based health issues for Schools youth (depression, compulsion, bipolar, anxiety, etc)
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery - @ 9% are medically classified as having • MN School Choices substance abuse or • Traditional school substance setting dependence • Homeschooling - 11% (ages12-17) • Alternative education program received treatment • Open Enrollment during the last school • Online learning year • Postsecondary - Relapse rate is high: Enrollment Options 35% to 80% • Charter Schools - Complicating mental • Recovery-based health issues for Schools youth (depression, compulsion, bipolar, anxiety, etc)
    • Research Questions: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery Student in Recovery School Environment Substance Use
    • Research Questions: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery Social Student Learning Theories School Environment Substance Use School Role Models
    • Recovery Schools (15 schools; 358 students) Recovery Schools 1. Schools operate as state recognized schools. 2. Schools provide treatment support but do not act primarily as treatment centers. 3. All enrolled students must be sober and working a program of recovery. 4. Students completing required coursework receive high school credit. 5. Each school has a plan to deal with the therapeutic and crisis needs of its students.
    • Recovery Schools (15 schools; 358 students) Recovery Schools Participating Schools (50%) 1. Schools operate as state 1. Aatshing recognized schools. 2. Alliance Academy 2. Schools provide treatment 3. Arona Academy support but do not act 4. City West Academy primarily as treatment centers. 5. Gateway 3. All enrolled students must be 6. INSIGHT sober and working a program 7. Lakes Recovery School of recovery. 8. Libre Academy 4. Students completing required 9. North Summit Academy coursework receive high 10. Oak Land Sober School school credit. 5. Each school has a plan to 11. PEASE deal with the therapeutic and 12. RSSM crisis needs of its students. 13. Safe Harbor 14. West Campus 15. Solace Alliance
    • ALC School Programs (350 schools; 12,000 students) ALC • are performing substantially below grade level • are at least one year behind in credits for graduation • are pregnant or parents • have experienced physical or sexual abuse • are chemically dependent • have mental health problems • have been homeless recently • have withdrawn from school or been chronically truant • speak English as a second language or have limited English proficiency
    • ALC School Programs (350 schools; 12,000 students) ALC Participating Schools • are performing substantially (16% of 794) below grade level • are at least one year behind in 1. Carver-Scott Ed Coop credits for graduation 2. Cass-Lake Bena ALC • are pregnant or parents 3. Crossroads ALC • have experienced physical or 4. Detroit Lakes ALC sexual abuse 5. Harmony ALC • are chemically dependent 6. Lincoln Hills ALC • have mental health problems 7. Rose Street Center • have been homeless recently 8. Spring Lake Park ALC • have withdrawn from school or been chronically truant 9. White Bear Lake ALC • speak English as a second language or have limited English proficiency
    • RS and ALC Substance Use RS, ALC, MN ALC 2007 (Survey and Minnesota Department of Education) 100% 86% 87% 80% RS 60% 51% 43% ALC 40% 34% MN ALC 22% 20% 22% 20% 4% 0% No use in last month binge drinkers/use treatment RS and ALC MN ALC 2007 (Survey) (Minnesota Department of Education) 90% 85% 77% 100% 80% 90% 68% 70% 80% 60% 70% 50% 60% 50% RS 45% 50% MN ALC 40% 30% ALC 40% 30% 30% 30% 30% 23% 19% 16% 20% 20% 11% 10% 10% 0% 0% Offered, sold drugs Drank/Used Before Drank/Used During Drank/Used After relapse relapse many times support meetings drug-free life on school property School School School
    • Approach to Substance Use Recovery Schools ALC Accountability: Meetings & Accountability: Random drug sober days are tracked. tests (survey: 29%), drug Sponsors are encouraged. dogs (lockdown) Random drug tests (survey: RS 65%). Support: Someone at school can talk to (survey: friends Support: Licensed drug 65%; school counselor counselors; Someone at 60%; teachers 36%, other school can talk to (survey: school adult 27%) friends 100%; school counselor 98%; teachers Consequences: Suspension 86%; other school adult 73%). Many staff are in recovery. “Group” at school. Consequences: Restorative justice approach
    • Demographics of Population (15 RS, 9 ALC; 306 students) - Geography - Ethnicity - Gender @50% - Length of School Enrollment - Age (16, 17, 18) - Grade level (11th, 12th) Length of School Enrollment 50.00% 46.40% 45.00% 40.00% 35.30% 35.00% 30.40% 30.00% 27.60% 22% RS 25.00% 20.00% ALC 15.00% 9.60% 11.60% 10.40% 10.00% 3.30% 3.20% 5.00% 0.00% < 1 month 1 to 3 months 3 to 6 months 6 months to 1 1 year or more year
    • Methodology: Comparative Case Study- Survey • 306 students: 181 R.S. & 125 ALC • Survey items (national & state surveys, research, administrators, students, pilot study) • 54 items • @ 20 minutes • Confidentiality and anonymity • Link to survey http://www.zoomerang.com/recipient/survey- intro.zgi?p=WEB225ULSUKY98
    • Methodology: Comparative Case Study - Interview • 90 interviews (RS 54; ALC 26) • Interviewees (>3 months sobriety) • 30 hours @ 20 min/student • Recorded interview & took notes • 600 typed pages Confidentiality and anonymity • Incentive ($5.00, thank you card)
    • Methodology: Comparative Case Study - Interview • 90 interviews (RS 54; ALC 1. Describe your school. 26) 2. Describe your previous school. Compare your • Interviewees attendance, grades, and (>3 months sobriety) classroom engagement at both schools. Future • 30 hours @ 20 plans? min/student 3. Describe friends. Influence • Recorded interview & took your decision to use or not notes use? • 600 typed pages 4. Role models at school? Confidentiality and 5. Relapse? If so, why? anonymity 6. What keeps you sober today? • Incentive ($5.00, thank 7. What can schools do to you card) help kids stay sober?
    • Data Analysis: Constant Comparative Method - 1 G10001 transcript It‟s just that we have similar pasts, and I mean I haven‟t really gotten to know a lot of people on a deeper level. Me and Themes Katie were in treatment for six months of our treatment. So I got to hear a lot of the things • Shared past that she went through, and I • Similar pasts could relate to a lot of the stuff. She really helped me to first • Helps her to understand understand that I don‟t know herself everything about staying sober and that kind of stuff from prior experience being sober. And that hurting myself and that kind of stuff was not going to get me anywhere but locked up or dead.
