AIX 6.1 Security Expert
May 2011
AIXpert
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-2
AIX V6.1 Security Expert
A new capability of AIX V6.1 that al...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-3
Authorizations
– Mechanism to grant access to commands or cer...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-4
Role Based Access Control (RBAC)
Separation of duties through...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-5
A centralized security management tool that can control over ...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-6
AIX 6 introduces three new security installation options
– Tr...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-7
"Bottom Up" Approach
– Reverses traditional "Top Down" approa...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-8
Based on OpenSSL
– needed to setup and handle keys and certif...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-9
Automatically encrypt data in a JFS2 filesystem
Data can be p...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-10
Embedded in JFS2, not stacked, for performance and reliabili...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-11
Encryption/Decryption happens in memory, not on storage
– he...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-12
Prereqs
– CryptoLite in C (CLiC) library and kernel extensio...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-13
# ls -U file*
-rw-r--r--- 1 root system 0 May 14 13:22 file1...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-14
Two keystore protection modes
– Root Admin Mode
• Pro: Root ...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-15
A new web based management tool that provides easy access to...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-16
Remote AIX management from a web browser
– Verify Fileset in...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-17
From global LPAR use the -@ flag to designate WPAR
# ps -ef ...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-18
From WPAR use normal commands
# ps -ef
UID PID PPID C STIME ...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-19
Some commands are not supported from WPAR
# netstat -rn
Rout...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-20
Network adapters are alias on global partition
# ifconfig en...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-21
AIX Security Expert
– AIX 5.3 TL5
Secure By Default
– AIX 6....
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-22
Long Passphrase
– AIX 5.2, 5.3, 6.1
Configurable Password Al...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-23
Support for extended base DN format
Support for multiple bas...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-24
Enable AIX client to use Active Directory (AD) LDAP
– Suppor...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-25
Fileset: bos.net.ipsec
Firewall
– Packet filtering
– Statefu...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-26
IP Filter is also known as IPF.
Open source internet protoco...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-27
OpenSSH
– http://sourceforge.net/projects/openssh-aix
– Clie...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-28
FIPS 140-2 Level 4 certified
Common Cryptographic Architectu...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-29
On board API functionality:
– DES and 3DES encryption and me...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-30
Banking and finance
Electronic commerce
Certificate Authorit...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-31
SED protects against the most common and exploited
vulnerabi...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-32
Stops buffer overflow based vulnerabilities
– Disables execu...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-33
Offers system-wide protection of all files when ON
– Drawbac...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-34
Virtual IO Server v1.3 Security Enhanced
– Common Criteria c...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-35
Network and OS hardening tool
Result of hardening and securi...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-36
Network and OS Security Hardening Tool
Knowledge of multitud...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-37
Security Expertise in the Tool
Simple Configuration Settings...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-38
AIX Security Hardening Groupings
– Password Administration
–...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-39
Simple Solid Design
Core engine never changes
Engine has no ...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-40
Xml fomat /etc/security/aixpert/core/aixpertall.xml
<AIXPert...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-41
Security Configuration Saved in
– /etc/security/aixpert/core...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-42
Check Security compares current system configuration with
– ...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-43
Security Hardening at install time with Config Assist
AIX Se...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-44
More on High, Medium, and Low Level Security
High
– Security...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-45
Enhanced AIX Security Expert
Multilevel Security (MLS)
Role-...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-46
appliedaixpert.xml distributed through LDAP
– No need for sn...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-47
#name program arguments
ftp /usr/sbin/ftpd ftpd
telnet /usr/...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-48
#name program arguments
talk /usr/sbin/talkd talkd
ntalk /us...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-49
STOP giving out root users password
Distribute administratio...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-50
RBAC was previously provided by PitBull (AIX v5.3)
Limited s...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-51
Distribution of root roles to system users
– Gives user “cin...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-52
Suited to roles where there are many users managing a single...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-53
What is it?
