Pentascope Masterclass Cooperrider 2008


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Appreciative Inquiry MasterClass by David Cooperrider

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  • Pentascope Masterclass Cooperrider 2008

    1. 1. Appreciative Inquiry & Foundations in Positive Organization Development A Pentascope MasterClass David Cooperrider Weatherhead School of Management Case Western Reserve University [email_address]
    2. 2. A Special Time in Our Field: Re-thinking Human Organization and Change <ul><li>Insights from Big Change </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Images— collective guiding images of the future </li></ul><ul><li>Power of Engagement: Simple Face-to-Face Human Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>No Limits to Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Change Research—”what good are positive emotions?” Science of human strengths. Positive institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whole System” Excellence—agility, speed, value innovation, execution and follow through; alignment; the question of SCALE and FOLLOW-THROUGH </li></ul>
    3. 3. Today <ul><li>Leading Change: Strengths-based, Constructionist Change Theory. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Appreciative Inquiry or “AI”? Exciting stories from the field. Tools. Measures and results. Cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of Applications— Business to Personal Life at Home </li></ul>
    4. 4. Peter Drucker…an interview I did with him on “The Next Society” <ul><li>“ The task of leadership is to create an alignment of strengths…making a system’s weaknesses irrelevant”. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Could it Be… Leading Change Might Be All About Strengths? <ul><li>Why would strength connected to strength…create change? </li></ul><ul><li>Its often been said that strengths perform, but how about the idea that…. strengths do more than perform, they transform ? </li></ul><ul><li>What would it mean to create an entire change theory around strengths? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Two Ideas <ul><li>1. Strength-Based Change </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>2. Engagement of the Whole </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone’s Part of the </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Circle of Strategy </li></ul>
    7. 8. Principles of “AI” <ul><li>Constructionist Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Simultaneity </li></ul><ul><li>Open Book “Poetic Principle” </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Principle </li></ul>
    8. 9. Opening Inquiry Questions for Reflection
    9. 10. About you and your background. <ul><li>A. What draws or attracts you here and to this work on positive organizational change? </li></ul><ul><li>B. Your sense of work and life purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Moments of clarity? What are some of the special experiences informing your sense of purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>B. Images of your future …what do you sense is next as you look forward into to the future? </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>A “highpoint moment” in organizational life? </li></ul><ul><li>Share the story: the most memorable parts of the initiative, including challenges and innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on: “root causes of success” </li></ul><ul><li>You…what were you're 3 best qualities, or experienced strengths? </li></ul>
    11. 12. 2. When do people feel most passionate? Signature strengths? <ul><li>A. Your observations and experiences of _______ </li></ul><ul><li>When do people feel most passionate and connected at ____? Can you share an example: “a hot team”; great innovation; high engagement and performance? </li></ul><ul><li>B. Your Organization’s Signature Strengths (continuity question): assuming ________ will change in the future, what are those best qualities–signature strengths, and managerial assets, etc -- that you would want to keep or build upon, even as _______ moves into a new and changing future? </li></ul><ul><li>An example of those strengths in action? </li></ul>
    12. 13. 3. Images of the Future (Your Organization in 2020) <ul><li>We wake up…it is 2020…what do you see that is new, different, changed, better? </li></ul><ul><li>I will be most proud of ________ in 2020 when…? </li></ul>
    13. 14. Opening Interview (Ai conversation in pairs) <ul><li>A-->B (20 min) </li></ul><ul><li>B-->A (20 min ) </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of discovery— strengths, aspirations, opportunities, results </li></ul><ul><li>Take brief notes </li></ul><ul><li>At the end.. summary & thanks </li></ul><ul><li>Return @______0’CLOCK </li></ul>
    14. 15. Pioneering Research Across Many Fields An Emerging Vocabulary of “Positive Change”
    15. 16. <ul><li>Images of future—research positive health, placebo </li></ul><ul><li>Perception—Pygmalion research </li></ul><ul><li>Language and words—inner dialogue research </li></ul><ul><li>Positive emotions—hope, inspiration, joy </li></ul><ul><li>Power of stories—narrative and culture change </li></ul><ul><li>Positive relationships—high quality connections </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative basis of leading —science of human strengths </li></ul><ul><li>See </li></ul><ul><li>article Positive Image, Positive Action </li></ul>Many Disciplines The New Model of Strength-based Change
