The Importance of Pesticides
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The Importance of Pesticides

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The Worldwide Importance of Pesticides

The Worldwide Importance of Pesticides

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The Importance of Pesticides The Importance of Pesticides Presentation Transcript

  • The Worldwide Importance ofPesticides for Crop Production Leonard P. Gianessi CropLife Foundation
  • Tropical Export Crops Bananas, cocoa, coffee, tea, rubber Perennial trees/bushes that cannot survive freezes Diseases, insects, and weeds flourish in the tropics Without pesticides, production would decline significantly
  • Bananas  34 billion pounds exported annually  Most popular fruit in the world
  •  Sigatoka fungal germ tube penetrating opening in banana leaf
  • Sigatoka-infected banana plants
  • Bananas: Sigatoka Disease Present in all banana growing countries In 1934, destroyed 22,000 acres of bananas in Central America Fungicide treatments began in 1936 Treated Untreated
  • Banana Export Plantations:TodayFungicides are applied 25‒35 times annually
  • Coffee Americans drink 330 million cups a day
  • Coffee Trees 4 billion coffee trees in Brazil
  • Coffee Rust  Fungal spores penetrate coffee leaves
  • Coffee Rust  Destroyed Ceylon’s coffee plantations in 1860s (Sri Lanka)  Coffee production increased in Latin America (rust not present)
  • Coffee Rust: Today 1970: Coffee rust detected in Brazil Spread throughout Latin America Fungicides are sprayed 6-9 times per season
  • Pesticide Use Markets Highly developed (>90% acres treated)  US, Europe, Japan, Australia, Canada Developing  China, India Not Developing (<5% acres treated)  Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Pesticide Use Driver:Developed Countries Consumer demand for picture-perfect produce
  •  Consumers have zero tolerance for wormy apples
  • U.S. apples have been sprayed with insecticides for over 100 years
  • Cherry Fruit Fly
  • Cherry Fruit Fly Larvae
  • New Zealand: Kiwifruit New Zealand accounts for 33% of world’s trade in kiwi 500 million pounds exported annually
  • Brownheaded LeafrollerCaterpillar Found only in New Zealand Present in all kiwifruit regions Growers advised to apply insecticides
  • Leafroller Damage to Kiwifruit In untreated orchards, >50% of fruit can be damaged Completely unacceptable for export markets
  • California: Avocados  380 million pounds  $6000/acre  All sold fresh
  • Avocado Thrip  First noted in California in 1996  Feeds on surface
  • Avocado Thrip: Fruit Scarring 40% Reduction in Value (- $2400/A)
  • Supermarket Shopping Survey Two-thirds of respondents were willing to pay 5 ‒ 10% higher prices for certified pesticide-free produce, yet were unwilling to accept any cosmetic defects or insect damage. ERS, USDA, 1990
  • Herbicide Use Driver:Developed Countries Shortages of workers to weed fields starting around the 1950s-60s Herbicides greatly reduced the need for weeding by hand
  • California: Weeding Vegetable Crops 1940s ‒ 1960sThousands of legal temporary workers from Mexico in the Bracero (Strong Arm) Program
  • Hand Weeding Millions of people weeded U.S. cotton fields into the 1950s
  • Decline in Hand Weeding1950s - 1960s Millions of Workers Left Southern States for Urban Factory Jobs The Bracero program ended in 1964 Hand Weeding Was Replaced with Herbicides
  • Japanese Rice Weeding: 1950s500 Hand Weeding Hours/Ha : 1 Billion Hours Total
  • Herbicide Treated Rice: Japan Untreated Treated2 herbicide treatments give season-long weed control
  • Japan: Weed Control in Rice Herbicides replace the need for 1.89 million people weeding every day for 60 days in the summer all over Japan Matsunaka, 2001
  • EU Rice  90% Self sufficient in production  400,000 hectaresRisotto Milanese Paella
  • Le Mondine
  • Le Mondine Weeding
  • Le Mondine  Left Farmwork for Factory Jobs
  • EU Rice: TodayTwo herbicide applications per hectare replace hundreds of hours of hand weeding.
  • Weed Control Research: EUHelp is on the Way!
  • Weed Control Research: EU
  • Pesticide Use Drivers:Developed Countries Need to produce more food for growing populations Pesticides have effectively controlled pests leading to yield increases
  • U.S. Population, 1900 - 2000 350 300 250 200Millions 150 100 50 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
  • U.S. Farm Output 300 250 2001950 = 100 150 100 50 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  • U.S. Aggregate Farm Input Use 550 500 450 400 3501950 = 100 300 Land 250 Labor 200 Machinery 150 100 50 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  • U.S. Aggregate Farm Input Use 550 500 450 400 350 Land1950 = 100 300 Labor 250 Machinery 200 Chemicals 150 100 50 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  • Potato Yield: US 45000 40000 35000 Synthetic chemical pesticides introduced 30000Lbs/ 25000Acre 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
  • U.S. Rice: Weeds Not Well Controlled Before HerbicidesUntreated Herbicide Treated  Hand Weeders Not Used
  • U.S. Rice Yields Herbicide 6000 Adoption Complete Herbicides Introduced 4000Lbs./Acre 2000 0 1899 1914 1929 1944 1959 1974 1989