– Security through classifications and labels (E...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-54
MLS details
– Add on security enhancement for AIX based on t...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-55
Federal government networks and databases (datacenters)
Bank...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-56
Extension of current Trusted Computing Base
Provides both in...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-57
Scenario: Hacker replaces the existing /usr/bin/ls with his ...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-58
Provides Signature Based System Verification
– Two modes of ...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-59
Integrity Checking
– TE - System and Run-time checking.
– TC...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-60
Transparent to users and system administrators
File level en...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-61
AIX EFS offers file level encryption
– HP EVFS only offers l...
© Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-62
AIX EFS is integrated into FS commands (i.e.: chmod)
– HP EV...
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AIXpert - AIX Security expert

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AIXpert - AIX Security expert

  1. 1. AIX 6.1 Security Expert May 2011 AIXpert
  2. 2. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-2 AIX V6.1 Security Expert A new capability of AIX V6.1 that allows privileged administration tasks to be delegated to non-privileged users Access to system resources are associated with roles that are assigned to non-privileged users Many roles are predefined which can reduce the effort of implementing RBAC Roles can also be associated with programs
  3. 3. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-3 Authorizations – Mechanism to grant access to commands or certain functionality. – Context aware. Roles – A container for authorizations that can be assigned to a user. Privileges – Process attribute that allows a process to bypass a security restriction. – Not context aware. Authorizations vs. Privileges – Auths exist only outside of kernel, Privs only inside – Auths enable access to commands, Privs enable execution of single functions – e.g. "run mkuser" vs. "PV_DAC_W" Role Based Access Control (RBAC)
  4. 4. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-4 Role Based Access Control (RBAC) Separation of duties through roles: Main pre-defined AIX Roles: – ISSO Information Systems Security Officer • Establishes and maintains security policy – SA System Administrator • Creates user accounts, groups, etc. • Installs software packages – SO System Operator • Archives file system • Manages line printer • Shuts down system – Additional pre-defined AIX Roles: • AccountAdmin, BackupRestore, DomainAdmin, FSAdmin, SecPolicy, SysBoot, SysConfig.
  5. 5. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-5 A centralized security management tool that can control over 300 security settings from a single console. Administrators can start from a “Low”, “Medium”, “High” or “Sarbanes-Oxley” security template and customize settings to meet business requirements. Security settings can be exported and imported as a security profile to multiple systems. On AIX V6.1, security profiles can be stored in an LDAP directory for ease of distribution. AIX Security Expert was first included in AIX V5.3 TL5. AIX V6.1 Security Expert: How it can help?
  6. 6. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-6 AIX 6 introduces three new security installation options – Trusted AIX (MLS) – Multi-Level Security – LSPP/EAL4+ – Labeled Security Protection Profile and Evaluation Assurance Level 4+ – SbD - Secure by Default SbD is new default security option – Installs a minimal set of software – Deletes components that use weak authorization (bos.net.tcp.client|server) and runs AIX Security Expert to apply hardening for level "high" – Additional software installed on as-needed basis Secure by Default (SbD)
  7. 7. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-7 "Bottom Up" Approach – Reverses traditional "Top Down" approach of full install followed by hardening Thorough planning strongly suggested – Can all applications' requisites be fulfilled by this install template? Secure by Default (SbD) (Continued)
  8. 8. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-8 Based on OpenSSL – needed to setup and handle keys and certificates ftp and ftpd are secured using TLS protocol – Command channel and data channel are encrypted Nice add-on to OpenSSH's 'scp' and 'sftp' – e.g. data exchange with legacy systems not offering SSH Client usage is 'ftp -s …' – TLS stuff is configured in user’s ~/.ftpcnt file Server usage is implicit – TLS stuff is configured in /etc/ftpd.cnf Secure FTP
