Simple methods for_reliable_user_involvement


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Simple methods for_reliable_user_involvement

  1. 1. Simple Methods for Reliable User Involvement Hugh Beyer hugh.beyer@incontextdesign.comKaren Holtzblatt, CEO 978.823.0100 www.incontextdesign.comHugh Beyer, CTO
  2. 2. UX and Agile: The promise Agile says development in steps – and iterate UX says work with users to create value – and iterate Phase 0 The “ideal” product ideal sets direction(requirements) User Iteration refines the interface and function What users really need
  3. 3. Base principle for real user feedbackReal user feedback – Doesn’t come from:  Product owners  Stakeholders  User surrogates  Purchasers  People who used to be users  Demos  Focus groupsAnd…  You can’t put the user on the team  Users can’t give you a design U Users can’t t ll you what th want ’t tell h t they t
  4. 4. Solving the problem of design The system’s work model has: ode as Language System Structure Features Concepts The user’s work model has: Language Work Structure Work Flow Intention Result Design the optimal match:  Products and systems embody work practice  Design must support and extend user intent
  5. 5. Contextual Design olutions 1 Contextual Inquiry Talk to your customers in the field ments & So 2 Interpretation Session Interpret the data as a team to capture key issues and activities Work Models &Requirem 3 Affinity Diagramming Consolidate data across customers for a full market view 4 Visioning Generate new products & the next product concepts steeped in dataDefine & Validate Concepts 5 Storyboards Work out the details of particular tasks and roles Interaction Patterns & 6 User Environment Design Define system structure, function, content and user interaction 7 Paper Prototype Interviews Mock up the interface to validate direction and UI with customers p e 8 Visual Design & Agile Stories Design and test the final look; base stories on validated function
  6. 6. Contextual Design1 Contextual Inquiry2 Interpretation Session3 Work Models & Affinity4 Visioning Field t di Fi ld studies yield i ld5 Storyboards real understanding of what customers actually do and6 Interaction Patterns & UED what they really y y care about7 Paper Prototype Interviews8 Visual Design & Agile Stories
  7. 7. Contextual Design U21 Flow Model1 Contextual Inquiry Discuss open litigation Board of Directors Administrative Assistant General Counsel Discuss open litigation SOP Ask for legal advice Email2 Interpretation Session Business Unit Managers U21 SOP Outside Provide legal advice Senior Corporate Counsel Counsel Hand deliver SOP Open email to see Discuss legal options U3-1 request and log in info TRIGGER: 3 Work Models & Affinity She wants to understand HR what her boss is doing. doing Department Receive email from partner Open email to see request U5 and log in info U3-2 Sequence:  Open CCH Online Does she advise her boss Keyword  on how to answer or Search4 Visioning U3-3 manage his schedule? Pg. 1 of 3 Type log in info  Log in doesn’t work Can we design a better way  for her to keep informed? Re-type user name and password in5 Storyboards Intent: Restrict Domain to get  from email Decide to search in Cross-functional team relevant results Fed  interprets the data to Intent: Account for research time Select search form  capture issues and Remembered to6 Intent: Say what I start Interaction Patterns & UED want in computer terms client tracker model activities Type complex keyword k d search using Creates a shared Boolean7 Paper Prototype Interviews perspective of the data and implications8 Visual Design & Agile Stories
  8. 8. Contextual Design1 Contextual Inquiry2 Interpretation Session3 Work Models & Affinity4 Visioning Consolidates data across all5 Storyboards customers reveals the big picture of the market: key issues, tasks, values,6 Interaction Patterns & UED collaboration, work process, and technology impact7 Paper Prototype Interviews Find the opportunities to guide innovation.8 Visual Design & Agile Stories
  9. 9. Contextual Design1 Contextual Inquiry2 Interpretation Session3 Work Models & Affinity4 Visioning5 Storyboards Must have6 Interaction Patterns & UED models for Agile7 Paper Prototype Interviews8 Visual Design & Agile Stories
  10. 10. Contextual Design1 Contextual Inquiry2 Interpretation Session3 Work Models4 Visioning5 Storyboards Facilitated group ideation session – with evaluation6 Interaction Patterns & UED First immerse in the data then generate concepts for new and7 Paper Prototype Interviews existing products8 Visual Design & Agile Stories
