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Developers Corner2012: BSD Year inReviewThis article looks back on 2012 and provides an overview of whatoccurred in the BSD world. TM dergoing a complete review and redesign. This means FreeBSD that the only packages available for 9.1 are those con- The FreeBSD Project had three tained on the installation DVD. The Project will make an releases in 2012: announcement once the rest of the packages become available. 9.0 The FreeBSD ports collection now contain 24,047 ports. Was released on January 6. The FreeBSD Project held DevSummits at the following Some of the highlights of this 2012 events: AsiaBSDCon in Tokyo, BSDCan in Ottawa, release include: a new installer, The University of Cambridge in August, EuroBSDCon in SUJ (soft-updates journaling), Warsaw, and MeetBSD California in Sunnyvale. The doc-Z F S v 2 8 which adds RAIDZ3 and deduplication, the umentation team organized several IRC doc sprints asHAST (highly available storage) framework, the Capsi- well as Documentation Working Groups during BSDCan,cum framework for sandboxing applications with minimal the Cambridge DevSummit, OpenHelp in Cincinnati, andcode changes, user-level DTrace, pluggable TCP conges- EuroBSDCon.tion control framework with five new algorithms, NFSv4,high-performance SSH, LLVM and clang, and support for NetBSDthe Sony Playstation 3. The NetBSD Project also had three releases in 2012:8.3Was released on April 11. This is the fourth release from 5.1.2the 8-STABLE branch which improves on the functional- Was released on February 2.ity of FreeBSD 8.2. It introduced some 9.0 features to this This release was the secondbranch (ZFSv28 and the pluggable TCP congestion con- critical security update of the NetBSD 5.1 release branchtrol framework), provided updated drivers, and addressed and represented a subset of fixes deemed critical for se-several security advisories. curity or stability reasons.9.1 6.0.1Was released on December 30. Some of its new fea- Was released on October 17 and is considered to be thetures include: Intel GPU driver with GEM/KMS sup- current release. It is the first security bugfix update of theport, netmap(4) fast userspace packet I/O framework, NetBSD 6.0 release branch and represents the subset ofPOSIX2008 extended locale support, kernel support for fixes deemed important for security or stability reasons.the AVX FPU extension, and numerous improvementsin IPv6 hardware offload support. Due to the November 5.2intrusion on the FreeBSD package building cluster, the Was released on December 3. This release provides bugFreeBSD Projects package building infrastructure is un- and security fixes as well as updated drivers. 8 01/2013
2012: BSD Year in Review Contents pkgsrc currently contains over 13,000 packages. The 3.0.2pkgsrc team released pkgsrc-2012Q1 in April, pkgsrc- Was released on August 29.2012Q2 in July, and pkgsrc-2012Q3 in October. 3.1.1 OpenBSD Was released on November 2. Right on schedule, the OpenBSD Project had two 3.2.2 releases in 2012. Each re- Was released on December 16. This release added per- lease includes its own art- formance improvements under database load, using post- work and theme song. gres benchmarking as a measure. FreeBSDs USB stack is available, but is not built by default.5.1 Work on HAMMER2 continues, though it is not yet readyWas released on May 1. This release included: improved for production use. An update on its features and what stillhardware support, network stack improvements, rout- needs to be done can be found at http://lists.dragonflybsd.ing and PF improvements, improved locale support, org/pipermail/users/2012-December/017716.html.OpenSSH 6.0, major performance and stability improve-ments in the package build process, and improved manpages and documentation.5.2Was released on November 1. The most significant change PC-BSDin this release is the replacement of the user-level uthreads The PC-BSD project had two releases in 2012:by kernel-level rthreads, allowing multithreaded programsto utilize multiple CPUs/cores. Other features include the 9.0addition of nginx(8), and OpenSSH 6.1 which turns on pre- Was released on January 10. This release added sup-auth sandboxing sshd by default for new installs. port for multiple window managers, a new Control Panel The OpenBSD ports collection now contains over 7,600 so that common administrative graphical tools are avail-ports. The OpenBSD developers organized several hack- able from any desktop, support for freebsd-update us-athons in 2012: an rthreads hackathon in Paris, a gener- ing a graphical Update Manager, an improved graphicalal hackathon in Budapest, a network hackathon in Starn- networking utility, an enhanced Life Preserver utility forberg, Germany, a ports hackathon in Budapest, and a scheduling backups, support for BootCamp partitions,hackathon in Coimbra, Portugal. and