  9. 9. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-9 Automatically encrypt data in a JFS2 filesystem Data can be protected from access by privileged users Backup in encrypted or clear formats Automated key management – key store open on login, integrated into AIX security authentication Each file encrypted with a unique key No keys stored in clear in kernel memory A variety of AES, and RSA cryptography keys supported AIX V6.1 Encrypting Filesystem
  10. 10. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-10 Embedded in JFS2, not stacked, for performance and reliability – all JFS2 operations can be performed with an EFS • mounting and unmounting, increasing and decreasing size, defragmenting, removing, … • but no NFS or GPFS support – In stacked FSs, data may be lost through strong encryption when crypto meta data write and data write are out of sync Each file is encrypted with a separate key (stored in its Eas) AIX V6.1 Encrypting Filesystem
  11. 11. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-11 Encryption/Decryption happens in memory, not on storage – hence no DIO/CIO User keystore gets opened by login password or separate pw – login pw is distinct from keystore pw – holds user's private and public key (asymmetric encryption, RSA) – public key is used to access shared secret for file en/decryption (symmetric encryption, AES) – hybrid approach for the sake of performance (e.g. like TLS) AIX V6.1 Encrypting Filesystem (Continued)
  12. 12. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-12 Prereqs – CryptoLite in C (CLiC) library and kernel extension must be installed and loaded – Enhanced RBAC must be enabled (default in AIX6) – EFS must be explicity enabled (can be done at any time using 'efsenable') New and existing FShttp://www.tecmint.com/linux-server-hardening- security-tips/s can be encrypted – smitty crfs -> "Enable EFS? [yes]" – 'crfs' or 'chfs' along with "-a efs=yes" – not to be applied on "/", /usr, /var and /opt since keystore can't be opened during boot – but that's OK, since EFS' main focus is on protectinguser/application data – encrypted files can be identified by 'ls -U' Encrypted File System (EFS)
  13. 13. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-13 # ls -U file* -rw-r--r--- 1 root system 0 May 14 13:22 file1 -rw-r--r--e 1 root system 0 May 14 13:22 file2 User key management is provided with 'efskeymgr' command Performance penalty is said to be low*) – best practice: use it selectively where needed, not everywhere e.g. on sensitive filesystems only, selected DB columns, etc. Encrypted File System (EFS)
  14. 14. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-14 Two keystore protection modes – Root Admin Mode • Pro: Root can reset user and group key store access passwords • Con: Root might be able to gain access to a user's key store and encrypted files – Root Guard Mode • Pro: Root cannot reset user and group key store access passwords • Con: Root cannot gain access to a user's key store and encrypted files, even when necessary! EFS backup Best Practices – Backup raw encrypted form – Backup the file owner's keystore – The file owner's keystore password must also be "saved" or files must be re-encrypted in a timely manner when keystore pw changes Encrypted File System (EFS)
  15. 15. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-15 A new web based management tool that provides easy access to common system administration tasks Administrators can access Systems Management Interface Tool (SMIT) menus from a browser Graphical user interface is fast and consistent with IBM Systems Director look and feel All necessary components for the Console are included in AIX The Distributed Command Execution Manager (DCEM) feature of the Console allows an administrative task to run on multiple systems at once AIX V6.1 Systems Director Console for AIX
  16. 16. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-16 Remote AIX management from a web browser – Verify Fileset installation # lslpp -h sysmgt.pconsole.rte Use SRC to control the director console # lssrc -s pconsole Subsystem Group PID Status pconsole pconsole 319644 active Stop and start with startsrc and stopsrc Access from your browser – http://HostName:5335/ibm/console View and save commands like smit Config file – /pconsole/lwi/conf/overrides/config.properties IBM Systems Director Console
