Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)


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Failure Mode and Effects Analysis or FMEA is a structured technique to analyze a process to determine shortcomings and opportunities for improvement. By assessing the severity of a potential failure, the likelihood that the failure will occur, and the chance of detecting the failure, dozens or even hundreds of potential issues can be prioritized for improvement.

Sr. Engineer, Engineer, Supervisor and Foreman engaged in maintenance, operation, Store, Supply chain, Quality, Safety and Engineering activities.

Employees completing this training will be able to effectively participate on an FMEA team and can make immediate contributions to quality and productivity improvement efforts.

Published in: Business
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Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)

  1. 1. Training Program on FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Presented by : - Mr. Deepak SahooPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  2. 2. Day Plan @ 5th Jan 2013. Start time – 10.15 AM End Time : 1 PM FMEA Part 1 – 10.15 AM – 11.45 PM FMEA Part 2 – 12.15 PM - 01.00 PM Break time @ 11.45 PM for 30 minutes FMEA Part - 1 Break FMEA Part - 2Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  3. 3. Agenda  FMEA History  What is FMEA  Definitions  What it Can Do For You  Types of FMEA  Team Members Roles  FMEA Terminology  Getting Started with an FMEA  The Worksheet  FMEA ScoringPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  4. 4. Why we need FMEA videoPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  5. 5. Do it right the first time. Why does it always seem we have plenty of time to fix our problems, but never enough time to prevent the problems by doing it right the first time?Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  6. 6. Accident Rate in Aviation industry. The 2011 global accident rate (measured in hull losses per million flights) was 0.37, the equivalent of one accident every 2.7 million flights. ACCIDENT RATE IN AVIATION INDUSTRY87 7.4165432 1.871 0.1 0.45 0.34 0.8 0.720 NORTH EUROPE NORTH ASIA- MIDDLE LATIN AFRICA AMERICA ASIA PACIFIC EAST AND AMERICA NORTH AFRICA Data collected from IATA. by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  7. 7. Murphy’s Law “Everything that can fail, shall fail” This is known as Murphy’s Law and is one of the main reasons behind the FMEA technique. Consequently, during the design of a system or product, the designer must always think in terms of:  What could go wrong with the system or process?  How badly might it go wrong?  What needs to be done to prevent failures?Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  8. 8. The Bathtub curvePrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  9. 9. FMEA Video - 1Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  10. 10. How it Origin ? • This “type” of thinking has been around for hundreds of years. It was first formalized in the aerospace industry during the Apollo program in the 1960’s. • Department of Defense developed and revised the MIL-STD- 1629A guidelines during the 1970s. • Ford Motor Company published instruction manuals in the 1980s and the automotive industry collectively developed standards in the 1990s.Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  11. 11. What is FMEA ? • FMEA Stands for Failure mode effect Analysis. • FMEA is a tool that allows you to: • Prevent System, Product and Process problems before they occur • Reduce costs by identifying system, product and process improvements early in the development cycle • Create more robust processes • Prioritize actions that decrease risk of failure • Evaluate the system, design and processes from a new vantage pointPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  12. 12. A Systematic Process FMEA provides a systematic process to:  Identify and evaluate potential failure modes potential causes of the failure mode  Identify and quantify the impact of potential failures  Identify and prioritize actions to reduce or eliminate the potential failure  Implement action plan based on assigned responsibilities and completion dates  Document the associated activitiesPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  13. 13. Published Guidelines • J1739 from the SAE for the automotive industry. • AIAG FMEA-3 from the Automotive Industry Action Group for the automotive industry. • ARP5580 from the SAE for non-automotive applications. Other industry and company-specific guidelines exist. For example: • EIA/JEP131 provides guidelines for the electronics industry, from the JEDEC/EIA. • P-302-720 provides guidelines for NASA’s GSFC spacecraft and instruments. • SEMATECH 92020963A-ENG for the semiconductor equipment industry.Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  14. 14. Rule of Ten (10) If the issue costs $10,000 when it is discovered in the field, then… It may cost $1000 if discovered during the final test… But it may cost $100 if discovered during an incoming inspection. Even better it may cost $10 if discovered during the design or process engineering phase.Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  15. 15. Benefits of FMEA. Contributes to improved designs for products and processes.  Higher reliability  Better quality  Increased safety  Enhanced customer satisfaction  Contributes to cost savings.  