The Importance of Pesticides

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The Worldwide Importance of Pesticides

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  • Effect of antagonistic bacteria on mycosphaerella figiensis growth. A, normal germination of ascospore. Both germ tubes are capable of infecting the plant. B, Germination of the ascospore inhibited by biocontrol agent. C, Normal growth of mycelium and penetration through the stomata. D, Mycelium growth altered and infection process stopped by the biocontrol agent. Plant Disease, 87:3, March, 2003, pp.217
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  • The Importance of Pesticides

    1. 1. The Worldwide Importance ofPesticides for Crop Production Leonard P. Gianessi CropLife Foundation
    2. 2. Tropical Export Crops Bananas, cocoa, coffee, tea, rubber Perennial trees/bushes that cannot survive freezes Diseases, insects, and weeds flourish in the tropics Without pesticides, production would decline significantly
    3. 3. Bananas  34 billion pounds exported annually  Most popular fruit in the world
    4. 4.  Sigatoka fungal germ tube penetrating opening in banana leaf
    5. 5. Sigatoka-infected banana plants
    6. 6. Bananas: Sigatoka Disease Present in all banana growing countries In 1934, destroyed 22,000 acres of bananas in Central America Fungicide treatments began in 1936 Treated Untreated
    7. 7. Banana Export Plantations:TodayFungicides are applied 25‒35 times annually
    8. 8. Coffee Americans drink 330 million cups a day
    9. 9. Coffee Trees 4 billion coffee trees in Brazil
    10. 10. Coffee Rust  Fungal spores penetrate coffee leaves
    11. 11. Coffee Rust  Destroyed Ceylon’s coffee plantations in 1860s (Sri Lanka)  Coffee production increased in Latin America (rust not present)
    12. 12. Coffee Rust: Today 1970: Coffee rust detected in Brazil Spread throughout Latin America Fungicides are sprayed 6-9 times per season
    13. 13. Pesticide Use Markets Highly developed (>90% acres treated)  US, Europe, Japan, Australia, Canada Developing  China, India Not Developing (<5% acres treated)  Sub-Saharan Africa
    14. 14. Pesticide Use Driver:Developed Countries Consumer demand for picture-perfect produce
    15. 15.  Consumers have zero tolerance for wormy apples
    16. 16. U.S. apples have been sprayed with insecticides for over 100 years
    17. 17. Cherry Fruit Fly
    18. 18. Cherry Fruit Fly Larvae
    19. 19. New Zealand: Kiwifruit New Zealand accounts for 33% of world’s trade in kiwi 500 million pounds exported annually
    20. 20. Brownheaded LeafrollerCaterpillar Found only in New Zealand Present in all kiwifruit regions Growers advised to apply insecticides
    21. 21. Leafroller Damage to Kiwifruit In untreated orchards, >50% of fruit can be damaged Completely unacceptable for export markets
    22. 22. California: Avocados  380 million pounds  $6000/acre  All sold fresh
    23. 23. Avocado Thrip  First noted in California in 1996  Feeds on surface
    24. 24. Avocado Thrip: Fruit Scarring 40% Reduction in Value (- $2400/A)
    25. 25. Supermarket Shopping Survey Two-thirds of respondents were willing to pay 5 ‒ 10% higher prices for certified pesticide-free produce, yet were unwilling to accept any cosmetic defects or insect damage. ERS, USDA, 1990
    26. 26. Herbicide Use Driver:Developed Countries Shortages of workers to weed fields starting around the 1950s-60s Herbicides greatly reduced the need for weeding by hand
    27. 27. California: Weeding Vegetable Crops 1940s ‒ 1960sThousands of legal temporary workers from Mexico in the Bracero (Strong Arm) Program
    28. 28. Hand Weeding Millions of people weeded U.S. cotton fields into the 1950s
    29. 29. Decline in Hand Weeding1950s - 1960s Millions of Workers Left Southern States for Urban Factory Jobs The Bracero program ended in 1964 Hand Weeding Was Replaced with Herbicides
    30. 30. Japanese Rice Weeding: 1950s500 Hand Weeding Hours/Ha : 1 Billion Hours Total
    31. 31. Herbicide Treated Rice: Japan Untreated Treated2 herbicide treatments give season-long weed control
    32. 32. Japan: Weed Control in Rice Herbicides replace the need for 1.89 million people weeding every day for 60 days in the summer all over Japan Matsunaka, 2001
    33. 33. EU Rice  90% Self sufficient in production  400,000 hectaresRisotto Milanese Paella
    34. 34. Le Mondine
    35. 35. Le Mondine Weeding
    36. 36. Le Mondine  Left Farmwork for Factory Jobs
    37. 37. EU Rice: TodayTwo herbicide applications per hectare replace hundreds of hours of hand weeding.