  17. 17. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-17 From global LPAR use the -@ flag to designate WPAR # ps -ef -@ ec08 WPAR UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD ec08 root 217128 389182 0 15:00:58 - 0:00 /usr/sbin/rsct/b ec08 root 266398 389182 0 15:00:21 - 0:00 /usr/sbin/rsct/b ec08 root 278634 389182 0 15:00:20 - 0:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.lo ec08 root 290942 389182 0 15:00:18 - 0:00 /usr/sbin/biod 6 WPAR command support
  18. 18. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-18 From WPAR use normal commands # ps -ef UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD root 217128 389182 0 15:00:58 - 0:00 /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/IBM.Sensor root 266398 389182 0 15:00:21 - 0:00 /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/rmcd -a IB root 278634 389182 0 15:00:20 - 0:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.lockd -d 0 root 290942 389182 0 15:00:18 - 0:00 /usr/sbin/biod 6 root 1 0 0 15:00:04 - 0:00 /etc/init WPAR command support
  19. 19. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-19 Some commands are not supported from WPAR # netstat -rn Routing tables Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use If Exp Groups netstat : Permission error, unable to continue. WPAR command support
  20. 20. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-20 Network adapters are alias on global partition # ifconfig en0 en0: flags=1e080863,480<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,SIMPLE X,... inet 9.19.51.153 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 9.19.51.255 inet 9.19.51.154 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 9.19.51.255 tcp_sendspace 262144 tcp_recvspace 262144 rfc1323 1 WPAR command support
  21. 21. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-21 AIX Security Expert – AIX 5.3 TL5 Secure By Default – AIX 6.1 File Permission Manager – AIX 5.2, 5.3, 6.1 Role-base Access Cntl – AIX 6.1 Encrypted File System – AIX 6.1 Trusted Execution – AIX 6.1 Trusted AIX – AIX 6.1 AIX Security Feature Release Schedule
  22. 22. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-22 Long Passphrase – AIX 5.2, 5.3, 6.1 Configurable Password Algorithms – AIX 5.3, 6.1 Enhancements for LDAP R2 Support – AIX 5.3, TL 6 AIX Security Feature Release Schedule
  23. 23. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-23 Support for extended base DN format Support for multiple base DN definitions AIX LDAP Client support against Microsoft Active Directory LDAP
  24. 24. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-24 Enable AIX client to use Active Directory (AD) LDAP – Support AD similar to any RFC 2307 compliant LDAP server. AD users must be UNIX enabled AD must have UNIX schema support installed Users can be managed from the AIX LDAP client, but the system administrator should create users in AD. Transparent to administrators and users – Hide all implementation details – Use 'mksecldap'to configure AIX client to operate with AD AIX LDAP Client support against Microsoft Active Directory
  25. 25. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-25 Fileset: bos.net.ipsec Firewall – Packet filtering – Stateful inspection filtering NAT Support Virtual Private Network – FTP – IKE/ISAKMP Port Scan Protection – SSH Pattern Matching – Supports ClamAV virus DB* AIX is IPv6 Certified AES support IPSEC Suite
  26. 26. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-26 IP Filter is also known as IPF. Open source internet protocol filtering tool Acts as a firewall Allows for consistent firewall rules tables in a heterogeneous environment (AIX, HP, Solaris, Linux) Provides NAT support IP Filter
  27. 27. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-27 OpenSSH – http://sourceforge.net/projects/openssh-aix – Client and server connectivity encryption tool. – Supports Triple DES & Blowfish encryption protocols. – Eliminates clear text passwords and traffic over the network. – NLS Enablement – Kerberos v5 as an optional authentication method. – New version to ship in November, SSH 4.6 TCP Wrapper – Open source tool that protects access to network services such as telnet, ftp, r-commands, etc. – It can be configured to explicitly deny or permit remote hosts attempting to access these services. – Monitors access to services and reports via a log file and/or can be integrated into the AIX audit utility. OpenSSH & TCP Wrapper
  28. 28. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-28 FIPS 140-2 Level 4 certified Common Cryptographic Architecture (CCA) and PKCS11 APIs PCI-X Cryptographic Coprocessor (4764)