Decreases development time and re-design costs  Decreases warranty costs  Decreases waste, non-value added operations  Contributes to continuous improvementPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  16. 16. Type of FMEAs. System/Concept “S/CFMEA”- (Driven by System functions) A system is a organized set of parts or subsystems to accomplish one or more functions. System FMEAs are typically very early, before specific hardware has been determined. Design “DFMEA”- (Driven by part or component functions) A Design / Part is a unit of physical hardware that is considered a single replaceable part with respect to repair. Design FMEAs are typically done later in the development process when specific hardware has been determined. Process “PFMEA”- (Driven by process functions & part characteristics) A Process is a sequence of tasks that is organized to produce a product or provide a service. A Process FMEA can involve fabrication, assembly, transactions or services.Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  17. 17. FMEA Terminology 1 1.) Failure Modes: (Specific loss of a function) is a concise description of how a part , system, or manufacturing process may potentially fail to perform its functions. 2.) Failure Mode “Effect”: A description of the consequence or Ramification of a system or part failure. A typical failure mode may have several “effects” depending on which customer you consider. 3.) Severity Rating: (Seriousness of the Effect) Severity is the numerical rating of the impact on customers. 4.) Failure Mode “Causes”: A description of the design or process deficiency (global cause or root level cause) that results in the failure mode. 5.) Occurrence Rating: Is an estimate number of frequencies or cumulative number of failures (based on experience) that will occur (in our design concept) for a given cause over the intended “life of the design”.Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  18. 18. FMEA Terminology 2 6.) Failure Mode “Controls”: The mechanisms, methods, tests, procedures, or controls that we have in place to PREVENT the Cause of the Failure Mode or DETECT the Failure Mode or Cause should it occur. 7.) Detection Rating: A numerical rating of the probability that a given set of controls WILL DISCOVER a specific Cause of Failure Mode to prevent bad parts leaving the facility or getting to the ultimate customer. 8.) Risk Priority Number (RPN): Is the product of Severity, Occurrence, & Detection. Risk= RPN= S x O x D 9.) Action Planning: A thoroughly thought out and well developed FMEA With High Risk Patterns that is not followed with corrective actions has little or no value, other than having a chart for an auditPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  19. 19. FMEA Video - 2Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  20. 20. FMEA Process Step 1 - Select a process to evaluate Step 2 - Recruit a multidisciplinary Team Step 3 - Have the team meet to list all the steps in the process Step 4 - Have the team list failure modes and causes Step 5 For each failure mode have the team assign a numeric value (Risk Priority Number (RPN)) for likelihood of occurrence, likelihood of detection and severity. Step 6 - Evaluate the results - Identify the failure modes with the top 10 highest RPNs. Step 7 - Use RPNs to plan improvement effortsPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  21. 21. The FMEA Team Roles Champion / Sponsor Provides resources & support Attends some meetings Promotes team efforts Shares authority / power with team Kicks off team Implements recommendations FMEA Core Team Facilitator Team Leader 4 – 6 Members “Watchdog“ of the process “Watchdog” of the project Good leadership skills Keeps team on track Expertise in Product / Process FMEA Process expertise Respected & relaxed Cross functional Leads but doesn’t dominate Encourages / develops team dynamics Honest Communication Communicates assertively Maintains full team participation Active participation Typically lead engineer Ensures everyone participates Positive attitude Respects other opinions Participates in team decisions Recorder Keeps documentation of teams efforts FMEA chart keeper Coordinates meeting rooms/time Distributes meeting rooms & agendasPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant 21
  22. 22. Risk Priority Number(RPN) RPN = Severity x Occurrence x Detection  RPN is used to prioritize concerns/actions  The greater the value of the RPN the greater the concern  RPN ranges from 1-1000  The team must make efforts to reduce higher RPNs through corrective action  General guideline is over 100 = recommended actionPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  23. 23. RPN Considerations Rating scale example: Severity = 10 indicates that the effect is very serious and is “worse” than Severity = 1. Occurrence = 10 indicates that the likelihood of occurrence is very high and is “worse” than Occurrence = 1. Detection = 10 indicates that the failure is not likely to be detected before it reaches the end user and is “worse” than Detection = 1. RPN ratings are relative to a particular analysis. An RPN in one analysis is comparable to other RPNs in the same analysis …but an RPN may NOT be comparable to RPNs in another analysis.Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  24. 24. Risk GuidelinesPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  25. 25. Occurrence RankingPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  26. 