    16. 17. Empirical Support for “Broaden and Build” Theory of Positive Emotions <ul><li>Three “Revolutionary” Contributions: </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden Attention and Thinking (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2002; Waugh & Fredrickson, in prep) </li></ul><ul><li>Undo Lingering Negative Emotional Arousal (Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998; Fredrickson, Mancuso, Branigan & Tugade, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuels Resilient Coping, Like Immune System </li></ul><ul><li>(Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh & Larkin, 2002; Tugade & Fredrickson, 2002) </li></ul>
    17. 18. From Individual Emotions and Neural Impact to High Quality Circuitry in Organizations: Positive Energy and Leading Leadership….(Wayne Baker 2004 in Positive Organizational Scholarship)
    18. 19. Losada’s New Research on High Performing Business Teams <ul><li>HIGH PERFORMING </li></ul><ul><li>+ 6:1 ratio of positive– (strength-based and opportunity) focused dialogue to negative (deficiency focus) dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>+2:1 ratio of inquiry (learning focused questions) versus advocacy (closed positions) type conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>LOW PERFOMING </li></ul><ul><li>1:3 ratio: one positive statement in the team for every three deficiency focused statements. </li></ul><ul><li>1:20 ratio: one inquiry (open-learning type questions) for every twenty remarks based on advocacy. </li></ul>
    19. 20. Quick conversation… <ul><li>What areas—Positive health and placebo; pygmalion, inner dialogue, “what good are positive emotions”, rise and fall of cultures, affirmative capability—are most interesting to you? </li></ul><ul><li>Other research? An experience from your life? </li></ul>
    20. 21. Deficit Theory of Change <ul><li>Identify problem </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct root cause analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm and analyze possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Action plans </li></ul><ul><li>most schools, companies, families and organizations function on an unwritten rule… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s fix what’s wrong and let the strengths take care of themselves” </li></ul><ul><li>--Gallop Poll </li></ul>Metaphor: Organizations are problems to be solved
    21. 22. Unintended Consequences of Chronic Deficit Discourse <ul><li>Fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Few New Images of Possibility </li></ul><ul><li>Sisyphus Syndrome—Exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Experts Must Know”: Increases in Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Spirals in Deficit Language… Burning Platforms Lose Their Power of Motivate and Inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown in Relations/Closed Door Meetings/Fear </li></ul>
    22. 23. Form Groups 2+2+2 + 2=8…return _____ <ul><li>Introduce your partners vis-à-vis your interviews—share highlights…. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone listen for patterns/insights in three areas: </li></ul><ul><li>High Point Stories : And Analysis Root Causes of Success ? </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity themes : Things Best, To Keep , Signature Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Images of the Future : Key Visions 2012 </li></ul>
    24. 25. Moving From Strength to Strength What Would We Call It? <ul><li>What about the kind of change that is not just about moving from a -2 back to a “0”? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the kind of change that moves from a +2 to a + 20? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul>
    25. 26. Appreciative Inquiry is a Shift <ul><li>“ No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Albert Einstein </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>Appreciate “Best of what is” </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine “What might be” </li></ul><ul><li>Design “What should be” </li></ul><ul><li>Create “What will be” </li></ul><ul><li>Identify problem </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct root cause analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm solutions & analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Develop treatment - action plans </li></ul>Deficit Management (deficit based change) (strength-based innovation) Appreciative Inquiry Machine Metaphor: Organizations are “problems to be solved” New Metaphor: Living Human Systems “ webs of infinite strengths”
    27. 28. Hunter Douglas Case
    28. 29. Ap-pre’ci-ate, v., <ul><li>1. Valuing … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The act of recognizing the best in people and the world around us; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, and excellence) to living systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. To increase in value, e.g. the economy has appreciated in value. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms: valuing, prizing, esteeming, and honoring. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. In-quire’ (kwir), v., <ul><li>1. The act of exploration and discovery. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To ask questions; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms: discovery, search, study and systematic exploration. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. What Would You Call It? (All These Things Taken Together) <ul><li>Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Technical assets </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated Thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Tacit Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Value </li></ul><ul><li>Core Competency </li></ul><ul><li>Visions of Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Vital traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Positive macro-trends </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Ocean Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths of the Business ecosystem e.g. value chain -- suppliers, partners, customers </li></ul>