  29. 29. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-29 On board API functionality: – DES and 3DES encryption and message authentication – RSA digital signatures (up to 2048 bits) – DES, 3DES and RSA key management Secure Electronic Transaction (electronic commerce functions) ATM and POS PIN processing. Key diversification for smart card applications 4764 CCA API Functionality
  30. 30. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-30 Banking and finance Electronic commerce Certificate Authorities General purpose encryption services Custom applications – Limited basis under custom contracts. CCA Applications
  31. 31. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-31 SED protects against the most common and exploited vulnerability: A stack buffer overflow, usually causes application and/or operating system termination. More sophisticated attackers will use it to escalate their privileges in order to gain control of the system. Stack Execution Disable (SED)
  32. 32. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-32 Stops buffer overflow based vulnerabilities – Disables execution on the stack and heap • Uses process page level protection • Processor interrupts the OS on exceptions Control granularity – Off/On (all) – Select – setuid and setgid files Two modes of operation – Monitor & Operational Logging – Logged events are sent to the AIX error log Stack Execution Disable: Administration
  33. 33. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-33 Offers system-wide protection of all files when ON – Drawback is Java and GCC, which may legitimately execute on the stack Select file protections – Network services – Mission critical applications and services setuid/getuid permission – Protection against escalation of privileges Stack Execution Disable: Administration cont.
  34. 34. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-34 Virtual IO Server v1.3 Security Enhanced – Common Criteria certified EAL4+ under CAPP & LSPP – Implements AIX Security Expert – Fully customizable set of security policies – Built in firewall – 'viosecure' command enables and alters the state of the firewall • Default rule is, deny • Limited set of network services permitted Other System p AIX Offerings
  35. 35. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-35 Network and OS hardening tool Result of hardening and security research Brings 300+ security settings to a central point of control Simplifies complex security configuration Extensible to enterprise specific settings and software Single system configuration applied to the whole enterprise AIX Security Expert: Overview
  36. 36. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-36 Network and OS Security Hardening Tool Knowledge of multitude of Unix hardening papers Brings 300+ Security Settings to Central Control Simplifies Complex Security configuration Extensible to Enterprise specific settings and software Configure one system, and apply template throughout the enterprise. AIX Security Expert: Bringing the Security Pieces Together
  37. 37. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-37 Security Expertise in the Tool Simple Configuration Settings – High, Medium, Low Advanced settings Each settings offers system admin selectable detail of settings. Undo option – Recursive undo of settings Consistent Security Option for Enterprise AIX Security Expert
  38. 38. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-38 AIX Security Hardening Groupings – Password Administration – Login Policy – Audit – /etc/inittab – /etc/rc.tcpip – /etc/inetd.conf – remove SUID (remove bit from r-cmds) – Network Tunning (‘no’ security options) – IP Security (firewall) port scans – Misc AIX Security Expert
  39. 39. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-39 Simple Solid Design Core engine never changes Engine has no knowledge of High, Med, Low, Advanced, Undo All security setting described in xml rules Undo xml built dynamically AIX Security Expert
  40. 40. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-40 Xml fomat /etc/security/aixpert/core/aixpertall.xml <AIXPertEntry name="minagehls"> <AIXPertRuleType> 1 </AIXPertRuleType> <AIXPertRuleState>Desired</AIXPertRuleState> <AIXPertDescription> Specifies the minimum number of weeks to 1 week, before a password can be changed </AIXPertDescription> <AIXPertPrereqList> bos.rte.date, bos.rte.commands, bos.rte.security, bos.rte.shell, bos.rte.ILS </AIXPertPrereqList> <AIXPertCommand>/etc/security/aixpert/bin/chusrattr</AIXPertCo mmand> <AIXPertArgs>minage= 1 ALL minagehls</AIXPertArgs> </AIXPertEntry> AIX Security Expert