  11. 11. Contextual Design1 Contextual Inquiry2 Interpretation Session3 Work Models & Affinity4 Visioning Develop the details of the5 Storyboards new to-be activities Clarify function, user6 Interaction Patterns & UED experience, automation rules, data, and technology based on the vision7 Paper Prototype Interviews8 Visual Design & Agile Stories
  12. 12. Contextual Design1 Contextual Inquiry2 Interpretation Session3 Work Models & Affinity4 Visioning Represent the system5 Storyboards structure, requirements, and user interface layout6 Interaction Patterns & UED Ensure consistency, coherence, and a smooth user experience product7 Paper Prototype Interviews wide.8 Visual Design & Agile Stories
  13. 13. Contextual Design1 Contextual Inquiry2 Interpretation Session3 Work Models & Affinity4 Visioning5 Storyboards Validate product concepts, process changes, and user experience while testing user6 Interaction Patterns & UED reception Or bring out concept boards7 Paper Prototype Interviews to validate direction before detailed design8 Visual Design & Agile Stories
  14. 14. UX and Agile: The promiseAgile says development in steps – and iterateUX says work with users to create value – and iterate The “ideal” product ideal Phase 0: What do we write on the story cards? Contextual Inquiry Consolidation Visioning End of sprint: Paper prototyping What does the During sprint: Get user think? the details right Field interviews Paper prototyping
  15. 15. Discovering customer workDi i t k
  16. 16. The Contextual interview The interviewing process of Contextual Design  One-on-one 2-hour field interview  Gathering detailed information about work practice p  In the workplace while people work  Through observation and discussion of on-going work on going  Based on a model of apprenticeship to the customer
  17. 17. Contextual Inquiry principlesKey concepts to guide understanding the customer  Context: Collect data in the context of people’s work p p • Go to your users workplace • Talk to your users while they work  Partnership: Work with customers as partners in inquiry • Help users articulate their work practice • Let them lead  Interpretation: Uncover the meaning and implications of customer action and language • Create a shared understanding • Draw out the implications p  Focus: Listen and probe from a clear intention • Know your purpose • Challenge your assumptions
  18. 18. What is context?Get as close to the work as possible  Go to the customer  Interview while they are working  Be grounded in real objects and events  Pay attention to non-verbal communicationOngoing work versus summary experience  People tend to give summaries  Ongoing work is never summarizedStay concrete don’t abstract concrete, don t  Ongoing work  Retrospective account — from the last two weeks  Look at artifacts
  19. 19. Dos and don’ts: Context principle Don’t Do Let the user talk in the air or talk in Make talk concrete: abstractions • Follow actual work and specific cases from recent past • Get or draw artifacts; annotate with intent and usage Allow the user to summarize a story Reconstruct a situation: • Back up the user when he skips a step •H Hypothesize steps to prompt the user h i h Discuss feature requests out of the Probe to understand what actual work context of usage situation prompted the request Follow the real work example Ask “What would you have done next?” Avoid predictions of future scenarios when the user did not actually do it in Only O l care about what is h b t h t i happening now i this case Do a retrospective account of past work
  20. 20. What is partnership?Partnership as relationship  The user is the expert • They know everything about their work but can’t tell you Withdrawal  So follow their lead  Help the users articulate and see their work practice ReturnAvoid ineffective interview styles  The Traditional Interviewer  The Expert/Novice  The Guest/Host
  21. 21. Dos and don’ts: Partnership principle Don’t Do Take the expert role: When asked for tool tips, ask how he/she • Do not teach or tell user how to do their would have done without you jobs Give tips at the end • Do not give tips on tool use Invite I it users to educate you t d t Create a distant relationship: Reconstruct a situation: • Sit back, have a reserved attitude • Lean forward, be fascinated • Be apologetic or timid • Be confiding and genuine • Be overbearing Create a formal relationship Be nosy, overcome formality Sit on the “visitor” side of the desk while Pull up a chair next to the user and the user is talking his/her computer screen. Make sure you can see what’s happening what s
  22. 22. What is interpretation?Interpretation is the data  A shared understanding of what is g g on g going Customer  Offer interpretations • Don’t ask open-ended Fact q questions  Listen for the “No” tune the interpretation • Huh? Hypothesis • Umm... could be • “They” would like it • “Yes” comes with elaboration Implication • Watch for non-verbal clues • Check your design ideas as they occur Design Idea