    38. 38. Weed Control Research: EUHelp is on the Way!
    39. 39. Weed Control Research: EU
    40. 40. Pesticide Use Drivers:Developed Countries Need to produce more food for growing populations Pesticides have effectively controlled pests leading to yield increases
    41. 41. U.S. Population, 1900 - 2000 350 300 250 200Millions 150 100 50 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
    42. 42. U.S. Farm Output 300 250 2001950 = 100 150 100 50 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
    43. 43. U.S. Aggregate Farm Input Use 550 500 450 400 3501950 = 100 300 Land 250 Labor 200 Machinery 150 100 50 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
    44. 44. U.S. Aggregate Farm Input Use 550 500 450 400 350 Land1950 = 100 300 Labor 250 Machinery 200 Chemicals 150 100 50 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
    45. 45. Potato Yield: US 45000 40000 35000 Synthetic chemical pesticides introduced 30000Lbs/ 25000Acre 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
    46. 46. U.S. Rice: Weeds Not Well Controlled Before HerbicidesUntreated Herbicide Treated  Hand Weeders Not Used
    47. 47. U.S. Rice Yields Herbicide 6000 Adoption Complete Herbicides Introduced 4000Lbs./Acre 2000 0 1899 1914 1929 1944 1959 1974 1989
    48. 48. Herbicides Contributed directly to improved yields due to increased efficacy Facilitated the adoption of other yield- increasing practices Herbicide Effectiveness Continuously Improved 1950s-Today
    49. 49. Roundup Ready U.S. Corn Grain Yield Varieties Introduced Post-Emergence Grass 180 Herbicides Introduced 160 Alachlor/Metolachlor Introduced 140 Atrazine Introduced 120 2,4-D Introduced 100BU/Acre Fertilizers 80 Introduced Hybrids 60 introduced 40 20 0 1865 1875 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
    50. 50. Pesticides are used widely in agriculture in theUnited States. Their application has improvedcrop yields and increased the quantity of freshfruits and vegetables in the diet, therebycontributing to improvements in public health. NAS, 1993
    51. 51. Canada Wheat Yields 3 Grass Control Herbicides Introduced 2 Herbicides IntroducedMT/Ha 1 0 1910 1935 1960 1985 2010
    52. 52. Australian Grain Belt
    53. 53. Tillage: AustraliaDries out the soil and delays planting
    54. 54. Australian Wheat Yield 1930-2010 (Trendlines) 78% No-Till 2 44% No-Till 10% No-till 10% No-Till 78% No-till 1.5 Herbicides Introduced 44% No-tillT/Ha 1 Herbicides introduced 0.5 0 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
    55. 55. Japanese Rice Japan is self- sufficient in rice Average person eats 5 kg of rice/month
    56. 56. Japanese Rice Famines due to rice blast  1695, 1783, 1833‒ 1837 Last major rice blast Outbreak : 1953 Fungicides have Rice blast prevented outbreaks since then
    57. 57. Monument to fungicidal rice blast control in Nankoku, Japan
    58. 58. Norway  5 million people  Short growing season  Imports 50% of food supply  Pesticides used on >90% of crop acres
    59. 59. Norwegian GovernmentQuestions What if food imports are cut off? Could a basic diet support the Norwegian population?