  41. 41. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-41 Security Configuration Saved in – /etc/security/aixpert/core/appliedaixpert.xml Configure one system, stamp appliedaixpert.xml on rest of enterprise, for uniform security settings – After configuring one system, the settingsimplemented on that system are saved in appliedaixpert.xml file – Via a secure out of band method, copy this file to other systems – Run a single command to implement these exact settings on other systems – /usr/sbin/aixpert –f appliedaixpert.xml AIX Security Expert
  42. 42. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-42 Check Security compares current system configuration with – /etc/security/aixpert/core/appliedaixpert.xml Check Security; has anything changed? AIX Security Expert
  43. 43. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-43 Security Hardening at install time with Config Assist AIX Security Expert can be accessed at install time via Config Assist AIX security settings unchanged unless user selects the Configure Security from the Config Assist menu – Default Config Assist Security Level is Low Level Security NIM Post Install script to automatically configure Security – /etc/security/aixpert/core/appliedaixpert.xml AIX Security Expert
  44. 44. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-44 More on High, Medium, and Low Level Security High – Security is paramount – On an unsafe network Medium – Safe network – Clear text passwords over network is OK Low – Common non-disruptive security settings Standard AIX AIX Security Expert
  45. 45. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-45 Enhanced AIX Security Expert Multilevel Security (MLS) Role-based Access Control Trusted Execution Encrypted File System AIX 5L 6.1 Security Features
  46. 46. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-46 appliedaixpert.xml distributed through LDAP – No need for sneaker-net or secure copy Performance boost – XML parsing via C library routines "Secure by Default" – Initial installation is a minimal install – High security level is applied during install File Permission Manager SOX/Cobit Compliance Assistant – Wizard for setting up system to comply with SOX requirements Enhanced AIX Security Expert
  47. 47. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-47 #name program arguments ftp /usr/sbin/ftpd ftpd telnet /usr/sbin/telnetd telnetd -a shell /usr/sbin/rshd rshd login /usr/sbin/rlogind rlogind exec /usr/sbin/rexecd rexecd comsat /usr/sbin/comsat comsat uucp /usr/sbin/uucpd uucpd bootps /usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd /etc/bootp finger /usr/sbin/fingerd fingerd systat /usr/bin/ps ps -ef netstat /usr/bin/netstat netsta -f inet tftp /usr/sbin/tftpd tftpd -n Secure by Default
  48. 48. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-48 #name program arguments talk /usr/sbin/talkd talkd ntalk /usr/sbin/talkd talkd rquotad /usr/sbin/rpc.rquotad rquotad 100011 1 rexd /usr/sbin/rpc.rexd rexd 100017 1 rstatd /usr/sbin/rpc.rstatd rstatd 100001 1-3 rusersd /usr/lib/netsvc/rusers/rpc.rusersd rusersd 100002 1-2 rwalld /usr/lib/netsvc/rwall/rpc.rwalld rwalld 100008 1 sprayd /usr/lib/netsvc/spray/rpc.sprayd sprayd 100012 1 pcnfsd /usr/sbin/rpc.pcnfsd pcnfsd 150001 1-2 instsrv /u/netinst/bin/instsrv instsrv -r /tmp/netinstalllog /u/netinst/scripts Secure by Default (Continued)
  49. 49. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-49 STOP giving out root users password Distribute administration of the system to disparate and unconnected users. – i.e. Human resources creates the user, finance changes the users salary, operations defines authorizations and managements creates roles The goal of RBAC is to reduce or eliminate the use of "root" RBAC is installed and active by default – Integrated into the kernel and installed commands Role-Based Access Control
  50. 50. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-50 RBAC was previously provided by PitBull (AIX v5.3) Limited set of roles Authorizations are hard-coded into the command code User “root” cannot be completely removed Third party applications are required to code authorizations into their commands Role-Based Access Control: Background v5.3
  51. 51. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-51 Distribution of root roles to system users – Gives user “cingram” the authority to create users, but not give them access to set passwords More levels of granularity than previously offered – Users can assume a very specific role – System-defined roles and user-defined roles Integration into LDAP – Authorization tables do not have to be stored locally Option to eliminate the root user – Removes the "golden egg" from the system Reduces collaborative attacks from insiders – Least privilege security model reduces exposure and increases effort Role-based Access Control
