Rhetorical Modes Presentation


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Rhetorical Modes Presentation

  1. 1. Understanding Rhetorical Strategies of Persuasion
  2. 2. Rhetoric <ul><li>The art or practice of persuasion through any symbolic system, but especially language. </li></ul><ul><li>The ways we convince people to do, think, or say what we want </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Rhetorical strategies--techniques used to move and convince an audience </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: narration, comparison-contrast, example, cause and effect, analogy, definition </li></ul>
  4. 4. Classical Modes of Persuasion <ul><li>Logos-rational argument; uses statistics, facts, definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos- “pathetic appeal”; appeals to emotions; uses inflammatory language, sad stories, appeals to national sentiment, and jokes </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos-an appeal to authority or character; “deliberate use of the speaker’s character as a mode of persuasion” </li></ul><ul><li>*Appeals can be combined to create an overarching effect </li></ul><ul><li>EID, Ch. 2, p. 35 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Logos: Appeals to Reason <ul><li>“ Often operates through the written text; significantly, the Greek word logos which can be translated as “word,” indicating the way in which we, culturally, often look to words as repositories of fact and reason” </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on the use of reason and logic as opposed to emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Favors the use of statistics, quotations from authorities, and proven facts </li></ul><ul><li>EID, Ch. 2 p. 36 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Beware of Logical Fallacies! <ul><li>“ Be careful not to rely on mistaken or misleading uses of logos, commonly called logical fallacies” </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, just because something occurs after something else, does not necessarily mean the two events are related </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/fallacies.html </li></ul><ul><li>EID , Ch 2, p.37 </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3rhq-6qa2i8
  7. 7. Logos Example: <ul><li>Idea: Students should be allowed to use cell phones during school hours. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List three supporting facts and/or statistics that will support the aforementioned idea. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Pathos <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjcSWW3vCBk </li></ul><ul><li>A tool of persuasion used “to establish an intimate connection with the audience by soliciting powerful emotions” (e.g. anger, fear, compassion, humor) </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals more to “nonrational impulses than to our powers of logical reasoning” </li></ul><ul><li>EID, Ch. 2, p. 40 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Exaggerated Uses of Pathos <ul><li>Scare tactics: capitalizes on the audience’s fears </li></ul><ul><li>False need: amplifying a perceived need or creating a new one </li></ul><ul><li>Slippery Slope: suggesting than an event or action will send the audience spiraling down a “slippery slope” to a serious consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Over-sentimentalization: distracting the audience from evidence or issues </li></ul><ul><li>EID, Ch. 2, p. 41 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pathos Example : <ul><li>How does this ad appeal to emotion? Why? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethos: Appeals to Character and Authority <ul><li>Your “ethos works as a rhetorical strategy by establishing the goodwill or credibility of the writer [author] or speaker” </li></ul><ul><li>EID, Ch. 2, p. 44 </li></ul>
  12. 12. More about Your Ethos: <ul><ul><ul><li>We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likeable and worthy of respect. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to persuade depends upon “credibility, word choice, tone, quality of research, use of grammar and punctuation” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ethos example: <ul><li>Product: George Foreman and his Grilling Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Who is George Foreman? Boxing Champ and a Preacher </li></ul><ul><li>Why is George Foreman credible? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Now that we know how to identify strategies of persuasion, let’s take another look at this ad.
  15. 15. Practicing Using Strategies of Persuasion <ul><li>In groups, compose an email to me outlining why you missed class and persuading me to accept your excuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure to include appeals to all three rhetorical modes of persuasion—ethos, logos, and pathos! </li></ul>
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