Process affordances-workshop

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Process affordances-workshop

  1. 1. Affordance-Driven Process ImprovementDesigning a Process that Works for Your Team Ariadna Font Michael Keeling @quicola @michaelkeeling
  2. 2. Workshop Agenda• The Theory of Affordances• Affordance-Driven Process Improvement• Workshop Time! FYI -- We’ll spend about the last hour hands-on 2
  3. 3. Goals for this Workshop1. Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2. Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3. Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 3
  4. 4. Warning 4
  5. 5. THE THEORY OF AFFORDANCES 5
  6. 6. You’ve seen these concepts before…• Software Architects• Object Designers• User Experience Experts• Kanban Experts• Agile Coaches• “Systems Thinkers” 6
  7. 7. Goal: Design an object thatmakes it feel natural and easy to do the right thing. 7
  8. 8. What is an affordance? An affordance is any perceivable element, such as an object or idea, that directs a person’s thinking toward a specific set of actions.J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception.Psychology Press, 1986.Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things.Basic Books, 1998 8
  9. 9. What is an affordance? An affordance is any perceivable element, such as an object or idea, that directs a person’s thinking toward a specific set of actions.J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception.Psychology Press, 1986.Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things.Basic Books, 1998 9
  10. 10. The Dutch Airport Problem 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. The Urinal Fly “It improves the aim. If a man sees a fly, he aims at it. Fly-in-urinal research found that etchings reduce spillage by 80%. It gives a guy something to think about. That’s a perfect example of process control.” Robert Krulwhich, “There’s a Fly in my Urinal” http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php ?storyId=121310977 13
  14. 14. Good Affordance..Bad AffordancePush Pull Good Affordance 14
  15. 15. BadAffordance 15
  16. 16. Gary LarsonThe Far Side 16
  17. 17. Qualities vs. Functionality 17
  18. 18. Example: Blend a Drink• Functions – Prepare the blender – Blend – Clean the blender• Qualities – Countertop-ability – Clean-ability – Transportability Galvao and Sato, “Affordances in Product Architecture: Linking Technical Functions and Users’ Tasks” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2005 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. Portable…but noisy. MotorcycleGas Engine Throttle 20
  21. 21. Application to Software Process• Example Process Functions – Write software, test software, release software• Example Process Qualities – Plan-ability – Performance – Predictability – Reliability – Changeability – Estimate-ability – Quality – Harmony 21
  22. 22. AFFORDANCE-DRIVENPROCESS IMPROVEMENT 22
  23. 23. Goal: Design a process that makes it natural and easy to do the right thing. 23
  24. 24. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserveBehaviors Evaluate Behaviors Identify Affordances Alter Affordances 25
  25. 25. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve What is yourBehaviors team doing? Evaluate Behaviors How do Identify they act? Affordances Alter Affordances 26
  26. 26. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve Is this the behaviorBehaviors you want? Evaluate Behaviors Positive Identify Negative Affordances Neutral Alter Affordances 27
  27. 27. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserveBehaviors What nudged your team to act Evaluate Behaviors the way the did? Identify Affordances Alter Affordances 28
  28. 28. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserveBehaviors Keep the good Evaluate affordances, Behaviors change the bad Identify affordances Affordances Alter Affordances 29
  29. 29. Example: Team Square Root Observations: Arguments about tasking Team over-committing Resist giving up tasksMichael Keeling, “Process Affordances: Ignore at your own Peril”http://neverletdown.net/2009/03/process-affordances-ignore-at-your-own-peril/ 30
  30. 30. Values: Baseline for Evaluating Behavior As a team we valued Predictability Adaptability Respect Open Communication 31
  31. 31. Evaluate Behaviors Observations:+– Arguments about tasking – Team over-committing – Resist giving up tasks 32
  32. 32. Identify AffordancesReflecting on our practices…“Milestone Owners” Nudge: Attitude of lone responsibilityNo backlog Nudge: Anxiety over future tasks 33
  33. 33. Alter AffordancesCreated a backlogAbolished “Owners”New burndown chart – show progress against commitments 34
  34. 34. Team Values: Evaluating Behaviors “Qualities your team values”• Examples: – courage – scalability – predictability – responsibility – sustainability – feedback – face-to-face – improvability communication – measurability 35
  35. 35. Examples of Good Affordances• Iterative planning, light documentation – Nudge: changeability• Pair programming – Nudge: knowledge sharing, performance, quality 36
  36. 36. Examples of Bad Affordances• Large planning buffers – Nudge: procrastination• Developer Branches – Nudge: solitary development 37
  37. 37. LET’S PRACTICE! 38
  38. 38. What is an affordance? An affordance is any perceivable element, such as an object or idea, that directs a person’s thinking toward a specific set of actions.J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception.Psychology Press, 1986.Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things.Basic Books, 1998 39
  39. 39. Goals for this Workshop1. Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2. Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3. Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 40
  40. 40. Ground Rules• When your team is ready to move on, have somebody wear the party hat• Manage your time, watch the clock!• Raise your hand if you have a question• Have fun! 41