  • Herbicides Contributed directly to improved yields due to increased efficacy Facilitated the adoption of other yield- increasing practices Herbicide Effectiveness Continuously Improved 1950s-Today
  • Roundup Ready U.S. Corn Grain Yield Varieties Introduced Post-Emergence Grass 180 Herbicides Introduced 160 Alachlor/Metolachlor Introduced 140 Atrazine Introduced 120 2,4-D Introduced 100BU/Acre Fertilizers 80 Introduced Hybrids 60 introduced 40 20 0 1865 1875 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  • Pesticides are used widely in agriculture in theUnited States. Their application has improvedcrop yields and increased the quantity of freshfruits and vegetables in the diet, therebycontributing to improvements in public health. NAS, 1993
  • Canada Wheat Yields 3 Grass Control Herbicides Introduced 2 Herbicides IntroducedMT/Ha 1 0 1910 1935 1960 1985 2010
  • Australian Grain Belt
  • Tillage: AustraliaDries out the soil and delays planting
  • Australian Wheat Yield 1930-2010 (Trendlines) 78% No-Till 2 44% No-Till 10% No-till 10% No-Till 78% No-till 1.5 Herbicides Introduced 44% No-tillT/Ha 1 Herbicides introduced 0.5 0 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  • Japanese Rice Japan is self- sufficient in rice Average person eats 5 kg of rice/month
  • Japanese Rice Famines due to rice blast  1695, 1783, 1833‒ 1837 Last major rice blast Outbreak : 1953 Fungicides have Rice blast prevented outbreaks since then
  • Monument to fungicidal rice blast control in Nankoku, Japan
  • Norway  5 million people  Short growing season  Imports 50% of food supply  Pesticides used on >90% of crop acres
  • Norwegian GovernmentQuestions What if food imports are cut off? Could a basic diet support the Norwegian population?
  • Norwegian GovernmentQuestions What if food imports are cut off? Could a basic diet support the Norwegian population?  Yes – with pesticides
  • Norwegian GovernmentQuestions What if food imports are cut off? Could a basic diet support the Norwegian population?  Yes – with pesticides  Without pesticides – 20% of the population could not be fed
  • Pesticide Use Drivers:Developing Markets Shortages of workers to hand weed fields Need to produce more food for growing population
  • China Weed/Crop Status: 1980s 43 million hectares heavily infested 17.5 million tons of grain lost Weedy maize field in China
  • Hand Weeding in China Millions of Farm Workers are Moving to Urban Areas
  • Herbicide Use: ChinaMillionHectares
  • China Wheat (#1 in World) Wheat losses due to rust (million tonnes)  1950 – 6.0  1964 – 3.2  1990 – 1.8  2002 – 1.3 Now: Treat 6 million Wheat rust hectares with fungicides
  • Crop Yields : China Rice Wheat Maize 8 6Ton/Ha 4 2 0 1978 1984 1990 1996 2002 2008
  • India’s Economy 8% annual growth in GDP 500 million skilled laborers need to be trained by 2022
  • Rice in India Hand weeding
  • India: Soybeans Herbicide treated plot Untreated plot
  • India: Crop Herbicide Market 500 416 400 300Million 217 US$ 200 100 0 2005 2010 Phillips McDougal
  • Brazil: Soybean Production 75 60 45MillionTons 30 15 0 1952 1962 1972 1982 1992 2002
  • Soybean Rust Pustules  Brazil: First appeared 2001  By 2003: Spread to entire country  Yield losses up to 75%
  • Brazil: Spraying SoybeansFungicides increase yields by 43%
  • Brazil: Soybean Fungicide Market 1000 800 800 600 600 600Million US$ 400 200 200 25 0 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
  • Sub-Saharan Africa  43 Countries  700 Million People  180 Million Farms
  • African Yields (Tons/hectare) Maize RiceExperimental Plots 8 4Average Farmer 1-2 1
  • Optimal Yields on Experimental Plots Plant at Right Time Weed at Right Time Fertilize at Right Time
  • Hand Weeding is thePredominant Weed ControlPractice in Sub-Saharan Africa  50-70% of the labor in crop production is spent weeding
  • Constraints on TimelyHand Weeding  Women can be too tired or sick (malaria)  Fields can be muddy  Competing time demands: child care  Pregnancy
  • In Africa, yield losses due to weeds range from 20% to total crop failure.The majority of farmers in Africa identify weeding as the major constraint in their farming systems.
  • The Spraying of Chemical Herbicidesis an Alternative to Hand Weeding
  • Herbicide Experiment: Kenya Maize Yields +53% Bean Yields +94% Weedy Herbicide Treated
  • Herbicide Use: SmallholderFarms 1-5% use herbicides Lack of training of farmers Lack of training of Extension Service workers Lack of spray services
  • Herbicide Use: Lack of Interest Weeds are seen as “women’s work” Governments don’t take seriously International development agencies are reluctant to support pesticide strategies
  • Regional Crop Pesticide Markets Phillips McDougal
  • Regional Crop Pesticide Markets Phillips McDougal
  • Regional Crop Pesticide Markets Phillips McDougal
  • Regional Crop Pesticide Markets Phillips McDougal
  • Cereal Yields by Region 4 3 Latin America AsiaMT/Ha 2 Africa 1 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 FAO
  • Conclusions Pesticide use increases crop production Freeing labor from the drudgery of hand weeding is central to economic growth
  • Visit Us At: www.CropLifeFoundation.org