    31. 32. The Positive Core
    32. 33. Step One at Center of “4-D” Model: “Topic Choice” <ul><li>Organizations move in the direction of what they study. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions we ask determine what we find. . . </li></ul><ul><li>Topic choice is fateful </li></ul>
    33. 34. Most “AI” Type Organizational Studies Have 3-5 Topics <ul><li>Principle of Simultaneity </li></ul><ul><li>Art of Framing and Re-framing </li></ul><ul><li>“ seeing the mighty oak in the acorn” </li></ul><ul><li>--Tojo Thachenkery </li></ul>
    34. 35. Best Way to Build High Engagement and Enthusiasm? <ul><li>Do an organization survey of low morale ? </li></ul><ul><li>Magnify and learn from moments of highest engagement & commitment? </li></ul>
    35. 36. Topic Choice: Examples Magnetic Work Environments Revolutionary Customer Responsiveness Liberating Collaboration Mergers as “A Symphony of Strengths” Outstanding Arrival Experiences Instinctive Execution Game Changing Innovation Optimizing Margins Pervasive Leadership “ Lightning Fast Consensus” “ High Purpose Profit Opportunities”
    36. 37. Do we really ??? want to do one more study of… <ul><li>Low morale </li></ul><ul><li>High turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive baggage loss </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of follow-through and execution </li></ul><ul><li>Customer complaints </li></ul><ul><li>resistance; what are the things getting in the way </li></ul><ul><li>Or…a “high commitment sense of ownership” </li></ul><ul><li>Or….”magnetic work environment” </li></ul><ul><li>Or… “outstanding arrival experiences” </li></ul><ul><li>Or…’instinctive execution” </li></ul><ul><li>Or…”revolutionary customer responsiveness” </li></ul><ul><li>Or… moments of ”unstoppable confidence” </li></ul>
    37. 38. 2. Requires intentional re-framing : The classic choice: “ glass is half empty or half full” 3. Affirmative topic choice Building and analyzing what we want instead of what we don’t want Fairway versus “No not woods” 1. Appreciating the positive inherent generative potential in the present
    38. 39. Topic Re-framing Can Lead to Exciting Breakthrough Results <ul><li>Is environmental regulation or “social responsibility” a burden or a business opportunity for breakthrough profit and new value? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the topic how to reduce harm? </li></ul><ul><li>Or how to unleash “eco-imagination” & “high purpose profit?”—Fairmount Minerals Case Clipping </li></ul>
    39. 40. Where Do Good Topics Come From? How to “home-grow” from the 3 generic AI questions TOPIC creation
    40. 41. Affirmative “Topic Choice” (creating transformative topics) <ul><li>What you study, GROWS </li></ul><ul><li>Framing and re-framing </li></ul><ul><li>conversation in groups : </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine we want to create a set of topics to be used in every organization…things that will build thriving organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Create 3 topics that have high transformational potential </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: words create worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Good topics: bold, desired, energizing words, inspired, elevating </li></ul><ul><li>For example the topics: “magnetic work environment” or “Outstanding arrival experience”; “Unleashing Eco-imagination” </li></ul>
    41. 42. Genius is Creating the Question <ul><li>“ What would the universe look like if I were riding on the end of a light beam at the speed of light?” </li></ul><ul><li>– Albert Einstein </li></ul>
    42. 43. The Art of the Question in Leadership and Change <ul><li>What’s the biggest problem here? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did I have to be born in such a troubled family? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you blow it so often? </li></ul><ul><li>What troubles you most--keeps you up at night? </li></ul><ul><li>What possibilities exist that we have not yet considered? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the smallest change that could make the biggest impact? </li></ul><ul><li>I will be most proud of this corporation in 2010 when…? </li></ul>
    43. 44. The Encyclopedia of Positive Questions <ul><li>A Craft That Can Change Everything </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types of Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic—deficit-based </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral—is there really neutral? </li></ul><ul><li>Strength-centered— questions that S.O.A.R ( s trengths, o pportunities, a spirations, r esults) </li></ul>
    44. 45. What New Questions? From a Study Customer Dissatisfaction and Complaints