  41. 41. Workshop Agenda1. Establish context, agree on team values2. Evaluate behaviors3. Identify affordances nudging your team4. Propose changes to your team’s practices5. Finish posters and share findings6. Wrap-up 42
  42. 42. Qualities your “team” valuesSummary of practices nudge your team’s behaviorAction items – how to change behavior? 43
  43. 43. Establishing Context – 2 min• Task: Introduce yourselves to one another – Briefly share some interesting facts about yourself and your role(s) at work• Context: – You are now a team, working together to build a new awesome piece of software. – You’ve gathered together for a team retrospective…. 44
  44. 44. Agree on Team Qualities – 5 min• Task: Agree on the 3 – 5 core qualities you value most as a team. – Annotate worksheet and add to poster• Goal: You are going to focus on these through the workshop and use them to evaluate behaviors and determine what improvements to pursue first. 46
  45. 45. 47
  46. 46. Qualities your “team” valuesStart populating your poster! Start 48
  47. 47. Agree on Team Qualities – 5 min• Task: Agree on the 3 – 5 core qualities you value most as a team. – Annotate worksheet and add to poster• Goal: You are going to focus on these through the workshop and use them to evaluate behaviors and determine what improvements to pursue first. 49
  48. 48. Affordance-Driven Change Observe Behaviors Evaluate Behaviors Identify Affordances Alter Affordances 50
  49. 49. Evaluate Behaviors – 10 min• Task: Decide whether your team’s behaviors (Blue Cards) are positive, neutral, or negative relative to your values.• Goal: Learn to observe and analyze team behaviors in your work environment. 51
  50. 50. 52
  51. 51. Evaluate Behaviors – 10 min• Task: Decide whether your team’s behaviors (Blue Cards) are positive, neutral, or negative relative to your values.• Goal: Learn to observe and analyze team behaviors in your work environment. 53
  52. 52. Affordance-Driven Change Observe Behaviors Evaluate Behaviors Identify Affordances Alter Affordances 54
  53. 53. 55
  54. 54. Identify Affordances – 15 min• Task: Map practices to negative behaviors. What affordances nudged your team? – Try the “5 Whys” technique – If there is no practice in your deck that you think leads to this bad behavior, use one of the wildcards• Goal: Have a handful of patterns like this on your poster <Practice> nudges <Behavior> because ____ 56
  55. 55. Qualities your “team” values Summary of practices nudge your team’s behaviorDon’t forget your poster! Start 57
  56. 56. Identify Affordances – 15 min• Task: Map practices to negative behaviors. What affordances nudged your team? – Try the “5 Whys” technique – If there is no practice in your deck that you think leads to this bad behavior, use one of the wildcards• Goal: Have a handful of patterns like this on your poster <Practice> nudges <Behavior> because ____ 58
  57. 57. Affordance-Driven Change Observe Behaviors Evaluate Behaviors Identify Affordances Alter Affordances 59
  58. 58. Propose Key Changes – 10 min• Task: Create 2 or 3 action items for your team and document why you think they will get rid of the negative behavior• Goal: Add or remove affordances to your team’s process. Turn the undesired behaviors into desired ones. Practice P(Bad Behavior)  Practice P’ (Ø / Good Behavior) 60
  59. 59. Example…Free dinner nudges developers to stay late…Change the Free Dinner affordanceFree breakfast – nudge developers to come to work early, not waiting for a signal to mark the end of the day 61
  60. 60. Propose Key Changes – 10 min• Task: Create 2 or 3 action items for your team and document why you think they will get rid of the negative behavior• Goal: Add or remove affordances to your team’s process. Turn the undesired behaviors into desired ones. Practice P(Bad Behavior)  Practice P’ (Ø / Good Behavior) 62
  61. 61. Qualities your “team” valuesSummary of practices nudge your team’s behaviorAction items – how to change behavior? 63
  62. 62. Share your findings! – 15 min• Task: Share your poster!• Goal: Tell a story so that others can learn from your thinking process• Reflection – Any surprises in your practice/behavior map? – What can you take back to your team? 64
  63. 63. WRAP-UP 65
  64. 64. Goals for this Workshop1. Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2. Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3. Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 66
  65. 65. Practices vs. Affordances? We simplified things a little for the simulation… The world is not this simple.Affordances can be subtle, tricky to identify. 67
  66. 66. Tools for Retrospectives• Identify valued team qualities• “Like to Like” game – Create your own behaviors and practices card decks• Affordance Awareness – It’s not your fault! 68
  67. 67. “A bad system will beat agood person every time.” - W. Edwards Deming 69
  68. 68. Go forth and design GREAT systems! 70
  69. 69. Thank you!Michael Keeling Ariadna Font@michaelkeeling @quicolahttp://neverletdown.net http://ariadna.font.cat/ 71
  70. 70. References• Robert Krulwhich, “There’s a Fly in my Urinal” http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=121310977• Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books, 1988• J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Psychology Press, 1986.• Galvao and Sato, “Affordances in Product Architecture: Linking Technical Functions and Users’ Tasks” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2005• Michael Keeling, “Identifying Process Affordances: Nudging Toward Change” http://neverletdown.net/2010/03/identifying-process- affordances-nudging-toward-change/• Michael Keeling, “Process Affordances: Ignore at your own Peril” http://neverletdown.net/2009/03/process-affordances-ignore-at-your- own-peril/ 72

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