•Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder There are three types of AD/HD Inattentive The child who is never paying attention to you. Impulsive The child who always seems to act without thinking. The child who is never paying attention to you and seems to act Combined without thinking.
•Predominantly Inattentive AD/HD (also called ADD or IN Characteristics of Students with Predominantly Inattentive Type Type AD/HD [Inattentive]) • • Often appear to be daydreaming or staring. • • Are often confused about what to do or what directions mean. • • Appear apathetic and unmotivated. • • Seem slow-moving. • • May not grasp details or understand the complete picture. • • May concentrate on something extraneous. • • Make many careless mistakes. • • Show reluctance to engage in tasks which require commitment. • • Are unassertive, polite and docile. • • Attempt to bond with other students but are seldom successful. • • May go unreported because they don’t pose behaviour problems.
•Predominantly Hyper active/Impulsive Type AD/HD Characteristics of Students with Predominantly Impulsive Type AD/HD • • Fidgets with hands/feet and squirms • • Talk non-stop. • • Dash around touching or playing with everything in sight. • • Runs about or climbs excessively. • • Has trouble sitting still during dinner, school, story time etc. • • Leaves seat in situations where seating is expected. • • Constantly in motion on the go as if driven by a motor. • • Has trouble doing quiet tasks or activities. • •Very impatient. • • Blurts out inappropriate comments or answers before a question is finished being asked.
•Predominantly Hyper active/Impulsive Type AD/HD Continued • • Difficulty waiting their turn. • • Interrupts or “butts into” conversations. • • May try to do several things at once, bouncing around from one activity to the next. • • Becomes easily frustrated. • • Easily distracted while reading. • • May have difficulty around transitions. • • Problems around self control. • • Speaks or acts without considering consequences. • •Has difficulty keeping emotions in check.
•Suggestions for Working with a Student with PredominantlyInattentive Type AD/HD • Seat the student in close proximity with others. • Assign a study-buddy to work with the student. • Assign as much group work as possible. • Stand near the student’s desk during some of your presentations. • Make eye contact while giving verbal instructions. • Use introductory phrases, such as “listen up” or “pay attention to this.” • Ask the student to repeat instructions back. • If you must repeat directions, do it calmly, without anger or sarcasm. • Use worksheets and help the student underline the most significant material. • Provide the structure and support necessary to complete the work. • Try to call on the student when she is paying attention.
Suggestions for Working with a Student with PredominantlyInattentive Type AD/HD (continued) • Give positive feedback for correct answers. • Allow extra time to complete work. • Write assignments on the board as you give them. Leave them on the board for a while. Give the students advance notice of erasure. • Break large assignments into smaller assignments. • Have a set time when the students enter their homework assignments into their assignment notebooks. Allow the students to exchange assignment books with a partner to check their partner’s accuracy. • Try to apply the same academic standards as those for the rest of the class but prepare to be flexible. • Teach the student to monitor behaviour. • Make the student feel comfortable about asking for help.
•Strategies- ADHD predominatelyhyperactive-impulsive · Ask the student to be a helper and assign them small jobs and errands. · Provide student with a small object such as a stress ball to use at their seat · Provide the student with a desk in two areas of the classroom to allow for movement · Incorporate movement activities into your classroom activities · Make sure the student has access to recess and physical education classes. · Assign clear areas using visuals for sitting, and standing when lining up · Write a schedule or provide a visual schedule for the day and cross off each item as it is completed. · Break assignments into short segments. · Stress accuracy over speed. o Colour code the students text books and scribblers by subject o Establish a homework log to be completed by the student and signed by the teacher · Allow the student to do some constructive doodling. · Provide physical activity breaks when involved in long tasks · Allow student to have a break every ten to twenty minutes · Offer a variety of reinforces.
•Strategies- ADHD predominatelyhyperactive-impulsive (continued) · Evaluate the reinforcers and change if they are not effective · Use positive reinforcement and praise good behaviour · Be specific with praise · Work with the student and family to develop behaviour plan with one or two goals, and place it near the student to be used as a visual · Give consequences immediately following misbehaviour o Be specific in explanation about misbehaviour · Provide as much positive attention and recognition as possible · Warn the child ahead of time of upcoming transitions and countdown to the last minutes of an activity. o Use a visual timer or lighting to signal an activity change o Use a visual timer, tell students how long they are to work on an assignment · Use visuals such as lists, calendars, charts, pictures, and completed work in the classroom. · Post classroom rules · Establish a signal with the student to help maintain attention. · Pause about 5 seconds before answering questions to redirect attention · Ask the student to repeat the question or instructions back to you. · Play listening games o Avoid unnecessary stimulation in the classroom. · Model and teach social skills to improve peer relationships. · Allow the student to wear headphones when doing seat work
More about ADHD…ADHD is classified as a disruptivebehaviour disorderMost children with ADHD have thecombined type.ADHD is the most commonly studiedand diagnosed psychiatric disorder inchildren, affecting about 3 to 5 percentof children globally and diagnosed inabout 2 to 16 percent of school agedchildren. It is a chronic disorder with 30to 50 percent of those individualsdiagnosed in childhood continuing tohave symptoms into adulthood.Adolescents and adults with ADHDtend to develop coping mechanisms tocompensate for some or all of theirimpairments.
More about ADHD…The specific causes of ADHD are notknown. There are, however, a numberof factors that may contribute to, orexacerbate ADHD. They includegenetics, diet and the social and physicalenvironments.In about two thirds the childrendiagnosed with ADHD have a diagnosisof another condition.The combination of ADHD and otherconditions greatly affect the diagnosisand treatment of ADHD.Some of the other conditions areAnxiety, depression, Mooddisorders, Oppositional defiantdisorder, conduct disorder, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Bipolardisorder.
Sourceshttp://www.kellybear.com/TeacherArticles/TeacherTip49.htmlClassroom Teachers Inclusion Handbook : PracticalMethods for Integrating Students with SpecialNeeds (2nd Edition)Yanoff, Jerome C.Pages: 226Publisher: Arthur Coyle PressLocation: Chicago, IL, USADate Published: 09/2006http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorderhttp://www.do2learn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/AttentionDeficitDisorder_Characteristics.htmlhttp://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/adhdhttp://psychcentral.com/disorders/adhd/