    45. 46. <ul><li>Preface: </li></ul><ul><li>In the physical world, all matter is held together by the pull between opposite electric charges. Likewise, successful companies are magnetic-- people connect in new and innovative ways; suppliers and customers are pulled together and become seamless edge-to-edge organizations. Communities of interest form and are pulled together by shared values. Knowledge networks form as catalysts for innovation and creativity. </li></ul>Magnetic Connections
    46. 47. Magnetic Connections (continued) <ul><li>A. Think of a time when you felt “magnetically” connected to your client, your colleagues, and your community … connected in a way that the force was so strong that it could not be broken. What was that experience? What did it feel like? </li></ul><ul><li>B. As you look into the future, describe how you see us connected to our customers and our colleagues — in ways that are so strong that we are seen as inseparable business partners? </li></ul>
    47. 48. Allstate Insurance <ul><li>Revolutionary Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>The mark of a revolutionary partnership is doing things radically different together. Not only different, but quicker, with a common focus, leveraging each other’s diverse strength. Also, establishing new ways of doing business that are based on trust, mutual respect and a shared vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a time when you were part of a revolutionary partnership, a time in your life – at work, or in your personal or community life, when you not only met the other person(s) half way, but met and exceeded needs on both sides. Describe the situation in detail. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What made it feel radically different? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who was involved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you interact differently? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the outcomes and benefits you experienced? </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. “ INSTINCTIVE EXECUTION” <ul><ul><li>Obviously we have all seen or experienced moments of instinctive or almost unconscious execution—for example the kind of natural, instinctive response you would see in a driver or a fighter pilot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Please think of a time when you or your team indeed delivered against an objective in an instinctive way, i.e., to a high quality standard, in a timely fashion, consistently, in a manner that flowed naturally, leveraging all resources around you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share the details of that story: who, when … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What part did you play? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How did it feel in the moment? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What were the conditions for success? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What made this time meaningful for you? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 50. <ul><li>B. Let’s put yourself into the future, where it is 2010.You are now COO of the company and it is known worldwide for instinctive execution. How would you describe to a new recruit: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The way we do things around here and why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The secrets of our success? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As an employee, what are the benefits of working in this environment where exceptional execution is pervasive and instinctive ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 51. Engagement and Positive Energy <ul><li>Preface </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations work best when they are vibrant, alive and fun. You know, when the &quot;joint is jumping!&quot; You can sense that the spirit of the organization is vital and healthy and that people feel pride in their work. Everyone builds on each other's successes, a positive can do attitude is infectious and the glow of success is shared. What's more, this positive energy is appreciated and celebrated so it deepens and lasts. </li></ul>
    51. 52. Engagement & Energy <ul><li>A. Tell me about a time when you experienced positive energy that was infectious. What was the situation? What created the positive energy? How did it feel to be a part of it? What did you learn? </li></ul><ul><li>B. If positive energy were the flame of the organization, how would you spark it? How would you fuel it to keep it burning bright? </li></ul>
    52. 53. We Live in the Worlds Our Questions Create <ul><li>Be patient … and try to love the questions themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you will then gradually, without noticing it, live along some distant day into the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>– Rainer Maria Rilke </li></ul>
    53. 54. Groups Crafting the Question return ____ <ul><li>Choose one of your Topics and craft the </li></ul><ul><li>Ai question (s): 3 PARTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I. Positive Preface—it is a topic intro. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question to evoke a story from persons history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question to evoke/help give voice to their best images of future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>return... </li></ul></ul>