    60. 60. Norwegian GovernmentQuestions What if food imports are cut off? Could a basic diet support the Norwegian population?  Yes – with pesticides
    61. 61. Norwegian GovernmentQuestions What if food imports are cut off? Could a basic diet support the Norwegian population?  Yes – with pesticides  Without pesticides – 20% of the population could not be fed
    62. 62. Pesticide Use Drivers:Developing Markets Shortages of workers to hand weed fields Need to produce more food for growing population
    63. 63. China Weed/Crop Status: 1980s 43 million hectares heavily infested 17.5 million tons of grain lost Weedy maize field in China
    64. 64. Hand Weeding in China Millions of Farm Workers are Moving to Urban Areas
    65. 65. Herbicide Use: ChinaMillionHectares
    66. 66. China Wheat (#1 in World) Wheat losses due to rust (million tonnes)  1950 – 6.0  1964 – 3.2  1990 – 1.8  2002 – 1.3 Now: Treat 6 million Wheat rust hectares with fungicides
    67. 67. Crop Yields : China Rice Wheat Maize 8 6Ton/Ha 4 2 0 1978 1984 1990 1996 2002 2008
    68. 68. India’s Economy 8% annual growth in GDP 500 million skilled laborers need to be trained by 2022
    69. 69. Rice in India Hand weeding
    70. 70. India: Soybeans Herbicide treated plot Untreated plot
    71. 71. India: Crop Herbicide Market 500 416 400 300Million 217 US$ 200 100 0 2005 2010 Phillips McDougal
    72. 72. Brazil: Soybean Production 75 60 45MillionTons 30 15 0 1952 1962 1972 1982 1992 2002
    73. 73. Soybean Rust Pustules  Brazil: First appeared 2001  By 2003: Spread to entire country  Yield losses up to 75%
    74. 74. Brazil: Spraying SoybeansFungicides increase yields by 43%
    75. 75. Brazil: Soybean Fungicide Market 1000 800 800 600 600 600Million US$ 400 200 200 25 0 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
    76. 76. Sub-Saharan Africa  43 Countries  700 Million People  180 Million Farms
    77. 77. African Yields (Tons/hectare) Maize RiceExperimental Plots 8 4Average Farmer 1-2 1
    78. 78. Optimal Yields on Experimental Plots Plant at Right Time Weed at Right Time Fertilize at Right Time
    79. 79. Hand Weeding is thePredominant Weed ControlPractice in Sub-Saharan Africa  50-70% of the labor in crop production is spent weeding
    80. 80. Constraints on TimelyHand Weeding  Women can be too tired or sick (malaria)  Fields can be muddy  Competing time demands: child care  Pregnancy
    81. 81. In Africa, yield losses due to weeds range from 20% to total crop failure.The majority of farmers in Africa identify weeding as the major constraint in their farming systems.
    82. 82. The Spraying of Chemical Herbicidesis an Alternative to Hand Weeding
    83. 83. Herbicide Experiment: Kenya Maize Yields +53% Bean Yields +94% Weedy Herbicide Treated
    84. 84. Herbicide Use: SmallholderFarms 1-5% use herbicides Lack of training of farmers Lack of training of Extension Service workers Lack of spray services
    85. 85. Herbicide Use: Lack of Interest Weeds are seen as “women’s work” Governments don’t take seriously International development agencies are reluctant to support pesticide strategies
    86. 86. Regional Crop Pesticide Markets Phillips McDougal
    87. 87. Regional Crop Pesticide Markets Phillips McDougal
    88. 88. Regional Crop Pesticide Markets Phillips McDougal
    89. 89. Regional Crop Pesticide Markets Phillips McDougal
    90. 90. Cereal Yields by Region 4 3 Latin America AsiaMT/Ha 2 Africa 1 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 FAO
    91. 91. Conclusions Pesticide use increases crop production Freeing labor from the drudgery of hand weeding is central to economic growth
    92. 92. Visit Us At: www.CropLifeFoundation.org

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