  23. 23. Dos and don’ts: Interpretation principle Don’t Do Just watch what happens and record it Look for patterns, intents, issues, and the role people play in the work, and then share them with the user Just ask “yes” or “no” questions Offer hypothesis that invite elaboration Just ask “why?” or open-ended Use metaphors to explain what the work questions is like and ask the user if you get it right
  24. 24. What is focus?Know your purpose  We all have an entering focus • A set of preconceived assumptions and beliefs  Drive interviews with your project focus • A clear understanding of what work you are trying to understand  Expand your focus • Challenge your assumptions, probe the unexpectedProbe to expand focus  Surprises and contradictions  “Nods” — What you assume is true  What you do not know  The problem behind solutionsShare  Interpretations for validation  Design ideas for co-design
  25. 25. Dos and don’ts: Focus principleDon’t DoHide your focus Show your focus: • The user can help find relevant cases and issuesFocus on the software, configuration or Focus on work; identify cases in the focus tohardware pursuePursue issues or events outside your focus Expand focus based on what you see the user do Gloss over irrelevant events introduced by the user Remember: It is not rude to not engage the users in things that are not in focus. You don’t want to teach g the user that you are interested in irrelevant information.Dismiss issues because you don’t understand y Probe things y don’t understand or are g youthem surprised byTalk from an implicit list of questions you want Follow the work, discuss how the work isanswered structured, not topics in your headNod without asking in order to verify everything Share your interpretations of their words and workyou think you understand even if it is obvious
  26. 26. Key concepts in Contextual InquiryBe an apprenticeContext  Go to your users workplace  Talk to your users while they workPartnership  Help users articulate their work practice  Let them leadInterpretation  Create a shared understanding  Draw out the implicationsFocus  Know your purpose  Challenge your assumptions
  27. 27. Structure of the interviewTraditional interview steps Observe and co-interpret(5-10 minutes) (1 ½ hours)  Introduce yourself  Take notes  Reveal your focus  Follow your focus  Be nosy y  Promise confidentiality  Interruptions are data too  Start recording  Get an overview of their work Wrap-up (10-15 i t ) (10 15 minutes)  Look for a starting point  Create a large interpretation of  Deal with opinions about tools your learning about their roleSwitch to contextual interview  Ask “pet” questions  Reset the rules  Give tips on system use  Th k th user Thank the
  28. 28. What to recordRecord as much detail as possible  User’s words  User’s actions, step by step  Coordination with others  Indications of the culture and feelings of the user  Your shared interpretation of the meaning and intent of actions  Collect artifacts and annotate with usage  Draw the user’s physical environment and annotate with usage
  29. 29. Exercise: Conference Attendance PlanningWhat does it take to plan conference attendance?Discover:  How the user planned attendance prior to arrival • retrospective account t ti t  How the user planned today  Plan tomorrow (if not yet done) • Ongoing workLook at:  A tif t Artifacts  Annotations  App usage pp g
  30. 30. Contextual Design fulfils Phase 0 Release Phase 0 Development Deployment Planning g Field Research • Contextual Inquiry Visioning Concept Validation • Work models • Low-fidelity prototyping  Determines who the customer is and what to build  Necessary precursor to Agile Development  Result: Tested and validated product structure and features
  31. 31. Example schedule of CD Agile Phase 0 Week 1 – Gather data from 8-10 users User-centered Agile print  Compressed into a short Sp Phase 0 Week 2 – Consolidate data • For constrained project focus only! Week 3 – Vision and storyboard Phase 0 sprints Sprint using Scrum as a process framework Week 4 – UED and UI Week 5 – Release planning & validation (2-4 users) rint Spr Week 6 – Validation & redesign nt Sprin Development Sprint 1
  32. 32. Contextual Design enables Agile development Release Development Phase 0 Deployment p y Planning sprint | sprint | sprint | sprint | sprint Detailed In-the-moment Quick user design guidance feedback  Sprint planning – Detailed planning session to define tasks for the sprint  Sprint development – The coding and UX work of the sprint  Sprint review – End of sprint reflection
  33. 33. Put the customer at thecenter of the design