    • Data Analysis: Constant Comparative Method - 2 Themes G10001 Common Themes • Shared past (G10001, NS10016) • Similar pasts • Shared past • Helps her to understand • Similar pasts herself • Helps her to understand herself Themes NS10016 • Smart • Really smart • Gets work done • Gets work done • Long time sobriety • Long time sobriety
    • Data Analysis: Constant Comparative Method - 3 Themes NS10017 Common Themes (G10001, NS10016, NS10017) • Seniors • Substance use: shared • Working a good program past, similar pasts, long • Strong personalities time sobriety, working a good program • There for you • Academically: gets work • Good academically done, smart, upper • Gets work done classmen • Personality: strong personality, helps her to understand herself, relates, available
    • Results: Definition of role model Definition “A person whose • Webster behavior in a • Admired person and particular role is role model; 93% RS, imitated by others.” 86% ALC (survey) • Attitude differences (interview)
    • Results: Concept of positive role model Examples (survey) Behaviors (survey) • Family members • Abstains from drugs • Sober friends • Encourages sobriety • Teachers • Responsible for • Celebrities actions • Community members • Cares for others
    • Results: Concept of negative role model Examples (survey) Behaviors (survey) • Family members • User • Using friends • Pressure to use • Celebrities • Problem with alcohol or drug • Didn’t care about the student
    • Results: Who are the role models in recovery schools? Existence at school? • 67.4% RS and 41.6% ALC identified admired person (survey) • 93.4% RS and 65.2% identified school role model (interview)
    • Results: Who are the role models? Existence at school? Who? • 67.4% RS and 41.6% • Good friend, ALC identified boy/girlfriend, admired person acquaintance, (survey) unknown (survey) • 93.4% RS and 65.2% • School friend, school identified school role staff, “self” (interview) model (interview)
    • Who are the role models? (I10013 recovery student)
    • Results: What behaviors do role models exhibit? Substance Use & 100% Substance Use of Admired Person Attitudes of Admired 90% 80% 70% 93% 66% Person 60% 50% 40% 52% RS ALC • current, last year, 30% 28% 26% 20% 10% 0% 1% lifetime (survey) Monthly Last Year Lifetime • Condone use (survey) Condone Drinking or Use • Long time sobriety & (Times per Month) 100% 90% shared past 90% 80% 70% 60% (interview) 50% 40% 30% 32% 40% RS ALC 20% 8% 8% 10% 1% 0% 4% 1% 1% 2% 1% 4% 3% 0% 0 1 to 2 3 to 5 6 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 30 over 40
    • Results: What behaviors do role models exhibit? Personality traits & Behaviors • Traits of admired persons (survey) • Open-ended item (survey)
    • Results: What behaviors do role models exhibit? Personality traits & Themes (interviews) Behaviors 1. Enjoys life • Traits of admired 2. Motivated persons (survey) 3. Honest & trustworthy • Open-ended item 4. Available & (survey) dependable 5. Open & sharing 6. Respectful
    • Behaviors - Summary “The most popular kids tend to be the kids who work the best programs and have the most clean time.” -W10004, RS student long time sobriety, shared past, continued recovery work, happy & successful
    • Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Conversations about Drugs or Alcohol Time and 100.00% 90.00% Conversations 80.00% 70.00% 68.20% 63% 66.90% 60.40% 60.00% RS • Talked about 50.00% ALC 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% substance use with 10.00% 0.00% AP talks to You You talk to AP one another (survey) • After school activities Time with Admired Person (Often or All of the time) vs school-sponsored 80.00% 70.00% 74.40% 70.10% 60.00% 52.90% activities (survey) 50.50% 50.00% 43.90% 36.70% RS 40.00% 31.00% 25.00% ALC 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% At School Outside of School Phone or Computer School-sponsored
    • Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Identifying Influencing Non-users Influences 100% Factors 90% 80% 70% “If you do not use alcohol, 60% 54% 50% RS 50% 40% ALC marijuana, or other 30% 20% 10% 11% 10% drugs…” 0% Student does not drink/use Student encourages me to be clean and sober “If you do use alcohol, Users Influences marijuana, or other 3% drugs…” 2% 2% • Non-using student 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% RS ALC • Non-using student’s 1% 0% encouragement Student does not drink/use Student encourages me to be clean and sober
    • Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Amount of Influence 100% Adult Role Model “How much influence do 90% 80% 70% 60% the following have 45% RS 50% 44% 35% ALC 40% 28% 30% 18% on keeping you 20% 10% 0% 8% 12% 9% clean and sober?” None Not Much Some Most School Peer Role Model 100% 1. Adult role model 90% 80% 70% 60% RS 2. Peer role model 50% 40% 30% 50% 32% 33% ALC 20% 20% 19% 22% 15% 10% 10% 0% None Not Much Some Most
    • Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Admired Student Has the Most Influence over Drug and Alcohol Use 100% 90% 80% 71% 70% 60% RS 50% 44% ALC 40% 34% 30% 17% 15% 20% 9% 6% 5% 10% 0% None Some Great Deal Don't Know Most Influence “Who has the most influence over your alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use?” - A student at my school who I admire and look up to at school (34%)
    • Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Admired Person’s Influence “How much influence do you think this person (identified admired person) has over your drinking, marijuana use, or the use of other drugs?” Admired Person's Influence 100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.80% RS 50.00% 34.80% 34.80% ALC 40.00% 27.40% 30.40% 30.00% 21.80% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% None Some Great Deal
    • Results: To what extent do recovering students emulate their role models? Interview Statement of Influence Statements RS ALC Total # % # % # % Positive 17 94% 4 80% 21 91% Statements No Influence 1 6% 1* 20% 2 9% Statement 18 5* 23
    • Summary Research Questions • Who are the role models 1. 67-93% RS had role in recovery schools? model at school 2. Staff, students, self • What behaviors do they 3. Long time sobriety, exhibit? history of use, working a program of recovery, happy and successful • To what extent do 4. Testimonials of influence recovering students 5. Survey items emulate those role models?
    • Summary Research Questions • Who are the role models 1. 67-93% RS had role in recovery schools? model at school 2. Staff, students, self • What behaviors do they 3. Long time sobriety, exhibit? history of use, working a program of recovery, happy and successful • To what extent do 4. Testimonials of influence recovering students 5. Survey items emulate those role models?
    • Summary Research Questions • Who are the role models 1. 67-93% RS had role in recovery schools? model at school 2. Staff, students, self • What behaviors do they 3. Long time sobriety, exhibit? history of use, working a program of recovery, happy and successful • To what extent do 4. Testimonials of influence recovering students 5. Survey items emulate those role models?
    • Summary • Sober Students and Recovery Schools • Sober role models and their influence • Transforming into role models • Sober role models and self-empowerment
    • Summary • Sober Students and 1. RS students 89% (38%) Recovery Schools sober last month 2. RS role model 27% • Sober role models and (9%) sober over a year their influence 3. 93% had role models 4. Role model sober > yr • Transforming into role 5. Influence of recovery models school environment and role models on • Sober role models and transformation self-empowerment
    • Recommendations (What can schools do?) Recovery Schools Traditional Schools • Mentoring Programs • Placement decisions • Program evaluation
    • SS Influences to Drink/Use - Results 1 - Top 9 reasons "to use" in the past 1. High or buzz (96%) 2. Deal with stress (87%) 3. Forget problems (87%) 4. Easy to get (79%) 5. Became addicted (78%) 6. Important friends drank/used (73%) 7. Thrill to be bad or break the law (57%) 8. Family drinks/uses (43%) 9. To make friends (42%)
    • SS Influences to Drink/Use - Results 1 - Top 10 reasons "to currently Use“ 1. Enjoy the high (12%) 2. Physical feeling (10%) 3. Have more fun (9%) 4. Deal with stress (9%) 5. Something to do (8%) 6. Helps me sleep (7%) 7. Non-school friends drink/use (7%) 8. I'm more creative (6%) 9. I'm more fun (6%) 10. To celebrate with the community (6%)
    • SS Influences to Not to Use - Results 2 - Top 10 reasons "not to use“ 1. School friends encourage sobriety (78%) 2. I feel better about myself when sober (77%) 3. I have better friends when sober (73%) 4. Afraid of school dismissal (68%) 5. Disappoint parents (67%) 6. Higher Power (65%) 7. Have more fun when sober (63%) 8. Non-school friends encourage sobriety (63%) 9. Police trouble (61%) and Drug Treatment program (61%) 10. Non-drinking school friends (60%)