    54. 55. The Surprise of Friendship! <ul><li>One could say a key task in life is to discover and define our life purpose, and then accomplish it to the best of our ability .       </li></ul><ul><li>Can you share a story of a moment, or the period of time, where clarity about life purpose emerged for you. For example, a moment where your calling happened, where there was an important awakening or teaching, where there was a special experience or event, or where you received some guiding vision? </li></ul><ul><li>Now, what do you sense you are supposed to do…rest of your life? </li></ul>
    55. 56. What Matters Most in Doing Appreciative Inquiry Interviews <ul><li>The IMAGINE CHICAGO Story </li></ul>
    56. 57. The AI 4-D Model of Positive Change Discovery “ What gives life?” The best of what is. Appreciating Dream “ What might be?” Envisioning Results/Impact Design “ What should be – the ideal?” Co-constructing Destiny “ How to empower, learn, and improvise?” Sustaining Affirmative Topic
    57. 58. Introduction to the Appreciative Inquiry Summit Method Magnifying Whole System Strengths Using Large Group Methods
    58. 59. The AI Organization Summit Method Creating an Alignment of Strengths Using Large Group Methods
    59. 60. 5 Common Approaches to Change <ul><li>Top Down Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Up Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Representative Cross-Section Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Back Room </li></ul>
    60. 61. Typical Results <ul><li>Less Informed and Ultimately Less Effective Change Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>A Few Try to Convince Many That Change is Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Responsibility Mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Change Occurs Sequentially </li></ul><ul><li>Change is Perceived as a Disruption of “Real Work” </li></ul>
    61. 62. Typical Results (cont) <ul><li>Pace of Change is Too Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial Change in Part or Modest Change in an Entire Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown at Implementation </li></ul>
    62. 63. The AI Summit Success Factors <ul><li>“ Whole System” in the Room </li></ul><ul><li>Task is Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Future Focus & Continuity Search </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Management and Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative Rich </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciative Inquiry “4-D” Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>From Common Ground to Inspired Action </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 Day Event With100 to 1000 Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Uncommon Action/Follow-through </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-Face and Virtual </li></ul>
    63. 64. groups <ul><li>Share stories/visions from your interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Discover patterns and possibilities—”root causes of success” and implications for designing an ideal organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Do thematic analysis and “positive deviance” identification. </li></ul>
    64. 65. Nutrimental Foods The Results One Year Later <ul><li>Rodrigo Loures, CEO </li></ul><ul><li>300 % Increase in Profit </li></ul><ul><li>75 % Decrease in Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment to President Lula’s Economic and Social Council </li></ul><ul><li>World Business Academy Award </li></ul><ul><li>Rise to Best 100 Companies in the Nation </li></ul>
    65. 66. AI Summits: Three Ways to Understand Positive Change
    66. 67. Why Does Experience of Wholeness… <ul><li>Bring out the best in human beings? </li></ul><ul><li>Propel innovation? </li></ul><ul><li>New life? </li></ul><ul><li>Eclipse old patterns? </li></ul><ul><li>So easy? </li></ul>
    67. 68. Roadway Express : 65 Ai Summits: Energized, Unified <ul><li>Featured in Fast Company and Forbes. </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Prices rise--$14 to $41 per share in 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>From 300 to Zero Grievances, e.g. Akron Terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Product Innovations, e.g. Manhattan Project </li></ul><ul><li>New Culture of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful Learning Partnerships: Alcoa, Boeing, Cisco, Harley-Davidson, US Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>Roadway Has Done 65 Appreciative Inquiry Summits </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 People Engaged </li></ul>
    68. 69. Corporate Merger of Strength with Appreciative Inquiry Scenes From a $8 Billion Dollar Merger Integration Summit
    69. 70. Results Post Merger Integration “A Merger of Strengths” <ul><li>$ 300 million in synergy: done rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilization of 300 merger “entrepreneurs” </li></ul><ul><li>Tremendous acceleration of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of game changing opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Speed, scale, strength </li></ul>
    70. 71. Gallop Study: 1.7 Million Employees <ul><li>“ I have the opportunity to do what I do best” </li></ul><ul><li>What percentage of people do you think - 1.7 million people from 101 companies - strongly agreed that they are empowered to do what they do best in their work and company? </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: The wealth of unrealized capacity in enormous - people are dying to be tapped on the shoulder and asked for more engagement in the strategic issues of the </li></ul><ul><li>day - like the Navy example. </li></ul>