pre-installed virtualbox and vmware images. DragonFly BSD 9.1 The DragonFly BSD Project Was released on December 18. This release added the had several point releases following features: a newly designed installer to separate and two release branches in pre- and post-installation configuration tasks, many ZFS 2012: improvements in the installer, a newly designed Warden for managing FreeBSD, ports, and Linux jails, multiple3.0.1 boot environment support for ZFS, the ability to install aWas released on February 22. The giant kernel lock was vanilla FreeBSD or TrueOS server, a new About utility, aremoved from much of the system, increasing perfor- new GDM configuration utility, a new sound configurationmance significantly on multi-core systems. Other features GUI, a new hardware compatibility GUI, a new Bluetoothinclude: significant improvement in HAMMER throughput pairing management utility, a new mount tray utility, anunder heavy storage loads due to a new time domain mul- improved EasyPBI utility for converting FreeBSD ports totiplexing method, and a BSD-licensed tcplay(8) tool for PBIs, a newly designed thinclient script for creating PXEcreating and managing encrypted disk volumes which are boot servers or PXE installation servers, and USB live100% TrueCrypt compatible. mode is now read-writable. AppCafe now contains over 1,050 PBIs. pbidir.com has3.0.2 been deprecated and a new FreshPBIs.org website is beingWas released on March 26. created to make it easy for users to track PBI information.www.bsdmag.org 9
Developers Corner • IPv6 Performance Analysis: this project will carry out a detailed performance analysis, benchmarking IPv6 to IPv4. It will identify the origins of differences in per- formance, and where possible, directly address them or identify areas of future work. Having initial bench- mark numbers will allow changes to be evaluated by re-running the measurements and quantifying the improvements. • Implementing auditdistd: the goal of this project is toFreeBSD Foundation securely and reliably distribute audit records over theThe FreeBSD Foundation is a 501(c)(3), US based, non- TCP/IP network from a local auditdistd daemon toprofit organization dedicated to supporting and build- a remote auditdistd daemon. In case of source sys-ing the FreeBSD Project and community worldwide. The tem compromise, the attackers activity can be an-Foundation accepts donations, using them to fund and alysed using data collected by the remote system,manage projects, sponsor FreeBSD events, and provide as only the remote systems audit logs can still betravel grants to FreeBSD developers and contributors. trusted. The Foundation sponsored the following conferences • NAND Flash Support: this project will enable FreeB-in 2012: AsiaBSDCon, BSDCan, including its Developer SD to natively manage NAND flash devices, satisfy-Summit and Vendor Summit, BSDDay in Vienna, EuroB- ing a crucial requirement for many applications need-SDCon, the Cambridge Developer Summit, and the Bay ing access to fast, reliable, non-volatile storage.Area Vendor Summit. • Porting FreeBSD to Efika ARM platform: this project The Foundation sponsored the travel of twelve people will make it possible to run X11 applications on Free-to BSDCan, four to EuroBSDCon, one to OpenHelp, and BSD on the Efika MX SmartBook laptop and Smart-one to MeetBSD California. Trip reports describing the Top nettop devices, with full support for sound andbenefits of sponsorship can be found at freebsdfounda- networking. It will also make it much easier to supporttion.blogspot.com. other devices, such as some Android tablets, that The Foundation provided financial grants to the follow- ship with the i.MX515 SoC.ing development projects in 2012: The Foundations fund-raising goal for 2012 was• iSCSI Target project: the goal of this project is to cre- $500,000. Thanks in part to a slashdot post, donations ate a native, high performance, iSCSI target facility from companies and users of FreeBSD blew away that for FreeBSD. While configuration and connection set- goal. As of this writing, the donations are still being up and teardown will still be handled by a userland logged, but it is expected that the final total will be over daemon, all data movement will be performed in the $700,000. kernel. The iSCSI target will be fully integrated with the CAM target layer meaning that volumes can be NetBSD Foundation backed by files or any block device. The hardware The NetBSD Foundation is a registered 501(c)(3) non- offload capabilities of modern network adapters will profit organization which serves as the legal entity which also be supported. owns several of the NetBSD Project servers, handles do-• Capsicum Component Framework: this project will nations of money, services, hardware or time to the proj- develop a comprehensive userspace framework for ect, and administers NetBSD copyrights. writing