    • SS Influences to Not to Use - Results 2 - Top 7 “Most” Influential (scale 1 – 4) 1. Support group (65%) 2. Effects on family and friends (52%) 3. Higher Power (51%) 4. Sponsor (49%) 5. Hurting others (43%) 6. School community (42%) 7. Parents (40%) Least Influential 1. Community organizations (86%) 2. TV Shows (74%) 3. TV (72%) 4. Religious organizations (65%)
    • “Peers Influencing Peers in Recovery Schools” Final Oral Doctoral Defense May 11, 2009 Debbie Lloyd, M.Ed. Doctoral Candidate University of Minnesota Department of Educational Policy and Administration Number of miles in my Honda from school to school in three months during this study: about 7,235.6 Removed 2 tons of carbon dioxide to offset the carbons produced during this study. (Carbon Planet Certificate ID: 231923288592)
    • Influences 1. Past reasons to drink/use 2. Current reasons to drink/use 3. Influences “not” to drink/use - Self - Family -School - Treatment -Community -Friends -Role Models Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Interview: “Influences and Reasons to Use and Not to Use” “to use is to “drugs die!” “peace drug” “the kill fear” “friends future” and “my son, higher “daughter” power, will to “escape family” live, school” “to lose weight” reality” “to fit in” “I‟m pregnant” “clean „till I leave parent‟s “I‟m tired of “divorce and house” fuckin‟ up” breakup with “divorce” girlfriend” “It‟s fun” “life style” “school” “sponsor” “meetings” “to impress “i‟m addicted” a boy… how “loved getting fucked up” stupid” “felt important” “nothing better to do”
    • SS Influences to Drink/Use - Results 1 - Top 9 reasons "to use" in the past 1. High or buzz (96%) 2. Deal with stress (87%) 3. Forget problems (87%) 4. Easy to get (79%) 5. Became addicted (78%) 6. Important friends drank/used (73%) 7. Thrill to be bad or break the law (57%) 8. Family drinks/uses (43%) 9. To make friends (42%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • SS Influences to Drink/Use - Results 1 - Top 10 reasons "to currently Use“ 1. Enjoy the high (12%) 2. Physical feeling (10%) 3. Have more fun (9%) 4. Deal with stress (9%) 5. Something to do (8%) 6. Helps me sleep (7%) 7. Non-school friends drink/use (7%) 8. I'm more creative (6%) 9. I'm more fun (6%) 10. To celebrate with the community (6%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • SS Influences to Not to Use - Results 2 - Top 10 reasons "not to use“ 1. School friends encourage sobriety (78%) 2. I feel better about myself when sober (77%) 3. I have better friends when sober (73%) 4. Afraid of school dismissal (68%) 5. Disappoint parents (67%) 6. Higher Power (65%) 7. Have more fun when sober (63%) 8. Non-school friends encourage sobriety (63%) 9. Police trouble (61%) and Drug Treatment program (61%) 10. Non-drinking school friends (60%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • SS Influences to Not to Use - Results 2 - Top 7 “Most” Influential (scale 1 – 4) 1. Support group (65%) 2. Effects on family and friends (52%) 3. Higher Power (51%) 4. Sponsor (49%) 5. Hurting others (43%) 6. School community (42%) 7. Parents (40%) Least Influential 1. Community organizations (86%) 2. TV Shows (74%) 3. TV (72%) 4. Religious organizations (65%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Friends - Sober School Results - 1. Majority of sober school students have school friends who do not drink or use, encourage sobriety, and have a great deal of influence over his or her decision to use or not use. 2. Over half of sober school students have non- school friends who drink or use, encourage sobriety, and have a great deal of influence over his or her decision to use or not use. 3. A large percentage (41%) have non-school friends who do NOT drink or use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Friends - Sober School Results - 4. Non-drinking/non-using friends have more influence than drinking/using friends. 5. They feel that they have better friends and more friends when clean and sober. 6. The majority of students (83%) indicated that they drank/used in the past because friends important to them also drank/used. 7. Students appear to be tolerant of others who do drink/use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Friends - Sober School Results - 8. Forty-five percent indicated they spend most of their time with school friends and 22% spend their time with both school and non-school friends. 9. Sober school students feel that their friends from their school and outside of their school care about them. 10. Majority of time spent with school friends. 11. Adult sober friends (64%) and adult sober role models (80%) have some or most influence over decision to use or not use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Past Reasons “To” Drink/Use Sober Schools ALC’s 75%-100% -High or buzz (96%) -Deal with stress (87%) -Forget problems (87%) -Easy to get (79%) -Became addicted (78%) 50%- 75% -Important friends drank/used (73%) -High or buzz (66%) -Thrill to be bad or break the law (57%) -Deal with stress (62%) -Easy to get (54%) 25%- 50% -Family drinks/uses (43%) -Forget problems (48%) -To make friends (42%) -Important friends drank/used (38%) -Thrill to be bad or break the law (27%) -Family drinks/uses (26%) -Became addicted (26%) Under 25% -Community celebrations (25%) - Community celebrations (20%) - Drank/used to make friends (14%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Influences decision “to” use: S.S (+80% of SS stated they do “not” use; top 10 Influences) Self Family School Community -enjoy the high -rebel against family -school friends -something to do (8%) (12%) rules (3%) drink/use (3%) -non-school friends -physical feeling (10%) -My brothers or sisters -school friends drink/use (7%) -Have more fun (9%) drink/use (3%) encourage me to -community drinks/uses to -One or both of my drink/use (3%) celebrate (6%) -deal with stress (9%) parents encourages me -I perform better in -have more friends when -helps sleep (7%) to drink/use (1%) school (2%) drinking/using (5%) -I’m more creative (6%) -Alcohol and other -Drinking/using makes me -I’m more fun (6%) drugs are available at feel part of the community -better concentration my school (2%) (2%) (3%) -school role model -Have better friends when -feel better about self encourages me to drinking/using (2%) (3%) drink/use (1%) -Believe it’s OK to -School role model drink/use (3%) drinks/uses (1%) -Believe drinking/use not dangerous to my health (2%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Influences decision “not” to use: S.S (3% use) % Self Family School Tx Community 70%- I feel better about School friends encourage I have better friends 100% self when sober sobriety (78%) when sober (73%) (77%) 50%- -Have more fun -Disappoi -School dismissal (68%) -Higher -Non-school friends 69% (63%) nt parents - Non-drinking school power encourage sobriety - Bad for health (67%) friends (60%) (65%) (63%) (50%) - Parents -Against school rules -Drug - Police trouble would (57%) Treatment (61%) object -Negative school (61%) (56%) performance (59%) - Sponsor -Student role model (50%) encourages sobriety (53%) - Nondrinking student (50%) 25%- -Worried about -brothers -alcohol and drugs not -Random -have more friends 49% body in the future and available at my school drug tests (48%) (30%) sisters do (40%) (48%) -non-school friends -Don’t want to look not -school alcohol/drug do not drink/use stupid (26%) drink/use education (30%) (41%) (23%) -not lose job (34%) Under -Drinking/using against my principles or religious beliefs (20%) -Community 25% - Makes me physically sick (14%) disapproval (20%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Self Influences “not” to use (S.S.) #1 70% 63% 60% 50% 50% None 41% Not Much 40% 30% 32% 31% Some 29% 28% 30% 26% 24% 26% 22% 20% Most 20% 18% 20% 14% 16% 15% "An" 10% 10% 7% 0% Health Future Body Makes sick Medication Appear to My Looking others appearance Stupid No Influence Not much Some Influence Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC Health 10% 14% 29% 18% 41% 40% 20% 28% 50% 27% Medication 63% 87% 15% 10% 16% 1% 7% 3% NA NA Future Body NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 30% 14% Makes me sick NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 14% 6% Appear to 22% 33% 26% 18% 32% 31% 20% 19% NA NA others My appearance 18% 28% 24% 18% 31% 24% 28% 29% NA NA Looking Stupid NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 26% 14% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Self Influences “not” to use (S.S.) #2 90% 77% 80% 70% 63% None 60% Not Much 50% 43% Some 40% 33% 33% 34% 33% 30% Most 25% 27% 30% 22% 22% 20% 20% 20% 20% "An" 20% 12% 16% 11% 10% 0% My Mood I decide Feel Better Hurt Self Hurt My Beliefs More Fun Others No Not much Some Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC My mood 12% 33% 22% 24% 33% 23% 33% 20% NA NA I decide 20% 18% 21% 14% 25% 19% 34% 49% NA NA Feel Better about self NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 77% 27% Hurting self 20% 40% 20% 18% 33% 20% 27% 21% NA NA Hurting others 11% 39% 16% 13% 30% 22% 43% 14% NA NA My beliefs NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 20% 27% Have more fun NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 63% 16% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Community Influences “not” to use (S.S.) 100% 90% 86% 80% 74% 72% 70% 65% None 61% 60% Not Much 50% 45% Some 37% 35% 40% Most 28% 30% 20% 22% 22% 21% 24% 20% 20% "An" 15% 15% 17% 18% 20% 13% 14% 10% 8% 10% 4% 5% 3%2% 4% 1% 0% Organizations Religious Orgs TV Shows TV My Music Job Prison/Police Community Disapproval No Influence Not much Some Most “An” Influence SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC Organizations 86% 87& 10% 5% 4% 1% 1% 7% NA NA Religious Orgs 65% 75% 15% 7% 15% 8% 5% 10% NA NA Social NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 20% 11% Disapproval TV Shows 74% 64% 20% 21% 3% 9% 2% 6% NA NA TV 72% 60% 17% 19% 8% 13% 4% 8% NA NA My Music 37% 43% 22% 20% 28% 28% 13% 9% NA NA Job 45% 46% 14% 9% 22% 26% 18% 30% 34% 14% Prison/police 21% 41% 20% 7% 24% 23% 35% 29% 61% 29% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • School Influences “not” to use (S.S.) (not include school friends/role models) 45% 42% SS 40% 38% 80% 35% 33% 32% 32% 68% 31% 70% 30% None 59% 60% 25% Not Much 50% 21% 40% 20% 17% 18% 17% Some 40% SS 30% Most 15% 12% 30% 10% 8% 20% 5% 10% 0% 0% Availability Drug School Sch Community Staff Rules Education Dismissal Pfmce No Influence Not much Some Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC School Community 8% 52% 17% 24% 33% 17% 42% 8% NA NA Staff 12% 47% 18% 21% 38% 21% 32% 12% NA NA School Rules 17% 55% 21% 22% 32% 16% 31% 7% 57% 14% Drug Availability NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 40% 6% Drug Education NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 30% 6% School dismissal NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 68% 18% Neg School pfmc NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 59% 26% effect Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Family Influences “not” to use (S.S.) 60% SS 52% 50% 45% 80% 67% 40% 70% 40% 35% No 56% 60% 30% Not Much 50% 30% 25% 40% SS 22% Some 23% 30% 18% Most 20% 20% 11% 10% 10% 10% 6% 6% 0% drink/use Disappoint Parents Object Siblings Parents not 0% Effects on Parents Siblings Family No Influence Not much Some Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC Parents 6% 19% 10% 15% 45% 35% 40% 31% NA NA disappoint parents NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 67% 22% Parents would object NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 56% 20% Siblings 18% 24% 22% 23% 35% 29% 25% 24% NA NA Siblings not NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 23% 14% drink/use Effects on family & 6% 38% 11% 14% 30% 26% 52% 22% NA NA friends Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Treatment Influences “not” to use (S.S.) 70% 65% 65% SS 60% 70% 65% 49% 61% 50% 60% None 50% 48% 36% 50% 40% Not Much 30% 40% 30% 25% 26% 26% 26% 26% Some SS 23% 22% 30% 17% 17% Most 20% 14% 20% 7% 7%8% 9% 10% 10% 6% 0% 0% Drug Sponsor Higher Random Treatment Drug Support Sponsor Higher Treatment Power Drug Strategies Knowledge Group Power Tests No Influence Not much Some Most “An” Influence Influence Influence Influence Not to Use SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC SS ALC Treatment Strategies 17% 53% 17% 14% 36% 24% 30% 9% NA NA Drug Knowledge 25% 35% 26% 14% 26% 20% 23% 23% NA NA Treatment Info NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 61% 9% Support Group 7% 67% 6% 11% 22% 13% 65% 9% NA NA Sponsor 26% 78% 8% 7% 25% 8% 49% 7% 50% 5% Higher Power 14% 50% 9% 8% 26% 20% 51% 22% 65% 16% Random Drug Tests NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 48% 10% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Influences 1. Past reasons to drink/use 2. Current reasons to drink/use 3. Influences “not” to drink/use - Self - Family -School - Treatment -Community -Friends -Role Models Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Interview: “Influences and Reasons to Use and Not to Use” “to use is to “drugs die!” “peace drug” “the kill fear” “friends future” and “my son, higher “daughter” power, will to “escape family” live, school” “to lose weight” reality” “to fit in” “I‟m pregnant” “clean „till I leave parent‟s “I‟m tired of “divorce and house” fuckin‟ up” breakup with “divorce” girlfriend” “It‟s fun” “life style” “school” “sponsor” “meetings” “to impress “i‟m addicted” a boy… how “loved getting fucked up” stupid” “felt important” “nothing better to do”
    • Friends 1. School friends 2. Non-school friends 3. Sober friends 4. Drinking/using friends 5. Friends care about me 6. Time spent with friends 7. Adult friends Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Interview: “Friends (using and non-using)” “normies; not “true friend “using friends respects addicts” don‟t drink your around me” decision” “they don‟t “choosing “all sober” drink to get friends” drunk” “two friends “using friends are not your died” friends; they just want someone to use with” “It’s their decision; now its “ditched “I‟m my own person” not for me” using friends” Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Friends - Sober School Results - 1. Majority of sober school students have school friends who do not drink or use, encourage sobriety, and have a great deal of influence over his or her decision to use or not use. 2. Over half of sober school students have non- school friends who drink or use, encourage sobriety, and have a great deal of influence over his or her decision to use or not use. 3. A large percentage (41%) have non-school friends who do NOT drink or use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Friends - Sober School Results - 4. Non-drinking/non-using friends have more influence than drinking/using friends. 5. They feel that they have better friends and more friends when clean and sober. 6. The majority of students (83%) indicated that they drank/used in the past because friends important to them also drank/used. 7. Students appear to be tolerant of others who do drink/use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Friends - Sober School Results - 8. Forty-five percent indicated they spend most of their time with school friends and 22% spend their time with both school and non-school friends. 9. Sober school students feel that their friends from their school and outside of their school care about them. 10. Majority of time spent with school friends. 11. Adult sober friends (64%) and adult sober role models (80%) have some or most influence over decision to use or not use. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • School & Non-School Friends School Friends Non School Friends S.S ALC S.S. ALC No friends 3% 5% 10% 3% Not drink/use 60% 11% 41% 16% Not drink/use 84% 6% 19% 12% Drinks/uses 3% 33% 7% 37% Some drink/use 12% 79% 58% 62% All drink/use 1% 10% 14% 22% Encourages sobriety 78% 18% 63% 24% Encourages drink/use 3% 8% 3% 7% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Sober Schools: Friends 90% 84% 78% 80% 70% 60% 63% 58% 60% Sch Friend 50% 41% Non-Sch Friend 40% 30% 19% 20% 10% 14% 12% 10% 3% 3% 7% 1% 3% 3% 0% Q36/Q38: No Q22: Does NOT Q36/Q38: Does Q22: Q23: Drinks or Q36/Q38: All Q36/Q38: Some Q23: Encourage friends drink or use. not drink or use Encourages me uses. Use Use me to drink or to stay clean and use. sober. School Non School School Non School Friends Friends Friends Friends No friends 3% 10% Drinks/uses 3% 7% Not drink/use 60% 41% All drink/use 1% 14% Not drink/use 84% 19% Some drink/use 12% 58% Encourages 78% 63% Encourages 3% 3% sobriety drink/use Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Influence of Friends: To Use Influences Sober School ALCs Most influence #43: Friends who do NOT attend my None 31% None 46% over your school Some 37% Some 30% alcohol, Great Deal 32% Great Deal 24% marijuana, and #43: Friends who DO attend my school None 22% None 58% other drug Some 38% Some 30% use? Great Deal 40% Great Deal 13% Past Reasons Drank/Used to make friends 42% 14% to Use Friends, important to me, drink or use 83% 38% drugs To use Q23:I have more friends when I’m 5% 5% drinking or using drugs Q23:I have better friends when I’m 3% 2% drinking or using drugs Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “Who has the most influence over your alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use?” 45% 40% 40% 37% 38% 35% 31% 31% 30% 25% 22% School Friends Sober School Students 20% Non-School Friends 15% 10% 5% 0% No Influence Some Great Deal of Influence Influence Influences Sober School ALCs #43: Friends who do NOT attend my None 31% None 46% school Some 37% Some 30% Great Deal 32% Great Deal 24% #43: Friends who DO attend my school None 22% None 58% Some 38% Some 30% Great Deal 40% Great Deal 13% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Influence of Friends “Not to Use…” Influences Sober Schools ALC’s 24: Your friends who DO drink/use have on None: 55% None: 48% keeping you clean and sober. Some/Most: 24% Some/Most: 26% 24: Your friends who do NOT drink/use have on None: 5% None: 31% keeping you clean and sober. Some/Most: 85% Some/Most: 56% 26: People my age who live clean and sober lives None: 8% None: 33% Some/Most: 83% Some/Most: 43% 24. Non-school friends None: 25% None: 38% Some/Most: 52% Some/Most: 39% 26: School friends None: 8% None:22% Some/Most: 81% Some/Most: 34% 24. Boyfriend None: 62% None: 58% Some/Most: 29% Some/Most: 34% 22: I have more friends when I'm clean and 48% 13% sober. 