    71. 72. The Clock Ticking —speed obviously matters in business. The AI Summit…it is fast. <ul><li>“ In order for GE to succeed with speed, the company needs to create a culture that breeds an endless search for ideas that stand or fall on their merits rather than the rank of their originator, a culture that brings every mind into the game.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Jack Welch’s final letter to </li></ul><ul><li>shareholders </li></ul>
    72. 73. Experience of Authority & Influence High Engagement Organization Traditional Command & Control 1st Level 2nd Level LOW Influence HIGH Influence Top Levels
    73. 74. Why High Engagement? The Business Case <ul><li>Approaches to competitive advantage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low price – less than 60 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational/technical expertise – less than 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully engaged employees (people think and act like owners) – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more than 7 years </li></ul></ul>
    74. 75. “ Let us choose to unite the strengths markets with the power of universal ideals” --UN Secretary General Kofi Annan
    75. 76. Appreciative Inquiry Summit Method at the UN Global Compact With 500 CEOs and Civil Society Leaders
    76. 77. Results: Vision of 100,000 Companies <ul><li>Goldman Sachs and 20 major financial companies pledged: integrating social, environmental and governance issues into investment analysis -- representing $6 trillion in assets </li></ul><ul><li>10 stock exchanges pledged that they will embark on a Global Compact awareness--raising campaign with their listed companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of triple bottom line principles: operations, strategies, cultures, supply chains, products and services—whole new field for OD!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>43 local networks—corporate social responsibility is going to grow and grow and grow </li></ul><ul><li>Our next AI Summit with UN and Academy of Management </li></ul>
    77. 78. The AI 4-D Model Discovery “ What gives life?” The best of what is. Appreciating Dream “ What might be?” Envisioning Results/Impact Design “ What should be – the ideal?” Co-constructing Destiny “ How to empower, learn, and improvise?” Sustaining Affirmative Topic
    78. 79. The AI Summit Can Be Adapted in Many Ways <ul><li>Web casts and video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Small “rapid design” summits—like kaiezen events for small wins, project launches, alliance formation </li></ul><ul><li>OvationNet AI Summit Collaboration Software </li></ul><ul><li>It is Easy When You Combine: </li></ul><ul><li>Right Task— powerful framing </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Right People —multi-stakeholder configuration of the whole </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Right Questions — appreciative inquiry into the positive core </li></ul>
    79. 80. Leveraging the Power of Associations for a New Magnitude of Socially Responsible Leadership
    80. 81. What OvationNet’s Technology Made Possible
    81. 82. The Summit Design Team Website Designing the Summit
    82. 83. The Pre-Summit Website Preparing for the Summit
    83. 84. Welcome to the Gaylord!
    84. 85. Technology… Behind the Scenes Streaming video presentations help dissolve the boundaries of location
    85. 86. David Cooperrider Streaming Live To Virtual Participants At the Gaylord
    86. 87. Jeffrey Sachs Streaming Live To Virtual Participants At the Gaylord
    87. 88. Defining Our Vision
    88. 89. Virtual Roundtables
    89. 90. Presenting Our Projects
    90. 91. Austin, Chicago & Washington DC: Working Together
    91. 92. Delayed Time Participation: International Locations Dubai Brussels Shanghai
    92. 94. Committing Ourselves
    93. 95. And Moving Forward … Project Workspaces
    94. 97. Join us for the Follow-up Summit! October 14, 15 & 16
    95. 98. AI Summit Planning <ul><li>Forming summit planning team </li></ul><ul><li>Defining summit task and topics </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping summit stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the summit format & Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Creating the summit design </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the opening AI questions </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing summit communication strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Envisioning post-summit momentum </li></ul>
    96. 99. Questions to consider when creating the summit agenda <ul><li>Day 1: Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Pre work, questions, continuity scan, wider environment and mapping the key stakeholders? </li></ul><ul><li>Day 2: Dream & Images of Desired Future </li></ul><ul><li>How far into future, type of group activity, </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing visions, discovery of common ground, differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Day 3: Designing— principles, org propositions of ideal, prototyping? </li></ul><ul><li>Day 4: Destiny: open space; work groups or whole system action; convergent smaller projects, individual line of site. </li></ul>
    97. 100. How AI Addresses the Three Essentials of Change Management Suresh Srivastva and others Executive Continuity.