26. Detection RankingPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  27. 27. FMEA Video - 3Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  28. 28. Exercise (Perform A DFMEA on a pressure cooker)Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  29. 29. Pressure Cooker Safety Features 1. Safety valve relieves pressure before it reaches dangerous levels. 2. Thermostat opens circuit through heating coil when the temperature rises above 250° C. 3. Pressure gage is divided into green and red sections. "Danger" is indicated when the pointer is in the red section. Pressure Cooker FMEA Define Scope: 1. Resolution - The analysis will be restricted to the four major subsystems (electrical system, safety valve, thermostat, and pressure gage). 2. Focus - SafetyPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  30. 30. Pressure cooker block diagramPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  31. 31. Inputs for FMEA  Process flow diagram  Assembly instructions  Design FMEA  Current engineering drawings and specifications  Data from similar processes  Scrap  Rework  Downtime  Warranty Process Function Requirement Brief description of the manufacturing process or operation The PFMEA should follow the actual work process or sequence, same as the process flow diagram etc.Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  32. 32. Team Members for a FMEA  Process engineer  Manufacturing supervisor  Operators  Quality  Safety  Product engineer  Customers  SuppliersPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  33. 33. Assumptions & Potential Failure Mode  The design is valid  All incoming product is to design specifications  Failures can but will not necessarily occur Potential Failure Mode  How the process or product may fail to meet design or quality requirements  Many process steps or operations will have multiple failure modes  Think about what has gone wrong from past experience and what could go wrongPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  34. 34. Common & Potential Failure Modes Assembly Machining Drilling holes Missing parts Too narrow Missing Damaged Too deep Location Orientation Angle incorrect Deep or shallow Contamination Finish not to Over/under size Off location specification Concentricity Flash or not cleaned angle Sealant Torque Loose or over torque Missing Missing fastener Wrong material applied Insufficient or excessive Cross threaded material DryPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  35. 35. Potential Effects • End user • Next operation • Noise • Cannot assemble • Leakage • Cannot tap or bore • Odor • Cannot connect • Poor appearance • Cannot fasten • Endangers safety • Damages equipment • Loss of a primary • Does not fit function • Does not match • performance • Endangers operatorPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  36. 36. Severity Ranking How the effects of a potential failure mode may impact the customer Only applies to the effect and is assigned with regard to any other rating  Potential effects of failure  Severity  Cannot assemble bolt(5)  Endangers operator(10)  Vibration (6) Take the highest effect ranking (10)Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  37. 37. Potential Causes Equipment Operator • Tool wear • Improper torque • Inadequate pressure • Selected wrong part • Worn locator • Incorrect tooling • Broken tool • Incorrect feed or • Gauging out of speed rate calibration • Mishandling • Inadequate fluid • Assembled upside levels down • Assembled backwardsPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  38. 38. Occurrence Ranking  How frequent the cause is likely to occur  Use other data available  Past assembly processes  SPC  Warranty  Each cause should be ranked according to the guidelinePrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  39. 39. Detection  Probability the defect will be detected by process controls before next or subsequent process, or before the part or component leaves the manufacturing or assembly location  Likely hood the defect will escape the manufacturing location  Each control receives its own detection ranking, use the lowest rating for detectionPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  40. 40. RPN  RPN provides a method for a prioritizing process concerns  High RPN’s warrant corrective actions  Despite of RPN, special consideration should be given when severity is high especially in regards to safety  An RPN is like a medical diagnostic, predicting the health of the patient  At times a persons temperature, blood pressure, or an EKG can indicate potential concerns which could have severe impacts or implicationsPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  41. 41. Recommended actions Control Influence Can’t control or influence at this timePrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  42. 42. Recommended actions Definition: tasks recommended for the purpose of reducing any or all of the rankings Examples of Recommended actions Perform: Process instructions Training Can’t assemble at next station Visual Inspection Torque AuditPrepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  43. 43. FMEA Video - 4Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  44. 44. FMEA Video - 5Prepared by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant
  45. 45. Thank You !!!! Any Questions? Connect With Me @ Mobile :- +974 – 3370 8982 Email :- LinkedIn :- by :- Mr. Deepak Sahoo , Consultant