22: I have better friends when I'm clean and 73% 19% sober Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Sober School Students 80% 73% 65% 68% 70% 60% 55% 47% 46% 48% 50% 44% 38% 39% 35% 35% None 40% 30% 21% 25% 23% Not much 17% 17% 16% 15% 18% 20% 7% 10% 5% 9% 8% 11% 8% 7% 11% Some 10% 2% 0% Most g s d s s rs nd s s Yes in en nd nd nd nd se ee rie us f ri rie ie rie /U rie rP yf k/ Fr irl ks rF hF hF Bo in G be e rin dr t te Sc Sc or So on D Be M on N N Influences “not to use” None Not Much Some Most Yes 24: Drink/use 55% 21% 17% 7% NA 24: Do NOT drink/use 5% 10% 38% 47% NA 26: Sober Peers 8% 9% 44% 39% NA 24. Non-school friends 25% 23% 35% 17% NA 26: School friends 8% 11% 35% 46% NA 24. Boyfriend 65% 7% 15% 16% NA 24. Girlfriend 68% 2% 11% 18% NA 22. More friends NA NA NA NA 48% 22. Better friends NA NA NA NA 73% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Other Friend information Sober School ALC Peers OK for friends but SA 23%; A 30%; T 53% SA 11%; A 30%; T 41% not for me D 22%; SD 26%; T 48% D 38%; SD 21%; T 59% Friends talk to at Yes! 87% 63% school about drugs Adult Sober adult friends None 15% 38% Friends Not Much 21% 21% Some 42% 26% Most 22% 14% Sober adult friends None 8% 45% Role Models Not Much 12% 9% Some 35% 28% Most 45% 17% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “Who do you spend the most time with after school?” Influences Sober ALCs Sober School Students School School 45% 26% School Friends Friends Non-School 26% 56% 22% Friends Nonschool Friends No one., I 7% 4% 45% don’t have 7% No one. I don't any friends have any School and 22% 14% friends Non-School 26% School and Friends NonSchool Friends Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “Friends care about me?” School or Non-School Friends Sober School ALCs Sober School Students Friends Not at all: 1% Not at all: 8% 60% 52% who Some or little bit: Some or little bit: 50% 46% “DO” 16% 32% 40% School Friends 34% attend 29% Cares about me: Cares about me: 30% my 34% 44% Non-School Friends 20% 16% school 8% 10% Very much: 46% Very much:15% 10% 1% 0% Friends Not at all: 8% Not at all: 4% Not at Some Care Very all about much who do Some or little bit: Some or little bit: me “NOT” 10% 19% attend Cares about me: Cares about me: my 29% 26% school Very much: 52% Very much: 50% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Influence of Role Models (I10011, NS10017, L10003)
    • Limitations ALC Traditional Schools • Sample size • Drug-free zones • Possible hidden • Role model behavior bias and trait differences in • Substance use traditional school attitude differences setting • Variety of “issues” • Continuum of care
    • Many, many issues in the field… • Effectiveness of random UAs • Responsible drinking vs abstinence • Cycle of adolescent recovery (addict, recovery, relapse, recovery, etc.) • Drug-free lifestyle for adolescents (in our world), sober fun • 12 step program in public schools? Charter? • Role of Non-using and using friends • Adolescent diagnosis as an addict • Will power vs physical dependence (moral weakness, disease model) • Social acceptance • New brain research (pharmocogenetic therapy) • Influences?? • School safety • Best practices (restorative justice, school communities, small schools) • Recovery-based schools for non-addicts • Effectiveness of AA, NA, CMA, etc. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Behavior of Role Models (G10001, NS10016, NS10017)
    • Behavior of Role Models (G10001, NS10016, NS10017) • Similar past
    • Behavior of Role Models (G10001, NS10016, NS10017) • Similar past • Long time sobriety
    • Behavior of Role Models (G10001, NS10016, NS10017) • Similar past • Working a good, strong • Long time sobriety program • Seniors • Strong personalities • There for you • Doing well academically
    •  This study focuses on peer role models and his or her possible influence upon an individual‟s sobriety.  As part of the study we conducted a web-based survey and interviewed students.  The purpose of this presentation is to share the preliminary results from the survey and interviews.  Thanks to the many participating schools that belong to ARS. Number of miles in my Honda from school to school in three months during this study: about 7,235.6 Removed 2 tons of carbon dioxide to offset the carbons produced during this study. (Carbon Planet Certificate ID: 231923288592) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Shared Recovery-based High School Philosophy 1. Recovery Schools operate as State-recognized high schools designed specifically for students recovering from chemical dependency. 2. Recovery Schools provide academic services and recovery assistance, post-treatment support, or continuing care, but they do not operate primarily as treatment centers or mental health agencies. 3. Recovery Schools require all recovering students to be sober and working a program of recovery (as determined by the student and the school) while enrolled. In high school programs, all enrolled students are recovering students. (Association of Recovery Schools (ARS), 2007, http://recoveryschools.org) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Shared Recovery-based High School Philosophy 4. Recovery Schools offer academic courses for which students receive credit towards a high school or college diploma and provide services which assist the student in making the transition into a college, a career, or another high school. 5. Recovery Schools have a plan in place to handle the therapeutic and crisis needs of students. These plans can include full or part-time licensed counselors on staff, out-sourced counseling contracts, or a written referral plan. Any identified counselors (preferably chemical dependency counselors) must meet their State’s requirements for licensure or certification. (Association of Recovery Schools (ARS), 2007, http://recoveryschools.org) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Minnesota Alternative Education • Alternative programs allow students who are at risk of not graduating to attend nontraditional schools, both public and private, and earn a diploma. Minnesota has more than 150 alternative programs at more than 600 sites throughout the state. Although most are focused on helping high school and adult students, alternative programs also serve students in grades K-8 whose education might otherwise be at risk. Many programs combine academics with a strong vocational emphasis. Minnesota Department of Education, 2007 http://education.state.mn.us/mde/Academic_Excellence/School_Choice/P ublic_School_Choice/Alternative_Education/index.html Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Minnesota Alternative Education Eligible students under age 21 are those who meet any of the following criteria: (1) performing substantially below grade level (2) one year behind in credits (3) pregnant or parents (4) physical or sexual abuse (5) chemically dependent (6) mental health problems (7) homeless (8) truant (9) limited English proficiency. Minnesota Department of Education, 2007 http://education.state.mn.us/mde/Academic_Excellence/School_Choice/P ublic_School_Choice/Alternative_Education/index.html Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Web-based Survey (306 students: 181 S.S. & 125 ALC) • Survey items (national, state surveys, research, administrators, and students) • 54 items • 10-20 minutes • Confidentiality and anonymity • Link to survey http://www.zoomerang.com/recipient/survey-intro.zgi?p=WEB225ULSUKY98 Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • One-to-One Interviews (80 students: 50 S.S. & 30 ALC) • Interviewees (at least 3-6 months sobriety) • 30 hours @ 20 min/student • Recorded interview & took notes • 600 typed pages of transcription • Confidentiality and anonymity • Incentive ($5.00, thank you card) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • One-to-One Interviews (80 students: 50 S.S. & 30 ALC) • Describe your school. • Describe your previous school. Compare your attendance, grades, and classroom engagement at both schools. Future plans? • Describe friends. Influence your decision to use or not use? • Role models at school? • Relapse? If so, why? • What keeps you sober today? • What can schools do to help kids stay sober? Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • The Road Map Describe Students Drink/Drug Use School Programs Influences Friends School Peer Role Model What does it all mean? Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Student Information 1. Demographic Information (gender, age, grade, report card) 2. Describe yourself (adjectives) 3. Other activities (job, volunteer work, court- supervised community service, court-supervised) 4. School attitudes (looking forward to school and doing one’s best) 5. Future plans Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Student Survey Information Sober School ALC Gender - 88 Male (49%) - 57 Male (46%) - 91 Female (50%) - 68 Female (54%) - 1 Both (0.56%) Age - range 13 -20 - range 14-19 - most 16-18 (85%) - most 16-18 (87%) Grade - range 9-12 - range 8-12 -11th (30%), 12th (50%) - 11th (23%), 12th (61%) Grades -average “Mostly B’s” -average “Some B’s” -Mostly pass (69%) -Mostly pass (73%) -Some pass (19% -Some pass (12%) -Some fail (4%) -Some fail (12%) -Mostly fail (8%) -Mostly fail (2%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Other Student Activities 45% 42% Sober ALC School 40% 35% Have a job 42% 59% 28% 30% 26% 25% Community 28% 14% SS 20% volunteer 15% 11% Community 11% 4% 10% Service 5% (court- 0% ordered) Have job Community Court- Supervised 26% 5% volunteer ordered by the Supervised community courts by the court service Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “Which words best describe you…” Sober School ALC +75% -cares about other people -nice person (84%) (87%), nice person (86%), funny (78%) +50% -happy (74%), smart (70%), -funny (72%), cares about other many friends (66%), people (67%), happy (65%), opinionated (64%), leader many friends (62%), smart (61%), brave (56%) (60%), opinionated (54%) +25% -rebel (43%), prefer to be by -leader (49%), rebel (46%), self (40%), moody (40%), looks brave (42%), prefer to be by self cool or hot (39%) (35%), moody (33%), looks cool or hot (32%) Under -loner (17%), dumb (8%), -follower (11%), dumb (10%), 25% follower (7%) loner (7%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “Type one or two words that best describes you…” “unique and “survivor moody” “wear my heart on my sleeve ” ” “fucked in “Political “A.D.D.” tha’ “try to learn head/krazie” music-snob” how 2 b the person I “a happy, fun “artistic and want 2 b” person” peaceful” “smart “probation, halfway ass” house, job, community volunteer” “great “crazy, angry, mother” motivated” Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • School Attitudes Sober Schools ALC’s Looking forward -disagree or strongly disagree (9%) -disagree or strongly disagree (16%) to school -agree or somewhat agree (57%) -agree or somewhat agree (68%) -strongly agree (33%) -strongly agree (16%) Trying my best -disagree/strongly disagree (7%) -disagree/strongly disagree (7%) -agree or somewhat agree (67%) -agree or somewhat agree (66%) -strong agree (27%) -strongly agree (27%) Future plans -Drop out of H.S. (not at all likely- -Graduate from college (L, ML, VL) ALC 87%;SS 83%) +75% for SS and ALCs (interview -Graduate from H.S. (L, ML, VL -Armed Forces, not at all likely (56% comments) +95% for SS and ALCs) SS; 65% ALCs) -Job training (33% SS; 25% ALCs) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Future Plans – Sober School Students Graduate from High School Not Likely 1% 5% 5% Somewhat 12% Likely Likely More than Likely 77% Very Likely Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Future Plans – Sober School Students Post High School Training Not Likely 18% 28% Somewhat Likely Likely 15% More than Likely 19% 20% Very Likely Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Future Plans – Sober School Students Graduate from College 2% 14% Not Likely Somewhat Likely 42% Likely 19% More than Likely Very Likely 23% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Future Plans – Sober School Students Join the Armed Forces 7% 7% Not Likely 7% Somew hat Likely Likely 17% 62% More than Likely Very Likely Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Interview – “Future Plans?” “real estate agent” “living it” “nursing” “pipe fitters union” “accepted at Augsburg “dental hygienist” “accountant College” ” “mechanic” “prosthetic technician” “college… “para-legal, “college… forensic maybe law” neuroscience psychology ” “engineering ” ” “Aveda “cosmetology consultant” … piercing” “loving life… sober fun” Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • School Programs 1. Describe your school. 2. Length of school attendance 3. Course format 4. Rate courses 5. Favorite Activity 6. Someone to talk to at school about drugs 7. School monitors drink/use 8. Interventions/consequences of drink/use Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Interview: “Describe your School.” “no cliques” “school is like a “30-30, family” choice to stay “drug or dogs” leave” “responsible “supportive for actions” ” “not skipping “not a lot of drama” school; much “relapse better feedbac grades” k “friendly” group” “one on one time with teachers” “Sober “random Crew” UA’s” Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Length of School Attendance SS ALC < 1 mo 3% 3% 1 to 3 mo 27% 10% 3 to 6 mo 22% 30% 6 mo to 1 yr 12% 10% 1 yr or more 36% 46% 50% 46% 45% 40% 36% 35% 30% 30% 27% SS 25% 22% ALC 20% 15% 12%10% 10% 10% 3% 3% 5% 0% <1 month 1 to 3 3 to 6 6 to 1 year 1 yr or months months more Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Course Format Sober Schools ALC Course packets 14% 21% Computer courses 21% 13% Own pace 38% 52% Same Assignments 69% 59% Lectures & Homework 40% 14% 80% 69% 70% 60% 50% 38% 40% 40% SS 30% 21% 20% 14% 10% 0% course computer own pace same lectures & packets courses assignments homework Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • School Programs Sober School ALC Course NA Art (41%) Art (33%) ratings PE 42%) PE (26%) A/SA Art (99%) Art (89%) Eng (83%) Eng (60%) Science (78%) Sci (73%) Soc St (78%) Soc St (72%) PE (81%) Math (79%) D/SDA none Math (45%) Favorite 20 to 30 PE, Group PE activity 10 to 20 Art, socializing, lunch, Art, lunch Eng 0-10 music, coursework, time w/child, coursework, student council, MAAP MAAP Stars, Human Rights, Stars Leadership Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “If I have a problem or concern with alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs, I know someone at school I can talk to…” 120% 98% 100% 93% 87% 86% 80% 73% 63% 58% 59% SS 60% ALC 36% 40% 26% 20% 7% 2% 0% No. Unchecked School School Teachers Other School "No" Friends Counselor Adult Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “My school checks for alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use.” 90% 84% 77% 80% 67% 70% 61% 60% 60% 50% SS 38% 39% 40% 31% ALC 30% 22% 20% 8% 9% 7% 10% 0% No. Sober Days Drug Tests Meetings Staff Students Reports Report *Interview Data: What can schools do? Notice drug use! Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “What happens in school if someone uses alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs?” 80% 74% 70% 68% 70% 59% 60% 54% 46% 44% 50% 39% 38% SS 40% 26% ALC 30% 17% 20% 11% 10% 0% Report to Student can't Student is Parents Student Group Principal or return to suspended meet with meets with decides what Program school the principal the will happen Director counselor to the student *Interview Data: What can schools do? Do something! Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Student Drink/Use 1. Last drink/use 2. Amount/times of drink/use in last 30 days 3. Commitment to drug-free lifestyle 4. Acceptable drinking/use 5. When having a good time… 6. Treatment 7. Pre-treatment use 8. Relapse 9. Support groups Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Interview: “Drug Use, Attitudes, Treatment, Relapse, Support Groups” “as much as “sober for 2 humanly ½ years” possible” “under the influence 24/7” “never” “injected meth every “relapse… day, all day… to get many, many through the day” times” “sober 3 years on December 28” “two cases of “last “AA, NA, CMA beer a use… (crystal meth), CA day.” 1 ½ hrs (cocaine), MA ago.” (marijuana)” “every day, Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007 all day”
    • Last Drink or Use S.S. ALC Less than 24 hrs none 11 students (9%) Less than 2 weeks 6% 47% 2 weeks to 1 month 4% 11% 1 month to 3 months 18% 7% 3month to 6 months 18% 7% 6 months to 1 year 31% 7% Over a year 24% 15% 50% 47% 45% 40% 35% 31% 30% 24% SS 25% 18% ALC 20% 16% 15% 15% 13% 11% 10% 6% 7% 6% 4% 5% 0% Less than 2 to 4 4 weeks to 3 to 6 6 months over 1 year 2 weeks weeks 3 months months to 1 year Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Drinks or Use in last 30 days (current use) Sober Schools ALC -none (87%) -none (39%) -1 to 5 (10%) -1 to 5 (34%) -6 to 20 (3%) -6 to 20 (15%) -20 to over 40 (<1%) -20 to over 40 (12%) 100% 87% 90% 80% 70% 60% SS 50% 39% ALC 40% 34% 30% 20% 15% 12% 10% 10% 3% 1% 0% none 1 to 5 6 to 20 20 to over 40 Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Amount used at one time in the last 30 days (current use) Sober Schools ALC’s -none (88%) -none (36%) -1 to 2 (7%) -1 to 2 (24%) -3 to 5 (1%) -3 to 5 (17%) -over 5 (4%) -over 5 (23%) 100% 88% 90% 80% 70% 60% SS 50% 36% ALC 40% 30% 24% 23% 17% 20% 7% 4% 10% 1% 0% none 1 to 2 3 to 5 Over 5 Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Drug Use Attitudes: “I am committed to living a drug-free life.” Sober school ALC Every Day 68% 30% Most of the Time 23% 20% Some of the Time 8% 30% No 1% 20% 80% 68% 70% 60% 50% SS 40% 30% 30% ALC 30% 23% 20% 20% 20% 8% 10% 1% 0% Every Most of some of No Day the time the time Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Drug Use Attitudes Sober Schools ALC 1 or 2 SA 17%; A13%; T= 30% SA 24%; A 45%; T= 69% Drinks/Use D 12%; SD 59%; T= 71% D 8%; SD 23%; T= 30% Heavy Drinking SA 17%; A 11%; T= 29% SA 19%; A 32%; T= 51% D 10%; SD 62%; T= 72% D19%; DA 27%; T= 46% Binge Drinking SA 18%; A7%; T= 25% SA 18%; A 31%; T= 49% D 12%; DA 63%; T= 75% D 21%; SD 30%; T= 51% OK for friends SA 23%; A 30%; T= 53% SA 11%; A 30%; T= 41% but not for me D 22%; SD 26%; T= 48% D 38%; SD 21%; T= 59% 70% 63% 62% 59% 60% 50% Strongly Agree 40% Agree 30% 30% 26% Disagree 23% 22% 17% 17% 18% Strongly Disagree 20% 13% 12% 11% 10% 12% 10% 7% 0% Ocasional drink or two is Heavy Drinking Binge Drinking Drinking and drug use is OK OK for my friends but not for me Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Sober School: Having a Good Time … SS ALC SS ALC Like to Use Yes: 15% Yes: 43% Will use depending on own 39% 51% No: 71% No: 35% feelings Like to be around those Yes: 13% Yes: 30% Don’t care if others use or not 39% 59% using No: 73% No: 25% Don’t care if I use or not 9% 32% Sober School Students 80% 71% 73% 70% 60% 50% 39% 39% 40% SS 30% 15% 13% 20% 9% 10% 0% Like to use Don't like to Like to be Don't like to Will use or Don't care if Don't care if I use around others be around not use others use use or not using others depending on how I'm feeling. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Treatment Sober Schools ALC’s -completed treatment (88%) -completed treatment (27%) -current treatment (37%) -current treatment (6%) -incomplete treatment (34%) -incomplete treatment (10%) -no treatment (13%) -no treatment (51%) 100% 88% 90% 80% 70% 60% 51% SS 50% 37% ALC 40% 34% 27% 30% 20% 10% 13% 10% 6% 0% completed incompleted currently have not treatment treatment participating participated Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Sober Schools: Treatment Completed Treatment SS 88% SS SS 34% 37% Partial Treatment Current Treatment Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Sober Schools Treatment– Complicated! Completed Treatment SS 88% 19% 19% 14 % SS 2% SS 34% 37% Partial Treatment Current Treatment Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Pretreatment: frequency of use (30 days before treatment) Sober Schools ALC’s -none (20%) -none (44%) -1 to 2 (20%) -1 to 2 (7%) -3 to 5 (10%) -3 to 5 (7%) -6 to 9 (4%) -6 to 9 (7%) -10 to 19 (13%) -10 to 19 (9%) -20 to 39 (21%) -20 to 39 (9%) -over 40 (30%) -over 40 (9%) 60% 51% 50% 44% 40% 30% SS 30% 23% ALC 20% 20% 17% 18% 14% 10% 0% none 1 to 5 6 to 20 20 to over 40 Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Compare Sober School students Pretreatment use and current use 100% 90% 87% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 20% 21% 10% 10% 13% 8% 2% 4% 1% 2% 1% 0% 0% None 1 to 2 3 to 5 6 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 39 Over 40 Pre-treatment Current Use Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Pretreatment: amount of use Sober Schools ALC’s - None (1%) -None (27%) -1 to 2 (8%) -1 to 2 (13%) -3 to 5 (14%) -3 to 5 (23%) -over 5 (77%) -over 5 (47%) 90% 77% 80% 70% 60% 47% 50% SS 40% ALC 30% 27% 23% 20% 13% 14% 8% 10% 1% 0% none 1 to 2 3 to 5 Over 5 Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Relapse Sober Schools ALC’s -no (20%) -no (51%) -yes (80%) -yes (49%) 90% 80% 80% 70% 60% 51% 49% 50% 40% 30% 20% 20% 10% 0% SS ALC No Relapse Yes, Relapse Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Relapse: If yes… Sober School ALC -slip (19%) -slip (8%) -stop on own (12%) -stop on own (23%) -went to treatment (23%) -went to treatment (2%) -many times (19%) -many times (15%) -combination (8%) -combination (2%) 25% 23% 23% 20% 19% 18% 15% 15% 12% SS ALC 10% 8% 8% 5% 2% 2% 0% Slip; one time Stopped on my Went to Many times'; Combination thing own treatment Struggle Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Support Groups Sober Schools ALC’s -no attend (16%) -no attend (84%) -AA (22%) -AA (4%) -NA (11%) -NA (5%) -Other (1%) -Other (0%) -More than one group (50%) -More than one group (7%) 90% 84% 80% 70% 60% 50% 50% 40% 30% 22% 20% 16% 11% 10% 4% 5% 7% 1%0% 0% none AA NA Other More than one group SS ALC Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Role Models 1. Have one? 2. Gender 3. Relationship 4. Describe RM 5. Time spent with RM 6. RM drug attitudes 7. RM drink/use history 8. Influence of RM Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Research Questions • Who are the role models in recovery schools? • What behaviors do they exhibit? • To what extent do recovering students emulate those role models? • How do attendance, engagement and performance of students who emulate positive role models compare with attendance, engagement, and performance of students who do not emulate positive role models? Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Theoretical Framework  Peer relationships: Social learning theory, social development theory, peer cluster theory, peer selection vs peer socialization  Medical Model: A disease with signs & symptoms; stages of alcohol use; abstinence-only as treatment goal; physical dependency; and biological vulnerability  Self-esteem theories (self-derogation, problem behavior, conflicting research results, self-presentation theory). Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • What is a role model? (Definition) 1. Student you admire? (literature) 2. Consider a role model? 3. Define positive R.M. 4. Define negative R.M. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Interview: “Describe positive role model.” “someone strong “Mom” “someone who enough to get clean helps you stay and stay clean” clean and sober” “someone who works a “strong- “someon good willed” e who “I am a program” doesn’t “my grandpa” role model” use or “smart” pressure “kind- “my others to hearted” homeboy, use” “sexy girlfriend” Nick” “achieving “trustworthy” goals and doing the right “ex-step dad” “unique, clever” thing” Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Describe Role Model Sober Schools ALC’s Have a role model? -Yes: 70% -Yes: 43% -No: 31% -No: 57% Gender Male: 42% -Male: 42% Female: 53% -Female: 54% Both:5% -Both: 4% Relationship Boy/girlfriend: 7% Boy/girlfriend: 14% Good friend: 72% Good friend: 80% Acquaintance: 19% Acquaintance: 4% Student, but doesn’t know me: 2% Student, but doesn’t know me: 1% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • RM Adjectives Sober Schools ALC’s +75% - cares about other people (91%), nice -Funny (81%), happy (79%), nice person person (91%), happy (88%), smart (77%) (87%), funny (84%), leader (83%) +50% -have many friends (73%), opinionated -Smart (71%), cares about other (73%), (73%), brave (70%) opinionated (63%), leader (60%), has many friends (58%), brave (54%) +25% -looks cool or hot (39%) -looks cool or hot (42%), rebel (27%) Under -rebel (20%), moody (12%), follower -moody (13%), follower (13%), dumb (6%), 25% (5%), dumb (2%), loner (2%) loner (2%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Role Models Described “ I look up to a student at my school who…” S.S. ALC -does NOT drink or uses marijuana or other drugs. 50% 11% -encourages me to stay clean and sober. 53% 10% -drinks or uses marijuana and other drugs. 1% 1% - encourages me to drink or to use marijuana and other drugs. 1% 2% 60% 53% 50% 50% 40% SS 30% ALC 20% 11% 10% 10% 1% 1% 1% 2% 0% Non-User Non-User Using RM Using RM R.M. R.M. encourages encourages me me Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Role Model Drug Use Sober ALC’s Schools 100% 93% 95% 90% Uses Yes (3%) Yes (30% 80% now? No (93%) No (59%) 70% 68% Don’t Know (5%) Don’t Know (11%) 60% yes 50% no Last Yes (27% Yes (57%) 40% don't know year? No (68%) No (26%) 30% 27% Don’t Know (4%) Don’t Know (17%) 20% 10% 3% 5% 4% Yes (95%) Yes (72%) 2%3% Ever? 0% No (2%) No (20%) Uses Last year? Ever? Don’t Know (3%) Don’t Know (9%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “How many times a month do you think this person would think it was OK to drink, use marijuana, or use other drugs?” Times/Month Sober ALC Schools 100% None 91% 29% 90% 90% 80% 1 to 2 1% 41% 70% 60% SS 3 to 5 0% 4% 50% 41% ALC 40% 6 to 9 1% 8% 30% 29% 20% 10 to 19 1% 2% 10% 8% 8% 1% 4% 1% 2% 1% 4% 1% 3% 4% 3% 0% 0% 20 to 39 1% 4% 0 ow ne 19 39 2 5 9 r4 to to to no Kn to to ve 1 3 6 3% 8% 10 20 Over 40 O n't Do Don’t Know 3% 4% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • “How many times during a social event (such as a party) do you think this person would think it was OK to use alcohol, marijuana, or any other drugs last month?” 