    98. 101. Research on the Functions of Good “Continuity Management” <ul><li>For Individuals: Pride, confidence to act, ethical guidance connection to others, freedom </li></ul><ul><li>For the Organization: Strengthened commitment; better decision making; decentralized control; mission stability; accelerated organizational learning; more long-term thinking; customized change; more effective inter-organizational partnerships and alliances </li></ul>
    99. 102. Power of Stories <ul><li>Stories stick like glue…great leaders know it </li></ul><ul><li>Why? They make information easier to remember: ”Whole brain” </li></ul><ul><li>Stories make information more believable than statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Narratives create the basis for identity formation and they foster high quality relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Story-telling is the most powerful human medium for conveying values and visions </li></ul><ul><li>Stories paint pictures in the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations vary: narrative rich to narrative thin </li></ul>
    100. 103. Social Contructionism <ul><li>Assumption of impermanence </li></ul><ul><li>No “laws”…social realities not fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Terms not derived from “what is there” </li></ul><ul><li>No such thing as “immaculate perception”… all knowing is saturated in values, conventions, theories, time and place </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of explanation: are derived in relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Words create worlds, they are not mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>All social action open to multiple meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Theory is language & the double hermenuetic </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations in linguistic practice are powerful </li></ul>
    101. 104. How About Appreciative Inquiry Under Conditions of Crisis and Conflict? <ul><li>Hotel Story. </li></ul><ul><li>The Crisis Boils. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jr. Consultant Looses All Composure…Storms Out. Senior Consultant Hates Conflict! </li></ul><ul><li>What Would You Do? </li></ul>
    102. 105. Principles of Metaphor <ul><li>Metaphor: An Invitation to See the World Anew </li></ul><ul><li>Subtle Transaction Across Contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates Learning New Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Overcomes Defenses That Constrict Us </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges Traditional Change Norms…Is More Subtle, Indirect, Constructionist, and non-deficit in Theory of Change </li></ul>
    103. 106. Generative Metaphor Intervention/Enhancement <ul><li>The whole story. </li></ul><ul><li>What we did and why. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung’s wonderful clue. </li></ul><ul><li>The results: relationships; bottom line; and breakthrough performance to Five Star hotel </li></ul>
    104. 107. The AI 4-D Model Discovery “ What gives life?” The best of what is. Appreciating Dream “ What might be?” Envisioning Results/Impact Design “ What should be – the ideal?” Co-constructing Destiny “ How to empower, learn, and improvise?” Sustaining Affirmative Topic
    105. 108. What is Design? <ul><li>“ Designing renders visible our hopes and dreams, it is the first signal of human intentions.” </li></ul><ul><li>--William McDonough </li></ul>
    106. 109. Does Design Matter? <ul><li>“ First we shape our structures and then our structures shape us. ” </li></ul><ul><li>– Winston Churchill </li></ul>
    107. 110. Our Work With IDEO World Class Designing in Action <ul><li>Provides a new, optional way to do the Design Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Great choice when you wish to design products, new customer experiences, and initiatives that are more tangible and focused. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of “propositions” or principles we are designing prototypes—actual three dimensional models or mock-ups of the concepts. </li></ul>
    108. 111. Fast Company said… “ IDEO is the world's most celebrated design firm&quot; The Wall Street Journal dubbed IDEO's offices &quot;Imagination's Playground&quot; Fortune titled its visit to IDEO &quot;A Day at Innovation U&quot; Every spring, Business Week includes a cumulative tally of firms who have won the most Industrial Design Excellence Awards. IDEO has topped that list for ten years running.