  52. 52. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-52 Suited to roles where there are many users managing a single system Government organizations Datacenter operations Database management RBAC Environments
  53. 53. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-53 What is it? – Security through classifications and labels (EAL4+ Labeled Security Protection Profile) – Separate product and will NOT be included with the base distribution MLS via PitBull in AIX v5.3 MLS via AIX in v6.1 Expands on RBAC infrastructure Multi-Level Security (MLS)
  54. 54. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-54 MLS details – Add on security enhancement for AIX based on the Trusted OS model – Protects servers from internal and external attackers – Compartmentalizes and secures applications – Prevents malicious code from damaging systems – Removes administrative (superuser/root) privileges – Meets and exceeds government standards for maximum security Multilevel Security (MLS)
  55. 55. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-55 Federal government networks and databases (datacenters) Banks and financial institutions Healthcare (HIPAA requirements) Public utilities Service providers (application, eCommerce) Large corporate datacenters Any environment containing sensitive information Value proposition: – Provides maximum security for an organizations assets – Provides lower overall costs for IT – Permits for a simpler security architecture – Maintains 100% compatibility with AIX applications MLS Environments
  56. 56. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-56 Extension of current Trusted Computing Base Provides both install time and run time integrity check Loader verifies signature on files before they are executed Trusted Execution
  57. 57. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-57 Scenario: Hacker replaces the existing /usr/bin/ls with his own: – How do you scan the system to detect this change? – How do you stop execution of the invalid executable? – How do you prevent future modification of trusted applications? Scenario: Hacker places a trojan horse "ls" command on system. – How do you enforce where executables / libraries come from? The Need for Trusted Execution
  58. 58. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-58 Provides Signature Based System Verification – Two modes of integrity checking: • System: Comparison of current system with stored database. • Run-time: Validation of binary at execution time. Cryptographic Hash Mechanism – Supports SHA-1, SHA-256 and SHA-512 – Allows for signed hash signatures. Configurable Policies – Monitor all executions and loads of files in signature database. – Monitor only loads of kernel extensions. – Monitor only loads of shared libraries. – Lock the signature database. Even root cannot write to database. – Disable trusted file opens for write. Trusted Execution
  59. 59. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-59 Integrity Checking – TE - System and Run-time checking. – TCB - System checking only. System Enablement – TE - Enabled at any time. – TCB - Install time option. Security Database – TE - /etc/security/tsd/tsd.dat – TCB - /etc/security/sysck.cfg Management Commands – TE – trustchk – TCB - tcbck Trusted Execution(TE) Comparison to TCB
  60. 60. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-60 Transparent to users and system administrators File level encryption granularity Centralization of key-store – User key store allocated after successful login Employs AES symmetric encryption algorithm Integrated into the user administration – Automatic generation of key-stores for every user – Wraps users private key-store with the users password Encrypted File System
  61. 61. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-61 AIX EFS offers file level encryption – HP EVFS only offers logical volume level encryption AIX EFS offers unique keying and crypto metadata per file – HP EVFS only offers one key and crypto metadata per logical volume AIX EFS has the key-store connected to the users login – HP EVFS requires a separate command Competitive Analysis: AIX EFS vs. HP EVFS
  62. 62. © Copyright 2010 by Mt Xia Inc, All rights reserved. mxase-62 AIX EFS is integrated into FS commands (i.e.: chmod) – HP EVFS has a separate ‘evfs’ command and then it only operates on the logical volume AIX EFS backups are encrypted by default – HP EVFS backups must be re-encrypted AIX EFS volume groups can be resized as it is done today – HP EVFS volume groups cannot be resized (-F (force) option results in corrupted data Competitive Analysis cont.
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