Capsicum-based applications. It will include a Donations to the Foundation allow the NetBSD Proj- Capsicum runtime linker and component library pro- ect to make major improvements to the code base. The viding sandboxed versions of key higher-level system NetBSD 6.0 Fund Drive is targeting $60,000 and will be libraries. used to fund development in various areas of the system,• Growing Filesystems Online: this project adds including: GEOM and filesystem changes that are necessary to increase the size of both UFS and ZFS filesystems • Improving network stack concurrency and perfor- while the filesystem is mounted read-write. This proj- mance. ect will provide the additional benefit of online provi- • Development of modern file systems and improve- sioning of virtual instances. ment of existing ones. 10 01/2013
2012: BSD Year in Review Contents• Features which are useful in embedded environ- NetBSD, OpenBSD, and DragonFly BSD. DVD sales are ments, for example, high resolution timers and exe- used to fund the ongoing psychometric work required by cute in place (XIP) support. the BSDA certification.• Automatic testing and quality assurance. BooksAs of this writing, the Foundation still needs help in The following books were published in 2012:meeting this goal. See www.netbsd.org/donations/ if youwould like to assist the NetBSD Project financially. • FreeBSD Device Drivers by Joseph Kong: nostarch. com/bsddrivers.htm.bsdevents.org • SSH Mastery: OpenSSH, PuTTY, Tunnels and Keysbsdevents.org launched this year. This website provides by Michael W. Lucas: www.amazon.com/SSH-Mas-the following features: tery-OpenSSH-PuTTY-Tunnels/dp/1470069717. • The Kindle version of the FreeNAS 8.3.0 Users Guide• Blog: announces CFPs, upcoming conferences, pre- is available for purchase. This Guide is also freely sentations, and user group meetings about a week in available in several formats at doc.freenas.org. advance. Blog posts are also tweeted to bsdevents@. • The PC-BSD 9.0 Users Handbook is available in• Calendar: lists upcoming conferences with BSD relat- book format from FreeBSD Mall as well as in Kindle ed presentations and/or booths. format. The Handbook is also freely available in sev-• Presentations: known BSD presentations are orga- eral formats at wiki.pcbsd.org. nized by year and event. Uses icons to indicate at a glance the type of presentation media. The following books are in the pipeline for 2013:• User groups: list of known BUGs (or UUGs) catego- rized by country, state/province, and city. • Absolute OpenBSD, 2nd Edition by Michael W. Lucas. This book will become available in April and pre-or-The website contains a submission form if you have in- ders are available now from nostarch.com/obenbsd2e.formation about a missing user group or presentation or • The FreeBSD documentation team is working hard toif you would like to submit the details for an upcoming update the FreeBSD Handbook so that an up-to-datepresentation or BSD booth. A subscribe button is provid- version can be published in book format. The cur-ed for receiving updates in various formats. rent goal is to have a publishable edition by BSDCan 2013 with the book format available from the FreeB- SD Mall. An epub format will also be available, with sales going directly to the FreeBSD Foundation. • The Best of FreeBSD Basics by Dru Lavigne is cur- rently being re-written for FreeBSD 9.x. The new edi- tion should be available by end of 2013.BSD CertificationThe BSD Certification Group organized 27 paper-basedexam events in 14 countries in 2012. Computer-based Dru Lavigneexams are also available in 20 countries throughout the Dru Lavigne is author of BSD Hacks, The Best of FreeBSD Basics,world. There are currently 187 certified BSDAs in 25 and The Definitive Guide to PC-BSD. As Director of Communi-countries. ty Development for the PC-BSD Project, she leads the documen- The Group released the details for the BSDA re-certifi- tation team, assists new users, helps to find and fix bugs, andcation policy: http://www.bsdcertification.org/certification/ reaches out to the community to discover their needs. She is thecertification/recertification-policy. Certificants who expire former Managing Editor of the Open Source Business Resource,in 2013 will also receive an email in January reminding a free monthly publication covering open source and the com-them of the re-certification policy. mercialization of open source assets. She is founder and cur- The latest release of the BSDA Study DVD was re- rent Chair of the BSD Certification Group Inc., a non-profit orga-leased on December 10. Even if you are not planning on nization with a mission to create the standard for certifying BSDtaking the BSDA exam, the DVD provides a handy instal- system administrators, and serves on the Board of the FreeBSDlation media and documentation reference for FreeBSD, Foundation.www.bsdmag.org 11