    109. 112. The Perfect Brainstormer “The best way to get a good idea is to generate lots of ideas” --Linus Pauling <ul><li>Defer Judgment: Don’t Dismiss Any Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage Wild Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Build and Jump: No “Buts” Only “Ands” </li></ul><ul><li>Go For Quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Be Visual </li></ul><ul><li>One Contribution At A Time </li></ul>
    110. 113. Rapid Prototyping “All Life is an Experiment. The More Experiments You Make the Better” –Ralph Waldo Emerson <ul><li>Design a new experience </li></ul><ul><li>Mock up everything: products, services, spaces, customer experiences, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Go fast: build fast and cheaply </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid paralysis. </li></ul><ul><li>No frills: make prototypes that demonstrate and make visual a design idea without sweating looks or details. </li></ul><ul><li>Create scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Bodystorm: act out customers, roles. </li></ul>
    111. 114. Are Ai Summits Too Small, Too Limited? <ul><li>What happens after a company has done over 50 Ai Summits? </li></ul><ul><li>This is exactly the opportunity Roadway Express faced a couple of years ago. </li></ul>
    112. 115. The Age of the Network Small Groups Hierarchy Bureaucracy Networks Nomadic Agricultural Industrial Information 160,000 BCE. 10,000 BCE 18th century... 20 th century... + + +
    113. 116. It’s not about Technology
    114. 117. Destiny as Improvisation <ul><li>Jazz Metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Self organizing--most alive on the edge of chaos and order </li></ul><ul><li>Small, positive actions have large consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Create incremental disruptions that dislodge habit— ”amplify positive deviations” </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerating Strengths Networks (ASN) </li></ul><ul><li>Create a network and cadre of positive change leaders </li></ul><ul><li>The network speeds the spread of every innovation, every positive opportunity, every story of strengths in action. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal structure, maximum freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Put people on center stage—soloing and supporting </li></ul>
    115. 118. The Accelerating Strengths Network “ASN” Over time Online Offline
    116. 119. Example at Roadway The “94 Now Network” <ul><li>Our purpose is to create a positive revolution in our capacity for change-- to accelerate the speed of realizing our company goal of 94 Now through rapid and effective Roadway-wide sharing of all innovation and best practice knowledge. </li></ul>
    117. 120. <ul><li>One facility </li></ul><ul><li>671 added one more shipment on every outbound load. </li></ul><ul><li>+$429,000 Profit after taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer to Company </li></ul><ul><li>What if we had 1 more shipment on every linehaul trip? </li></ul><ul><li>+ $13 million Profit after taxes </li></ul><ul><li>It is happening! Recent $10 million Savings—Operating Ratio…Winston Salem Story…2000 people on last call </li></ul>Examples how the network has benefited the company
    118. 121. Exciting Application Arenas Appreciative Inquiry & Strength-based Approaches <ul><li>“ AI” Organization Summit for Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Strategy and Alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation and Design: Products, Services </li></ul><ul><li>Business IT Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Operations & Sustainable Green Design </li></ul><ul><li>“ AI” Knowledge Alliances & Webs </li></ul><ul><li>Labor-management Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement Scorecards </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management and Hot Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Mergers & Acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Branding </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Talent Development </li></ul>
    119. 122. Lets Imagine Projects: Where Might an AI Approach Create Value in My Work, or Community, or World? <ul><li>If anything imaginable were possible—assuming there are no constraints whatsoever—what kind of “AI” initiative, project, or experiment might I want to launch? </li></ul><ul><li>Name the possibility or possibilities—and begin the conversation with your original interview partner…what/where/why/who? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one small initiative or possibility? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one big possibility—something that would be a real stretch? </li></ul>
    120. 123. Next Steps return_____ <ul><li>Things I do best from an appreciative perspective: </li></ul><ul><li>One pilot or experiment I want to do with these ideas: - Topic choice </li></ul><ul><li>- Discovery - Dream </li></ul><ul><li>- Design </li></ul><ul><li>- Destiny </li></ul>
    121. 124. The Appreciable World is So Much Larger Than Our Normal, Everyday Appreciative Knowing Capacity… <ul><li>&quot;If we did all the things we are capable of doing, we would literally astound ourselves.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>--Thomas Edison </li></ul>
    122. 125. Elevating Inquiry into The Appreciable World Advancing Extension of Relatedness & Universal Capacity High Initiating Lo w <ul><li>Ai’s Theory of Positive Change: </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate and Extend </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden-and-Build </li></ul><ul><li>3. Establish and Eclipse </li></ul>E levation and Extension of Inquiry Pro-Fusion of + Strength Activation of Energy
    123. 126. We Are Born To Appreciate: Three Facts About All Human Beings <ul><li>Exceptionality </li></ul><ul><li>Essentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Equality/Voice and Vision </li></ul>
    124. 127. Figure 1: Three Circles for Understanding the Strengths Revolution and the Design of Strengths-based Organizations The Spirit of Appreciative Inquiry
    125. 128. Knowledge Resources Appreciative Inquiry Cases and Tools <ul><li>AI Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Business as Agent of World Benefit </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The First Masters Degree in Positive Organization Development </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>AI Certificate Program in Positive Business and Society Change </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>