120% 100% 96% Amount Sober ALC Schools 80% None 96% 37% SS 60% 1 to 2 1% 35% ALC 3 to 5 1% 17% 37% 35% 40% Over 5 2% 10% 17% 20% 10% 1% 1% 2% 0% none 1 to 2 3 to 5 Over 5 Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Contact and Conversations - 1 Sober ALC Schools Does “this person talk to Yes (70%) Yes (63%) you” about alcohol, No (28%) No (33%) marijuana, or other drugs? Don’t Know (3%) Don’t Know (4%) Do “you talk to this person“ Yes (65%) Yes (55%) about alcohol, etc. No (30%) No (38%) Don’t Know (5%) Don’t Know (6%) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Contact and Conversations - 2 60% 54% 50% 41% 38% 37% 36% 40% 34% No Time 33% Very little time 30% 21% 21% Often 18% 18% 18% All of the time 20% 11% 9% 10% 7% 4% 0% At School After School Outside of Phone or Activities school computer Time with Sober ALC Sober School ALC Role Model Schools At School No time: 7% -No time: 6% Outside No time: 18% -No time: 14% Very little: 18% -Very little: 23% of Very little: 37% -Very little: 33% Often: 54% -Often: 43% school Often: 36% -Often: 29% All the time: 21% -All the time: 28% All the time: 9% -All the time: 24% After No time: 33% -No time: 42% Phone or No time: 34% -No time: 24% School Very little: 18% -Very little: 27% Computer Very little: 41% -Very little: 39% Activities Often: 38% -Often: 16% Often: 21% -Often: 16% All the time: 11% -All the time: 16% All the time: 4% -All the time: 20% Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Role Model Influence Influences Measure Sober ALC School Q43: A student at my school who I No influence 34% 71% admire and look up to at school. Some 35% 15% Great deal 26% 9% Don’t Know 4% 5% Q26: Role models at school who are No influence 14% 50% my age Not much 20% 19% Some 32% 22% Most 33% 10% Q53: How much influence do you No 23% 35% think this person has over your Some 50% 37% drinking, marijuana use, or the use of Great 28% 29% other drugs? (referring to role model) Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Role Models - Sober School Results - Seventy percent have peer role models at school. There are slightly more female RM (53%) and RM is considered a good friend (72%). Over 75% of role models are described as caring about other people (91%) nice person (91%) happy (88%) smart (87%) funny (84%) a leader (83%). Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Role Models - Sober School Results - Over 50% of role models also have many friends (73%) opinionated (73%) brave (70%). Role model has not used in over a year but has a history of use (95%). He or she does not condone any amount of alcohol or drug use (91% to 96%). Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Role Models - Sober School Results - Student talks with RM about drugs (65%) and RM talks with the student about drugs (70%). Student spends all most all of his or her time and “often” spends time with RM at school (75%) after school activities (49%) outside of school (45%) on the phone/computer (25%). Role model has some or a great deal of influence over student’s drinking/use (78%). Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Interview: “What can schools do?” “more “inspirational “establish a realistic speakers” relationship with the student” information” “More “be more available for UA‟s” questions” “Clone Mary” “tell people what it‟s like” “how to use “Stop and Think free time “student to week” because student… every day is know what “Notice when kids somebody‟ you‟re going are high and do s birthday.” through.” something about it.” “someone who likes kids and what they are doing”
    • Implications and Recommendations What can schools do? 1. Notice drug use. 2. Do something about it. 3. Establish and value relationships. 4. Recognize and cultivate peer role models. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • MN Sober Schools and ALCs UMN Study 2006-2007 ~ Preliminary Results ~ Debbie Lloyd University of Minnesota EdPA Doctoral Candidate Blog: http://debumnstudy.blogspot.com E-mail: lloy0017@umn.edu Presentation by D. Lloyd at the ARS Conference, Minneapolis, MD, July 26, 2007
    • Minnesota Choices • Traditional school setting (home school) • Homeschooling • Alternative education program • Open Enrollment (outside own school district) • Online learning • Postsecondary Enrollment Options • Charter Schools • Recovery-based Schools
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery School Environment Student Students in Recovery
    • RS and ALC School Programs Recovery Schools ALC 1. Schools operate as state • are performing substantially recognized schools. below grade level 2. Schools provide treatment • are at least one year behind in support but do not act credits for graduation primarily as treatment • are pregnant or parents centers. • have experienced physical or 3. All enrolled students must be sexual abuse sober and working a program • are chemically dependent of recovery. • have mental health problems 4. Students completing required coursework receive high • have been homeless recently school credit. • have withdrawn from school or 5. Each school has a plan to been chronically truant deal with the therapeutic and • speak English as a second crisis needs of its students. language or have limited English proficiency
    • Participating MN Schools (15 SS; 9 ALC) MN School Recovery Schools Survey Interviews ALC Survey Interviews District (358 enrollment) (51%) (794 enroll) (16%) Burnsville Alliance Academy 16 2 no none none Cambridge Oak Land Sober School 11 7 no none none Cass Lake Aateshing 7 4 Cass Lake-Bena ALC 11 none Chaska Solace Academy 17 4 Carver-Scott Ed Coop 9 none Coon Rapids Arona Academy 15 4 Crossroads ALC 25 5 Detroit Lakes Lakes Recovery School 6 8 Detroit Lakes ALC 12 5 ISD #287 City West Academy (Eden Prairie) 6 1 Lincoln Hills ALC 10 none (Richfield) West Campus (Edina) 39 6 Litchfield Libre Academy 6 2 no none none Maplewood North Summit Academy 15 4 Harmony ALC 13 4 Minneapolis PEASE 16 2 no none none Owatonna RSSM 7 1 Rose Street Center 11 4 Spring Lake Safe Harbor 4 4 SLP ALC 7 none Park St. Paul Gateway 8 3 no none none White Bear L. INSIGHT 8 2 WBL ALC 27 8 TOTAL. Recovery Schools 181 54 ALC 125 26
    • What does an alcoholic or drug addict look like?
    • What does an alcoholic or drug addict look like?
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery MN School Choices Student - Traditional school setting - Homeschooling - Alternative education program - Open Enrollment - Online learning - Postsecondary Enrollment Options - Charter Schools - Recovery-based Schools School Environment Substance Use
    • Length of School Enrollment Length of School Enrollment 50.00% 46.40% 45.00% 40.00% 35.30% 35.00% 30.40% 30.00% 27.60% 22% RS 25.00% 20.00% ALC 15.00% 9.60% 11.60% 10.40% 10.00% 3.30% 3.20% 5.00% 0.00% < 1 month 1 to 3 months 3 to 6 months 6 months to 1 1 year or more year
    • Demographics of Population (15 RS, 9 ALC; 306 students) - Geography Survey: Gender RS 1 TG; 88M; 91F ALC 0 TG; 57M; 68F - Gender 60.00% 50.00% 49% 46% 50% 54% 40.00% - Age 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.56% 0.00% - Grade level 0.00% transgender Male Female - Length of school Interview: Gender RS 22M; 32F ALC 10M;16F enrollment 70.00% 61.00% 59.00% - Ethnicity 60.00% 50.00% 41.00% 38.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Male Female
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery MN School Choices - Traditional school setting - Homeschooling - Alternative education program - Open Enrollment - Online learning - Postsecondary Enrollment Options - Charter Schools - Recovery-based Schools MN Stats 2007 MN Stats 2007 - 8% (9th), 14% (12th) before/during school - 11% Illicit drug use (last month)* - 16% (9th), 19% (12th) offered, sold, or - 37% (9th), 63% (12th), alcohol given - 13% (9th), 29% (12th), binge drinking, - 4% (9th), 24% (12th), drink & drive >5/party - 19% (9th), 37% (12th), passenger - 15% (9th), 31% (12th), marijuana w/drinking driver
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery - @ 9% are medically • MN School Choices classified as having • Traditional school substance abuse or setting substance • Homeschooling dependence • Alternative education - 11% (ages12-17) program received treatment • Open Enrollment during the last school • Online learning year • Postsecondary Enrollment Options - Relapse rate is high: • Charter Schools 35% to 80% • Recovery-based - Complicating mental Schools health issues for youth (depression, compulsion, bipolar, anxiety, etc) MN Stats 2007 MN Stats 2007 - 11% Illicit drug use (last month)* - 8% (9th), 14% (12th) before/during school - 37% (9th), 63% (12th), alcohol - 16% (9th), 19% (12th) offered, sold, or given - 13% (9th), 29% (12th), binge drinking, >5/party - 4% (9th), 24% (12th), drink & drive - 15% (9th), 31% (12th), marijuana - 19% (9th), 37% (12th), passenger w/drinking driver
    • The Problem: Meeting the needs of the student in recovery MN School Choices • Traditional school setting School Environment Student • Homeschooling • Alternative education program • Open Enrollment • Online learning • Postsecondary Enrollment Options • Charter Schools • Recovery-based Schools
    • Results: What behaviors do role models exhibit? Substance Use of Admired Person Substance Use & 100% Attitudes of Admired 90% 93% 80% 70% 66% Person 60% 50% 40% 52% RS ALC • current, last year, 30% 28% 26% 20% 10% lifetime (survey) 0% 1% Monthly Last Year Lifetime • Condone use (survey) Condone Drinking or Use • Long time sobriety & (Times per Month) 100% 90% shared past 90% 80% 70% 60% (interview) 50% 40% 30% 32% 40% RS ALC 20% 8% 8% 10% 1% 0% 4% 1% 1% 2% 1% 4% 3% 0% 0 1 to 2 3 to 5 6 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 30 over 40